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Full text of "Forest trees of the Pacific slope"

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i The New York Botanical Garden j 
: LuEsther T Mertz Library j 

: Gift of \ 

: The Estate of • 
: Henry Clay Frick, II ! 

: 2007 : 







Trees of Pacific Slope, Forest Service, U. S. Dept. Agr. 



Plate I. 




Trees of Pacific Slope, Forest Service, U. S. Dept. Agr. 



Plate II. 




TILLAMOO 



FARALLOXr.S IS 



Pacific Coast Region South. 



iBsnjyl Ortobor 1, 1908. 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 

KOREST SERVICE. 

GIFFORD PINCHOT, Forester. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



BY 



GEORGE B. SUDWORTH, 

Dmdrologist. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1908. 



6 



'4 r 



aaegTZUBRARV 

BOTAWC 
GARr 



CONTENTS. 



Pagre. 

Introduction 9 

Definition of a tree 9 

Descriptions and illustration of species 9 

Value of full-sized illustrations 11 

Omission of artificial keys for identification 11 

Technical names of trees 11 

Common names of trees 12 

Sizes of trees 13 

Range of trees 13 

Occurrence of trees 14 

Acknowledgments 15 

Gymnospernife 19 

ConiferjB 19 

Pinus — Pines 19 

White pines 20 

Western white pine; Sih'er pine (Phiiis monticola 

Dougl.) 20 

Sugar pine (Finns lamhertiaua Dougl.) 23 

Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) 27 

White bark pine (Pinus alhicaulis Engelmann) 30 

Four-leaf pine; Parry pine (Pinus quadrifoUa Pari. Sud- 

worth) 33 

Single-leaf pine (Pi«»s mo«op7iy77a Torrey and Fremont) 35 

Bristle-cone pine (Pinus aristata Engelmann) 37 

Foxtail pine (Pinus balfouriana Murray) 39 

Torrey pine; Soledad pine (Pinus torreyana Parry) 41 

Yellow pines 42 

Western yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson) ' 42 

Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi "Greg. Com.") 47 

Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Loudon) 49 

Gray pine; Digger pine (Pinus sahiniana Douglas) 54 

Coulter pine; Bigcone pine (Pinus coultcri Lambert) __ 57 

Monterey pine (Pinus radiata Don.) 58 

Knobcone pine (P?H».s attenuata 'Lemraon) C2 

Pricklecone pine; Bishop's pine (Pinus muricata Don.)_ G5 

Larix — Larches 68 

Western larch (Larix occidentalis Nuttall) 68 

Alpine larch (Larix lifaUii Parlatore) 71 

Tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Koi) Koch) 73 

Picea — Spruces 77 

Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmanni Engelmann) 78 

Sitka spruce; Tideland spruce (Picea sitchcnsis (Bong.) 

Trautvetter and Mayer) 81 

Weeping spruce (Picea breiceriana Watson) 84 

3 



4 CONTENTS. 

Gymnospermse — Continued. Page. 
Coniferfe — Continued. 

Picea — Spruces — Continued. 

Black spruce {Picea mariana (Mill.) B., S. & P.) 86 

White spruce {Picea canadensis (Mill.) B., S. & P.) 88 

Tsuga — Hemlocks 91 

Western hemlock {Tsufja JictcropJnjlla (Raf.) Sargent) 91 

Mountain hemlock; Black hemlock {Tsuga nieiic)isia)ia 

(Bong.) Sargent) 95 

Pseudotsuga — False hemlock 99 

Douglas fir; Douglas spruce {Pseudotsuga taxifoUa (Poir.) 

Britton) ^ 100 

Bigcone spruce {Pseudotsuga niacrocarpa (Torr. ) Mayr) 104 

Abies — Firs 106 

Alpine fir ; Balsam fir {Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nuttall) 107 

Grand fir; White fir {Abies graiulis Lindley) 111 

White fir {Abies concolor (Gord.) Parry) , 116 

Bristlecone fir {Abies venusta (Dougl.) Koch) 121 

Amabilis fir {Abies aniahil is (Loud.) Forbes) 125 

Noble fir {Abies nobilis Lindley) 128 

Red fir {Abies magnifica Murray) 132 

Sequoia — Redwoods 1,38 

Blgtree {Sequoia nasJiingtoniaua (Winsl.) Sudvvorth) 130 

Redwood {Sequoia schiperrirens (Lamb.) Endlicher) 145 

Libocedi'us 148 

Incense cedar {Libocedrus decurrens Torrey) 148 

Thuja — Arborvitses 153 

Western red cedar; Red cedar {Thuja plieata Don.) 1.53 

Cupressus — Cypresses 158 

Monterey cypress {Cupressus macrocarpa Hartweg) 158 

Gowen cypress {Cupressus goveniana Gordon) 161 

DwAYt i:y\)veiis {Cupressus pygmwa (Lemm.) Sargent) 163 

Macnab cypress {Cupressus macnabiana Murray) 165 

Chama?cyparis — Cedars 167 

Yellow cypress; Alaska cypress {Chamwcyparis nootkatensis 

(Lamb.) Spach) 168 

Lawson cypress; Port Orford cedar {Cliamwcyparis lawso- 

niana (Murr.) Parlatore) 171 

Juniperus — Junipers 175 

Dwarf juniper {Juniperus eoinmuuis Linna?us), 176 

Rocky Mountain red cedar {Juniperus scopulorum Sargent).. 178 

Western juniper {Juniperus oecidentalis Hooker) 181 

Utah juniper {Juniperus utahensis (Engelm.) Lennnon) 186 

California juniper {Juniperus californica Carriere) 187 

Taxacefe 190 

Tumion — Stinking cedai's 190 

California nutmeg {Tumion calif ornicum (Torr.) Greene) __. 191 

Taxus— Yews 193 

Western yew {Taxus brevifolia Nuttall) 194 

Monocotyledones 197 

Palmse — 197 

Neowashingtonia — Palms 198 

Washington palm {Neoivashingtonia fiUfera (Wendl.) Sud- 

worth) 199 



CONTENTS. 5 

Monocoty led ones — Continued. Page. 

Liliace* 200 

Yucca — 201 

Joshua tree (Yucca arhorcnccus (Torr. ) Trelease) 201 

Mohave yucca (Yucca vioharotKif; Sargent) 203 

Dicotyledones 205 

Juglaudace* 206 

Juglans— Wahuits 206 

California walnut (■hifilaiis califoniica Watson) 206 

Myricacoje * 208 

Myrica — Wax myrtles 208 

California myrtle (Myrica caUfornica Chamisso) 201) 

Salicacese • 210 

Salix— Willows 212 

Black willow (Salix nir/ra Mnvi^hnU) 213 

Almond willow (Salix aiiiygdaloidcs Andersson) 216 

Smooth willow (Salix hvvigata Bebb) 217 

Western black willow (Salix lasiandra Bentliam) 210 

Longleaf willow (Salix fluviatilis Nuttall) 222 

Silverleaf willow (.S'rt//> scssili folia Nuttall) 223 

Mackenzie willow (Salix conhita mackciizicana Hooker) — 22.'> 

White willow (Sailx lamolcpis Bentham) 226 

Nuttall willow (Salix nuttallii Sargent) 228 

Broadleaf willow (Salix ampUfolia Coville) 229 

Hooker willow (Salix hoohcriana Barratt) 232 

Silky willow (Salix sitchensis Sanson in Bongard) 233 

Feltleaf willow (Salix alaxcnsis (Anderss.) Coville) 236 

Populus — Cottonwoods and poplars 238 

Aspen (Populus tremuloidcs Michaux) 2.39 

Balm-of-Gilead (PopuJus l>alxaniifera Linn.n?us) 244 

Black Cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa Torrey and Gray)-- 247 

Fremont eottonwood (Populus frcmontii Watson) 2.51 

Betulace:e 253 

Betula — Birches 254 

Western birch (Betula occidciitalis Hooker) 254 

Kenai birch (Betula kcuaii-a Evans) 256 

White birch (Betula alaskana Sargent) 258 

Mountain birch (Betula foiitiualis Sargent) 260 

Alnus — Alders 263 

White alder (Ahuis rhoiiihifolia Nuttall) 263 

Mountain alder (Alnus tcuuifolia Nuttall) 266 

Bed alder (Alnus wvgoiia Nuttall) 268 

Sitka alder (Alnus sitchensis (Kegel)' Sargent) 270 

CupuliferjB 272 

Castanopsis — Chinquapins 272 

Western chinquapin (Castanopsis chrysophtjlla (Hook.) A. 

de Candolle) 273 

Quercus— Oaks 276 

Valley oak (Quercus lohata Nee) 278 

Brewer oak (Quercus hrctreri Engelmann) 281 

Garry oak (Quercus garryana Douglas) 283 

Sadler oak (Quercus sadlcriana R. Brown Campst.) 285 

Blue oak (Quercus donglasii Hooker and Arnott) 285 

Alvord oak (Quercus alvordiana Eastwood) 289 



6 CONTENTS. 

Dicotyledones — Continued. Page. 
Cupuljferae — Continued. 

Quercus — Oaks — Continued. 

Engelmann oak {Quercus engelmanni Greene) 289 

California scrub oak (Qtiercus dumosa Nuttall) 292 

Canyon live oak (Quercus chrysolepis Liebmann) 295 

Quercus fowentella Engelmann 300 

California live oak (Qtiercus agrifoUa Nee) 303 

Wislizenus oak (Quercus tcislizeni A. de Candolle) 307 

Price oak (Quercus pricei Sudworth) 'i 309 

Morehus oak (Quercus motvhus Kellogg) 311 

California black oak (Quercus calif or nica (Torr.) Cooper) 313 

Tanbark oak (Quercus densiflora Hooker and Arnott) 317 

Ulmaceae 322 

Celtis — Hackberries 323 

Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis Linnaeus) 323 

Palo bianco (Celtis reticulata Torrey) 325 

Lauraceje 327 

Umbellularia — Laurel 327 

California laurel (Umbellularia calif arnica (Hook, and 

Arn.) Nuttall) 1 327 

Saxifragaceae 33I 

Lyonothauiuus 331 

^Yestern ironwood (Lyonothanmus floribundus Gray) 331 

Platanacese . 334 

Platauus — Sycamores 334 

California sycamore (Platauus racemosa Nuttall) 335 

Rosacete 33G 

Cercocarpus — Mountain mahoganies 336 

Trask mahogany (Cercocarpus traskioe Eastwood) --1 337 

Curl-leaf mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius Nuttall) 338 

Birch-leaf mahogany (Cercocarpus parvifolius Nuttall) 340 

Mains — Apples 342 

Oregon crab apple (JJalus rivularis (Dougl. in Hook.) 

Roemer) 342 

Amelanchier — Serviceberries 345 

Western serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nuttall) 345 

Crataegus — Haws 347 

Black haw (Cratwgus douglasii Lindley) 347 

Heteromeles 349 

Christmas berry (Heteromeles arbutifolia Roemer) 349 

Prunus — Cherries and plums 351 

Western plum (Prunus subcordata Bentham) 352 

Bitter cherry (Prunus emarginata (Dougl.) Walpers) 354 

Western choke cherry (Prunus demissa (Nutt. ) Walpers 35G 

Hollyleaf cherry (Prunus ilicifolia (Nutt.) Walpers) 359 

Leguminos^x• 361 

Prosopis — Mesquites 362 

Screwpod mesquite (Prosopis odorata Torrey and Fremont)- 362 

Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora glandulosa (Torr.) Sargent) 364 

Cercis — Judas trees .- 367 

California redbud (Cercis occidentalis Torvey) 367 

Acacia :l 369 

Cat's claw (Acacia greggii Gray) 369 



CONTENTS. 7 

Dicotyledones — Contiuued. I'age. 
Leguminosfe — Continued. 

Parkinsonia 371 

Horse-bean; Ratania (Parkinsonia aculcata I.innteus) 371 

Little-leaf horse-bean {Parkitisonia microphi/lla Torrey) 373 

Cercidium 375 

Palo verde ; green-bark acacia (Cercidium torreyanum (Wat- 
son) Sargent) . 376 

Dalea 37G 

Indigo bush (Dalea spinosa Gray) 377 

Olneya 378 

Mexican ironwood (Olneya trsota Gray) 378 

Celastrace:e 380 

Canotia 380 

Canotia (Canotia holacantha Torrey) 380 

Sterculiaceje 382 

Fremoutodendron 382 

Freniontia (Fremontodendron californicum (Torr.) Coville)_ 382 

Anacardiacea' 384 

Rhus — Sumachs 384 

Mahogany sumach (Rhus integri folia (Nutt.) Bentham and 

Hooker) ___ 385 

Aeeraceje 386 

Acer — Maples 386 

Broad leaf maple (Acer rnacrophylluin Pursh) 387 

Vine maple (Acer circitiatum Pursh) , 389 

Dwarf maple (Acer glabrum Torrey) 392 

California boxelder (Acer negundo californicum (Torr. and 

Gr.) Sargent) 396 

Hippocastanaceje 398 

JEsculus — Buckeyes .398 

California buckeye (.lEsculus calif ornirn Nuttall) 398 

Rhamnacere 400 

Rhamnus — Buckthorns ., 401 

Evergreen buckthorn (Rhamnus crocea Nuttall) 401 

Cascara sagrada (Rhamnus purshiana De C-Ai\([o\\e) 404 

Ceanothus — Myrtles 407 

Blue myrtle (Ccaiioihus tln/rsiflorus Eschscholtz) 409 

Tree myrtle (Ceanothus arboreus Greene) 401) 

Lilac (Ceanothus spinosus Nuttall) 411 

Cornacest* 412 

Cornus — Dogwoods and cornels 412 

Western dogwood (Cornus nuttallii Audobou) 413 

Garrjacejie 416 

Garrya 416 

Quinine bush (Garrya elliptica Douglas) 416 

Ericaceae 418 

Arbutus — Madronas 418 

Madrona (Arbutus menzicsii Pursh) 419 

Oleaceae 422 

Fraxinus — Ashes 422 

Leatherleaf ash (Fraxinus coriacea Watson) 423 

Oregon ash (Fraxinus oregona Nuttall) 425 



8 CONTENTS. 

Dicotyledoues — Continued. Page. 
Oleacese — Continued. 

Fraxiuus — Ashes — Continuetl. 

Fraxinus velutina Torrey 420 

Flowering ash (Fraxinus dipetala Hooker and Arnott) 428 

Bignouiacese-^ 429 

Chilopsis 429 

Desert willow (Chilopsis linearis (Cav.) Sweet) 429 

Rubiaeefe 4.31 

Cephalanthus 431 

Button bush (Cephalanthus occidentalis Linnaeus) 431 

Caprifoliaeese 43.3 

Sambucus — Elderbei-ries 433 

Blue elderberry (Samhucus glauca Nuttall) 4.34 

Mexican elder (Sambueus mexicana Presl.) 435 

Red-berried elder (SamMcus caUiearpa Greene) 4.36 



INTRODUCTION. 



This volume is the first of four which are to deal with all the 
native forest trees of North America north of the Mexican boundary. 
It contains an account of the tree species known to inhabit the Pacific 
region, 150 in all. Part II will be devoted to the Rocky Mountain 
trees, Part III to the trees of the southern States, and Part IV to the 
trees of the northern States. 

The region covered b}^ Part I includes Alaska, British Columbia, 
Washington, Oregon, and California (see ma,ps, frontispiece). Many 
trees described occur wholly within this region, but none are repre- 
sented throughout it. A few are found on its southern border and 
range into Mexico, while three or four trees stretch from within the 
Pacific region to the Atlantic. 

DEFINITION OF A TREE. 

The definition of a tree followed by the author includes woody 
plants having one well-defined stem and a more or less definitely 
formed crown (but not excluding unbranched cactuses, yuccas, and 
palms), and attaining somewhere in their natural or planted range 
a height of at least 8 feet and a diameter of not less than 2 inches. 
It has been difficult to apply this definition in all cases, for there is 
no sharp line between some shrub-like trees and some tree-like 
shrubs. However, though wholly arbitrary, it has been serviceable. 
A considerable number of species included are, over much of their 
range, little more than chaparral shrubs, becoming tree-like only 
in exceptionally favorable places. Recent discoveries in this region 
have made it necessary to class as trees several species previously 
regarded as shrubs. Some species are shrubs within this territoiy, 
but are trees outside of it. There still remain for further careful 
consideration several species of Arctostaphylos, Ceanothus, and 
Styrax, which may prove to be trees. 

DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF SPECIES: 

Since this work was jDrepared soleh'^ for the layman, the use of 
technical terms has been avoided. In describing species the writer 
has endeavored to define essential and simple characters in- plain 

9 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

terms. It is believed that the chief distinguishing characters of trees 
may be readily observed by laymen if clearly pointed out in ordinary 
language. The color of wood given refers to heartwood; sapwood is 
described only when it is materially different from the usual whitish 
color of such Avood. 

The illustrations are relied upon chiefly to define the important dis- 
tinctive characters. Additional characters, difficult or impossible to 
show in drawings, such as the roughness, very minute hairiness, etc., 
of foliage or other parts, are briefly described. Xo attempt has been 
made to translate exactly the technical terms used by botanists to 
describe, for example, the different tyj^es of hair, wool, and other 
appendages which often mark the leaves and twigs of trees. Little 
attention has been given to defining or illustrating such transient 
characters as flowers and young or immature foliage. Mature foli- 
age, fruits, bark, form of trunk and crown, and some other features, 
always present, or at least persisting longer than the flowers, are those 
most readily observed, and for this reason have been singled out and 
emphasized. Some trees are very easily identified by the special 
shape of their leaves, the color and character of their bark, or the 
form of their crown, whereas the recognition of others requires all 
available evidence. It must be borne in mind also that some trees, 
esiDecially conifers, have very dissimilar leaves, buds, and bark on 
different parts of the crown and trunk. 

A long exjDerience has taught the author that it is difficult for lay 
students of trees to appreciate the variation in shape and size possi- 
ble in the leaves and fruits, and in the bark characters of a single 
species. It is hard for them to understand that such minor differences 
in the size and form of leaves and fruits as maj' characterize different 
individuals of the same species are reallj' within the limits of one 
recognized species. They look for absolute uniformity in the char- 
acters of species presented in different individuals, when it really is 
not to be found. The student will, therefore, often find it exceedingly 
difficult to identify some forms of a species. Representative leaves, 
fruits, and other characters have been illustrated and described ac- 
cording to the besi: judgment of the author, who has tried to give the 
best of the knowledge he applies in making an identification. The 
student ma}' find tree forms slightly or considerably different in 
details from those illustrated and described here, and will be in 
doubt. He will be able to settle doubtful points only by much care- 
ful field study and the observation of all that can be found distinctive 
in trees. In order to know even a few trees well, a multitude of de- 
tails must be learned and rememl)ered. especially if the species are 
closely related. Much of the dendrologist's knowledge of trees is 
gained through long study by a partly unconscious absorption of 
small, indescribable, but really appreciable, details. 



INTRODUCTION. 11 

To meet as many as possible of these difficulties, common and strik- 
ing differences in the leaf and fruit forms of a number of trees have 
been specially pointed out in illustrations or descriptions. 

VALUE OF rULL-SIZED ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Nearly all figures show leaves, etc., of natural size. In the writer's 
experience, nothing is more helpful, particularly to untrained stu- 
dents, than illustrations practically the exact size of specimens they 
will find in the field. In reduced illustrations of the leaves, fruits, 
and seeds of some trees distinctive characters are lost, so that even 
specialists find them useless. Reduced figures are used only when the 
natural sizes of the object are too large for the pages of this book. It 
is believed, however, that in these cases distinctive characters have 
not been lost. 

OMISSION or ARTIFICIAL KEYS FOR IDENTIFICATION. 

Keys leading up to the identification of families, genera, and species 
are omitted, chiefly to prevent further delay in publication. They 
appear to be little used, if at all, by lay students, who prefer to 
identify trees by elimination, i. e., by comparing the specimen with 
the illustrations until a " picture "• is found that " fits." This method 
is wholly unscientific, but is nevertheless the one which busy, 
untrained lovers of trees are most likelj^ to follow. 

TECHNICAL NAMES OF TREES. 

The technical nomenclature does not correspond wholly with that 
of any one author. Tree names adopted here are based upon the 
generally accepted law of priority, which demands that the earliest 
tenable name be retained. The period in which this law is here held 
to be operative is from 1753, when the general application of binom- 
inal names of plants began. This is in accordance with the usage of 
most dendrologists. 

Many changes of technical names have been necessai*y since the 
publication of the author's " Nomenclature of North American Trees " 
and " Check List of the Forest Trees of the United States," upon 
which the nomenclature is based. It is regrettable, but inevitable, 
that authors should differ in judgment regarding the retention of 
certain tree names, even if they do accept as a working principle 
priority'' of publication for every name used. The intricacies of 
nomenclatural law are too great to be discussed here, but for the sake 
of illustrating one of the many points of disagreement among den- 
drologists, the two names Sequoia weUingtonia and Sequoia washing- 
toniana, now retained for the bigtree of the California Sierras, are 



12 INTRODUCTION. 

cited. Each name is held by its advocates to be correctly founded. 
In this case the difference of opinion does not involve priority, but the 
question of whether or not the earliest name (S. washingtoniana) was 
properly established by publication. The author of Taxodbnn wash- 
ingtonianiim , on which Sequoia icasMngtoniana is based, described it 
in untechnical language in a San Francisco newspaper, and not, as 
his opponents maintain he should have done, in technical terms and 
in a recognized plant journal. The point, in the case of publication 
in a neAvspaper, that the announcement of a new species is not made 
to technical readers but to the general public does not, in the writer's 
judgment, affect the principle of publicity. In deciding questions of 
this kind the writer has felt that if a tree has been named and 
definitely enough described or figured in public print to enable a 
reader to recognize the tree designated, the author's name of the tree 
is justly entitled to recognition, whether or not the description was 
technical or was jjrinted in some appropriate journal of standing. 
This opinion does not, of course, question the entire propriety and 
desirability of describing new species in technical language and an- 
nouncing them either in botanical journals or at least in those devoted 
to biological subjects. 

COMMON NAMES OF TREES. 

The selection of common names given here is based upon the 
widest usage over most of the trees' ranges. The ideal common 
name is one exclusively used for a tree throughout its range. Such 
names are rare, but every effort should nevertheless be made to estab- 
lish them. The stability of scientific names (which are never know- 
ingly duplicated), though yet imperfect, is what gives them their 
chief advantage over common names. 

Unfortunateh* common names of trees are not always appropriate 
or well chosen. They do not, as the}' should, refer to some striking 
characteristic of the tree or of its habitat. Inappropriate names, 
however, when once established, can not well be discarded, since usage, 
as in language, is really a law, and since if not duplicated for other 
trees they may serve as well as more appropriate ones the practical 
purpose of names — convenient handles. The deliberate and senseless 
application of the same name to two or more species is, however, 
something to be avoided and discouraged. It is both unnecessary 
and perplexing to have several very different pines called " white 
pine." Still more pernicious is the deliberate use of the same name 
for two or more frees belonging to entirely distinct genera ; for ex- 
ample. " larch " applied to fir or balsam (a species of Abies), " pine " 
applied to spruce (a species of Picea) is inexcusable and misleading. 
This misuse of names is most to be deplored when it is intended, as it 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

has been in some cases, to overcome prejudices against a certain 
timber and, in effect, to deceive consumers. In this way " white 
pine," a wood of ffood reputation, is used for a wood of less excellent 
quality derived from pines in Arizona, although true timber white 
pine does not grow there ; so also " satin walnut," an invented name, 
has been commonly used for plain sweet or red gum. ]\Iany other 
examples might be cited. 

The locally accepted names of a few trees have been replaced or 
modified, for the purpose of avoiding duplication. Thus "red 
cedar" of the northwest {Thuja pUcata) is made into "western red 
cedar " in order to avoid confliction with the eastern red cedar {Juni- 
peruH rirginidna)^ which became well known long Ijefore the western 
tree was discovered. Another suggestion made in cases where it 
seemed proper is that of perpetuating the use of such patronymic 
common names as Engelmann sj)ruce {Picea engehnanni), Brewer 
oak {QuercuH hreweri), etc., particularly for trees which have re- 
ceived no common distinctive names because they are still little 
known. It is exceedingly helpful to use such names for trees which 
do not readily suggest good connnon names. SaUx nuttallii is a 
good example. Lay observers would see in this tree just a " variety 
of willow," and " Xuttall willow " is a convenient common name. 
Often the use of such names will emphasize what the original 
describer of the tree sought to perpetuate by naming it in honor of 
some worthy or distinguished person. 

SIZES or TREES. 

For the most part, the heights and diameters given for trees are 
intended to be those ordinarily found. Extreme sizes, when given, are 
purposely guarded by some modifying statement, to show that they 
are exceptional. Lumber operations are rapidly changing the forests 
of nearly every region. The largest trees of certain species once 
common are now rare or even wanting. 

There appears to be a popular tendency to overestimate and to 
overstate the size of trees, particularly of large trees. The California 
Sierra bigtree {Sequoia irasJunf/to7iiana) is often spoken of as 
being 400 or more feet high and 30 or more feet in diameter. Ac- 
cording to the writer's experience it would be extremely difficult to 
find one of these trees now standing which is over 800 feet high or 
over 27 feet in diameter. ]Most of the large ones are under 275 feet 
in height and under 18 feet in diameter (0 feet above the swelled 
bases). 

RANGE OF TREES. 

In giving the range of trees, departure has been made from the 
usual practice of describing only the general region of occurrence. 
15188—08 2 



14 INTEODUCTION. 

This is briefly recorded for the benefit of those who desire just this 
information. But for the benefit of very many more it has seemed 
proper to include also a brief detailed description of the local range, 
vertical and horizontal, by States, Territory, and other geographical 
subdivisions in the region occupied by the species or subspecies. The 
fullest information possible has been given for commercial trees. 

A very much more definite knowledge is greatly and generally 
needed of the local distribution of our trees. Extreme extensions or 
outlying stations for each tree require to be recorded. No observers 
have done more along this line than authors of State and county 
floras, by whom actual limits of range have been carefully worked 
out for the trees and other plants of their special localities. There 
are too few of these painstaking workers, and their work can not be 
too highly praised. The writer wishes to emphasize the fact also that 
the numerous unpublished silvical. National Forest boundary, and 
other field reports by members of the Forest Service, as well as 
special field reports by members of the U. S. Geological Survey and 
ihe Biological Survey, have proA^ed rich sources of ncAv information 
on the local and general range of Pacific trees. Through these sources 
the distribution of some trees has been extended hundreds of miles 
beyond pre\donsly recorded limits. Finall3% it is hoped that by giv- 
ing, in detail, what is now known the many observers and lovers of 
trees who are scattered throughout this region will be stimulated to 
make further contributions. Much is yet to be learned of where the 
trees of this region grow. 

OCCURRENCE OF TREES. 

Closely connected with a study of the areal and altitudinal range 
of trees is the equally important determination of where, in their 
respective ranges, this or that species lives — by necessity or by virtue 
of special fitness. Like animals, trees have what may be termed a 
more or less definite habitat, defined by such physical conditions as 
soil, moisture, topogi-aphy, and, to a gi'eater or less extent, tempera- 
ture. The likes and dislikes, as it were, of one species are, of course, 
shared by a number of others, so that several species may have their 
habitat in wet, in moist, or in dry situations; while different indi- 
viduals of the same species may accommodate themselves to all of 
these situations. 

It would lead too far, for present purposes, to discuss, even briefly, 
the factors upon which the adaptation of trees to environment appear 
to depend. The eftects of mutual likes and dislikes upon species 
are to be seen in the occurrence of certain trees in pure stands only 
and the occurrence of others with different kinds of trees or with 
different species of the same kind. 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

The occurrence of trees is also influenced by their tolerance — that 
is, their ability to exist, for a part or the whole of their lives, in dense 
shade or their requirement of various degrees of shade or of full light. 
To what extent, however, tolerance — inherent or acquired — may be 
accounted for by the amount of soil moisture a given species requires 
can not be stated now. Finally -, the characteristic habits and methods 
of reproduction, by seed or by sprouts, most important factf)rs in the 
life history of a tree, have much to do with the occurrence of a species. 

It may be said here, in passing, that dendrology, the botany of 
trees, properly includes a study of the distinguishing characteristics 
of tree species for the purpose of identification and, naturally, of the 
affinities which determine their classification into orders and other 
natural grouj^s. The characteristics of a tree include the definition 
of both external and internal form characters — the morpholog}^ of its 
trunk, root, branches, twigs, buds, leaves, flowers, fruit, seed — as well 
as of the anatomical structure of the tissues, including characteristic 
secretions — gums, resins, etc. — of which these parts are composed. 
A study of the pli3^siological processes Avhich characterize the life of 
the tree organism are a part, too. of dendrology. It deals also with 
the natural range — horizontal and vertical and its peculiar climatic 
conditions, as well as with the habitat or occurrence — including the 
character of site and soil the tree chooses either in pure or mixed 
growths. What the forester has long called silvics, a study of the 
habits and life liistor}^ of trees in the forest, therefore falls naturally 
under dendrology. Silvics, as the basis for all practical silvicultural 
operations, deals with the factors which influence the life and growth 
of trees in their natural or adopted habitat. In recent years the new 
science of ecology, a study of plant associations, has included, in so 
far as the life habits of trees are concerned, a part of dendrology as 
one of its natural subdivisions. It appears logical, however, to con- 
sider dendrology as still including the study of tree associations. 
This leaves forest ecology in its proper place as a department of 
general ecology, and at the same time preserves the identity of an 
essential part of dendrology, a distinct division of general botany. 
However this may be, the serious student of tree life — dendrology — 
can make no mistake in taking the broadest view of the field and in 
striving to familiarize himself with all that pertains to trees, from 
a study of their distinguishing characteristics to their modes of life 
and associations. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

Grateful acknowledgment is here made to Dr. C. Hart Merriam, 
who placed at the writer's disposal transcripts of his voluminous 
notes on the distribution and occurrence of California trees. The un- 
published data thus made available is the result of over twenty years 



16 INTKODUCTION. 

of field observations made while studying life zones and during thou- 
sands of miles of travel, on foot and on horseback, especially in un- 
frequented and little-known sections of the State. Doctor Merriam's 
rare and accurate knowledge of Pacific tx'ees renders the information 
contributed exceptionally valuable. 

Special acknowledgment is due the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York, for diameter measurements and corresponding 
age determinations, taken from the Jesup Collection of North Ameri- 
can woods, through the cordial cooperation of the director. Dr. H. C. 
Bumpus." With these determinations, together with similar ones ob- 
tained through personal field studies and from unpublished records 
of the Forest Service, the author has been able to present statements 
of the ages attained by practically all of the Pacific trees. 

It is difficult to abandon wholly the terse and exact language of 
technical science and to convey in ordinary terms an accurate im- 
pression of a tree's distinguishing characteristics. The writer has 
endeavored to make this work simple and at the same time thoroughly 
accurate. If it proves helpful at all in acquainting the uninitiated 
with the characters and habits of Pacific trees, he will be greatly 
encouraged in the ^preparation of the other regional floras designed to 

follow this part. 

George B. Sudworth. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



17 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



CIYMNOS PERM^. 

The Gymnosperms aro technically distinguished from other seed-bearing trees 
by having their ovules borne naked or without the usual covering provided in 
other trees. Thej- have resinous wood formed in concentric rings, which are 
laid on each year, one outside of the preceding one, and just beneath the bark. 
As with other classes of our trees which grow in this manner, the age can be 
accurately told by counting the rings shown on a cross-section of the stem at 
the ground ,iust above where the root is given off. Some of tliese trees bear 
male and female flowers separately on different branches of the same tree, 
and some bear male flowers on one tree and female flowers on a different tree. 
The male flowers produce pollen (resembling yellowish powder) in large cpianti- 
ties and the wind conveys it to the female or fruit ("seed") bearing flowers 
for the purpose of fertilization. It is light and easily blown by wind for 50 
or more yards. According to the character of their fruits, Gynuiosperms are 
divided into two families, Couiferte < cone-bearers), and Taxaceie (yew-like). 

ramily CONIFERiE. 

This family includes the pines (Pinus), spruces (Picea), larches or true 
tamaracks (Laiid), hemlocks (Tsiif/a), false or bastard hemlocks (Pseudo- 
tsiiga), firs or "balsam trees" (Abi^s), "bald" cypress (Tarodium), arbor- 
vita's or "cedars" (Thuja), true cypresses (Cupressus and Chamwcyparis), 
redwood and bigtree {Sequoia), and junipers or "cedars" (Juniperus). In 
all but the last group these trees bear a fruit which is a distinctly woody cone, 
with from two to several naked seeds under each of its overlapping or other- 
wise closed scales. The junipers produce a berry-like fruit, which, though not 
woody, is. however, morphologically a cone. The seeds of most conifers have 
a thin wing which helps them greatly to be scattered by the wind far from the 
])arent tree, and so provides for their reproduction over a wide area. The seeds 
of some conifers have no wing, or merely a rudimentary one. The berry-like 
fruits of the junipers are largely dependent for their distribution upon birds 
which eat them and upon flood waters which distribute them. The hard seed 
lo.ses only its pulpy coating by being eaten. The leaves of conifers are small 
and scale-like, or long and needle-like. In all but the bald cypresses {Taxo- 
dium) and larches (Laiix), the leaves remain on the trees for several years, 
which has given them the names of "evergreens." The seed leaves (cotyledons) 
number from 1! to about 18. 

PINUS. PINES. 

The pines are all evergreen trees. Their branches are more or less thickly 
clothed with clusters of needle-like leaves in bimdles of two, three, four, or five. 
One species has solitary leaves. New leaves are formed each year on the young 
twigs which lengthen the previous year's growth. The leaves produced in a 
season may remain on the tree from two to six or eight years. They die and 

19 



20 FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. * 

fall wlieu a set of new leaves is beiiifj; formed at the ends of the branches. 
The fruits of pines are woody, scaly cones, matured in from two to three years. 
The cones of some pines remain on the trees only a few weeks after ripening, 
while those of others persist for many years,- or even are so firmly attached as 
to be entirely enveloped by the annual diameter growth of the tree. At matu- 
rity most pine cones open under the heat of the sun and liberate their seeds ; 
a few pines, however, rarely open their cones except under the heat of a forest 
fire. This fact explains how certain pines often repi'oduce themselves after 
the original forest has been killed by fire, since not all of the cones are burned 
enough to destroy their seeds, and the seeds are scattered after the fire. The 
flowers of the pines are of two sexes, male and female, borne usually on differ- 
ent branches of the same tree. Male flowers, which produce pollen, are short, 
oval, and bud-like, or long cylindrical bodies, clustered at the ends of mature 
leafy branches. They are bright red, yellow, or oi'ange. The female flowers, 
which produce cones and seed, are small, greenish, scaly, cone-like bodies, pro- 
duced singly or in pairs or groups near the ends of young growing shoots of 
the spring. After fertilization of the two ovules (under each scale) these 
flowers develop into small cones during the first season, as a rule completing 
their growth and maturing their seeds at the end of the second summer. Ripe 
cones vary from an inch in length and three-fourths inch in diameter, to 2 
feet in length and G or 8 inches in diameter. The seed of most pines bears a 
thin papery wing at one end. In a few species, however, the seed has only the 
rudiment of a wing, which remains attached to the cone scale when the seed 
is shed. The pinon or " nut " pines bear wingless seeds. Pine seeds vary from 
one-half the size of a kernel of wheat to nearly the size of a small hazel nut. 
Seeds of the " nut " pines are gathered by western Indians for food. The 
needle-like foliage of pines varies from an inch to 14 or 15 inches in length. 
Seed-leaves (cotyledons) of pines are needle-shaped and from 3 to 15 in number. 
Succeeding these, pine seedlings produce temporary or primary leaves, which 
are single ; but later, commonly at the beginning of the second year, they begin 
to bear their leaves in clusters. Leaves are borne in clusters during the 
remainder of the tree's life. 

The pines are among our most important commercial trees. Because they 
have straight, unbranched, cylindrical trunks, they furnish large amounts of 
excellent saw timber, without waste. Pine timber is widely used for all con- 
struction purposes on account of its straight grain, strength, and other qualities. 

The naval stores used in the United States, as well as the large quantities 
exported to other countries, are derived by distillation from the crude resin of 
the more resinous-wooded pines. Recently the wood of stumps and old logs is 
being distilled for turpentine. Some 70 species of pines are known in the world. 
Thirty-four pines inhabit the Ignited States, 17 of which occur in the Pacific 
region. 

Pines are of ancient origin, some of them having existed in the Cretaceous 
and Miocene periods in North America and Eui'ope. 

WHITE PINES. 

Western White Pine; Silver Pine. 
Pintis monticola Dougl. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

This species is more commonly called " white pine " where it is cut for lumber. 
The name western white pine is proposed for this tree in order to distinguish 
It from the eastern white pine (Pinus strobus). 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 21 

In dense forests, in which its most fliaracteristic form is found, this i)ine has 
a tall, slender shaft, with a peculiarly short-branclied. narrow, symmetrical 
crown : the branches are usually slender and drooping? and in early life extend 
over one-half or two-thirds the length of the trunk. Its heijiht ranges from 90 
to 100 feet, and its diameter from 2^ to 3^, or, exceptionally, 4 feet. In open 
forests, where the conditions are less favorable to its better development, it is 
a short-bodied tree, 50 or 60 feet in height, with one or several very long, 
stout, horizontal branches extending from 10 to 15 feet or more beyond the 
other slender branches. This striking character distinguishes the tree as far 
as it can be seen. The bark of trees a foot or more in diameter is distinctly 
broken into peculiar small, square blocks. Xo other tree associated with it 
has this bark character. Bark of mature trees is rarely over Ij inches thick. 
In dense stands the color of the bark is grayish-purple, \yhile in open, wind- 
swept stands it is a distinct cinnamon color. The action of wind constantly 
tears off thin outer scales of bark and exposes the red-brown interior. Young 
trees have thin, smooth, bright gi'ay bark, as do also the branches and upper 
stems of old trees. The foliage of this pine is bluish-green, with a whitish tinge. 
The leaves are from 2 to about -i inches long, borne 5 in a bundle (fig. 1). The 
cones are matured at the end of the second summer, usually by the first of 
September. They shed their seed .soon afterward and fall from the trees within 
a few months. The cones (fig. 2) vary in length from about 6 to 10 inches — 
occasionally slightly longer or shorter. In unweathered mature cones the tips 
of the scales are red-brown or yellow-brown, the inner ix)rtiou of the scales 
being a deep red. The seeds (fig. 2, a) are reddish brown, with small blackish 
spots. Seed leaves, 6 to 8 or 9. 

Wood, very light and soft ; heartwood, pale brown, of high commercial value. 

LoNGKViTV. — A long-lived tree, attaining an age of from 2(t0 to 5(X) years. 

RANGK. 

Middle and upper slopes of northwestern mountains from west side of Continental 
Divide in northern Montana and southern British Columbia to Washington, Oregon, and 
California. 

British Columbia. — Lateral valleys east of Columbia-Kootenai Valley, northward to 
Donald, on Gold and Selkirlc ranges (in region of heavy rainfall), northward to Great 
Shuswap and Adams lakes ; also on central ranges, in southwest to Coast Range, there 
extending 51 miles up Homathco River to 2,235 feet elevation. On interior mountains 
of Vancouver Island and southwest coast, but not yet found on Queen Charlotte Islands. 

W'ASHiN(iTOX. — Mountains of Northeast, Blue Mountains, and westward to Cascade and 
Coast ranges, at elevations from 800 up to 0.000 feet. In northern Cascades, from near 
sea level on I'uget Sound up to about 3,000 feet ; farther south on west side, at from 
2.000 to 6,000 feet, and on the east side, at from 1.1.50 to 4.700 feet ; eastward 5 miles 
above Lake Chelan, and in Okanogan County to mountains west of Okanogan River (T. 36 
N., R. 24 E. I. Farther south, noted up to (i.OOo feet. Tolt, Snoqualmie, Cedar, Green, 
White, Yakima, Wenache, and Entiat river basins. In Olympics, from near sea level 
up to 1,800 feet. 

Okegon. — On both sides of Cascades and on coast ranges, at from 3,000 to 6,000 feet 
in north and 5,000 to 7.500 feet in south, extending eastward to Blue and Warner moun- 
tains. On north side Mount Hood from 20 miles south of Hood River on the Columbia 
at 2.000 to 4,300 feet : on south side from Camas I'rairie to Government Camp. Cascade 
National Forest (North) at 1.500 to (i.lOO feet, throughout west slope north of McKenzie 
River, on east slope south of Mount Hood in White River Basin, and at lieadwaters of 
Warm Springs River and Beaver Creek. Eastward in Deschutes River Valley east of Cas- 
cades to upper Paulina Creek Canyon. Cascade National Forest (South) only on main 
divide soutliward (to T. 39, S., R. 5 E.), on west side at 5.000 to 7.500 feet, and not over 
14 miles west of summit, except upper South I'mpquaUiver Basin and on Siskiyous between 
Siskiyou and Sterling peaks. Frequent on east side of Cascades, l)ut conflned to declivities 
at 5,500 to 6,000 feet. Noted on Mount Mazama (Crater Lake) from 5,000 to above 



22 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

6,000 feet. Also in coast ranges on Iron Mountain and Rusty Butte. Noted in Upper 
Klamatli River basin on Gearhart Mountains, head of Sprague River. Farther east, 
in Goose Lalie National Forest, noted ou Cottonwood Creek, head of Deep Creek, and in 
north Warner Mountains (east of Goose Lake), at 7, .500 to 8,500 feet. 

Califoihv'ia. — Northern cross ranges and southward in Sierras. On Siskiyous at 6,000 
to 7,000 feet elevation, summit of Glass Mountain (border Siskiyou and Modoc counties) ; 
on Mount Shasta at 6,000 to 7,200 feet; south of Brewer Creek up to 7,200 feet, near 




Fig. 1. — Pinvs monticola. 

Inconstance Creek, in Mud Creek Canyon, near top of Red Cone (east of Wagon Camp). 
Lassen Peak at 6,000 to 7,000 feet ;. down to 5,500 feet on south side, and on north side 
at upper Hat Creek ; east Trinity Mountains on Canyon Creek at 4,500 feet to outlet 
of Twin Lakes (5,500 feet). Reported on high summits of Trinity and Klamath National 
Forests. In northern Sierras, generally at 6,000 to 7,500 feet, bur at 8,400 feet on 
Pyramid Creek. Region of Donner Lake (Nevada and Placer counties), westward to 
Cisco and eastward to near Truckee ; also east side of Sierras facing Reno, Nevada. 




Fig. 2.- — Pinua nwnticola: a, seed. 



15188— OS. (To fac-e page 22.) 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 23 

Noted in mountains about I^ake Tahoe, Glen Alpine Canyon, Grass Lake, from summit 
on west side Sierras at 7,500 feet to Echo at 5,500 feet. Alpine County: Silver Creek 
Canyon above 7,500 feet ; on and near summit of Mokelumne Pass, at 8,800 feet, and 
divide between Mokelumne and Pacific valleys at 7,000 feet. Tuolumne County: West to 
just east of Eureka Valley and eastward nearly to Sonora Pass, at 9,000 feet ; on White 
Mountain, Mount Conness, ridge between Diugley and Delaney creeks at 9,000 to 9,500 
feet ; north side Lambert Dome, Tuolumne River Canyon, Middle Fork Tuolumne westward 
nearly to White Wolf, between Tuolumne Meadows and Lake Tenaya, about Cathedral 
Lakes and southward. Mariposa County: Near Sunrise Ridge at 9,.'J00 feet, and into Lit- 
tle Yosemite at 6,000 feet; ridge west of Lake Tenaya and westward to beyond White 
Wolf, from I'orcupine Flat southward to 7,800 feet. Mono County: Bloody Canyon (east 
side Mono Pass), at about 9,.S00 feet. In southern Sierras, at 8,0()0 to 10,000 feet, while 
on divide between Middle and South forks of Kings River, and on divide between East and 
Middle forks of Kaweah River, it goes to 11,000 feet elevation ; upper Kings River Canyon 
above Junction Meadow and below Vidette Meadow ; Giant Forest and from Clover Creek 
Divide to Rowell Meadow ; Alta Peak (between Marble and East Forks Kaweah River) ; 
south side North Fork of Kaweah ; on Mount Silliman, at 8,900 to 10,200 feet, and above 
Mineral King, at 9.600 to 10,400 feet. On west slopes of Sierras, extends southward to 
head of Soda Creek (branch Little Kern River, in T. 19 S., R. 32 W.), and on divide 
between Kern River and its south fork, to a point about opposite lower end of Monache 
Valley (T. 19 to 21 S., R. 34 E., lat. 36° 10'). On east side of Sierras it extends from 
Truckee to head of Cottonwood Creek. In south, reported on Mount Wilson in San 
Gabriel Range, on San Bernardino Mountains, at 10,000 feet, at Round Valley in San 
Jacinto Mountains at 8,900 to 9,500 feet, and on Tahquitz Peak at 8,600 feet. 

The detailed range of this i)iiie in Idaho and Montana will be dealt with in 
a subsequent publication. 

OCCUBEKNCE. 

Not confined to any definite type of locality. At north, most abundant and largest 
in moist valleys, growing also in dry, exposed subalpine regions. Adapted to variety of 
soils. Best growth occurs in deep, porous soils. Most common in poor, sandy situations. 

Greatest development in northern Idaho, on gentle north slopes and flats. Less fre- 
quent west of Continental Divide in Montana and of Cascades in Oregon. In northern 
California, on north slopes, and on south and west slopes in protected coves, broad valleys, 
and mountain benches; in southern California rather abundant on high, west slope of 
Sierras. Occurs commonly as scattered trees or small groups with other species ; very 
rarely in pure stands and only on exposed high slopes. In Cascades and Sierras occa- 
sionally forming 50 to 70 per cent of stand on small areas, but throughout its range not 
exceeding 3 or 4 per cent. In Washington associated with western hemlock, amabilis 
fir, lowland fir, and Douglas fir ; in Oregon, with Douglas fir, lowland fir, and amabilis 
fir ; in California, with Douglas fir, lodgepole pine, red fir, and Shasta fir. 

Climatic Conditions. — Throughout its range the approximate seasonal temperature 
varies between — 26° F. and 98° F. ^lean annual rainfall in north, from 15 inches in 
parts of Montana and Idaho to about 60 inches near Puget Sound ; in California, proba- 
bly between 20 and 30 inches. Humidity is great in western Washington, where over 
two-thirds of the days are cloudy or foggy, while it is smaller in east and south, where 
one-half of the days are overcast. Snow falls throughout its range, less near sea than in 
northern Rocky and California mountains, where it reaches a depth of several feet. 

TOLKRANCK. — Eudures shade for a relatively long period in youtli, later requiring an 
abundance of light for its development. It prunes well. Does not recover well after 
suppression during pole stage. 

Rkproduction. — Reproduces itself only sparingly and at irregular intervals of about 
two years. Not a prolific seeder; bears seed only when of considerable age (40 to 
60 years). Seed germinates poorly on heavy humus, unless the humus is moist during 
most of growing season ; best on eX|)osed moist mineral soil. 

Sugar Pine. 

Pinus lamhertiana -Dougl. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

The largest and most inagnlficent of Pacific white pines, if not of all the tim- 
ber pines of the region, the western yellow pine being its only rival. Its massive 
trunk attains a height of from IGO to 180 feet, with a diameter of from 4 to 7 
feet. Somewhat taller and larger trees are occasionally found. The trunk 



24 



FOKEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



of mature trees is very straight, and tapers but little until the few large, very 
long, horizontal limbs of its wide, flat crown are reached. These huge branches 
stand out so prominently at right angles from the upper trunli: as to distinguish 
it from associated pines. Its long, cylindrical cones, suspended from the tips 
of the branches, also serve to distinguish the tree at a long distance. Trees 
fi'om pole size to a foot in diameter bear distinct whorls of branches at long 
intervals down to the ground. Later in life the lower whorls are shaded 
out and two or more of the upper limbs develop enormously in the full light. 
This usually takes place as the tree attains its main height growth. Old bark 




Fio. .3. — Pinus Inmhcriianu. 



is deeply furrowed longitudinally, the ridges being broken into long, irregular 
plates. It is from 1^ to 2J inches or more in thickness and grayish brown in 
color. In exposed situations the" force of high winds tears off the weathered 
flakes of bark, leaving the exposed surface a deep red-brown color. The 
smooth, thin bark of the young trunks and branches of old trees is a dull, dark 
gray. The foliage is a deep blue-green, with a whitish tinge. The leaves (fig. 
3), in bundles of 5, are from 2f to about -i inches long. Those of each year's 
growth persist two or three years. The cones (fig. 4), which are unique among 




-I I IS liiiilettwna a seed 6 c upper and lower views of cone scales — all natural ! 
lolSS— OS (To face page 24 ) 



Cone reduced; original 231 inclies long. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 25 

all our pines In their huge size nnd form, are from 12 to IC inches long and 
from 2i to 3A inches in diameter ; occasionally, 18 to 2.'') inches in length. The 
tips of the scales are shiny and pale reddish hrown, the inner part of the scale 
heing a deep purple brown. Cones ripen during August of the second year and 
shed their seeds by October. Cones seldom fall until the third spring or sum- 
mer, and sometimes they remain on the trees until the autumn of that year, 
The seeds (fig. 4, «) are smooth, and vary from a dark chocolate to a blackish 
brown. Seed leaves, 12 to 15. The wood is light and soft, but somewhat less 
so than that of the western white pine; heartwood, pale reddish-brown; of 
great commercial value. 

Longevity. — A very long-lived tree, reaching an age of from 300 to 5(X), and, 
in occasional instances, nearly GOO years. 

RANGE. 

Mountains from North Fork of Santiam Kiver, Oregon, southward in Coast and Cas- 
cades ranges, Sierras, and southern California cross ranges, to Mount San Pedro Martir, 
Lower California. 

Orkgon. — Mainly on west side of Cascades and northward to within a few miles north- 
west of Mount .Tefferson ; on Siski.vous and mountains of Klamath B»fiin and eastward 
to Goose Lake, generally at 1!,()()0 feet to 3,000 feet elevation, but near coast down to 
1,000 feet, while on east side of Cascades it goes to .5,000 feet. In northern Cascade 
National Forest, only on North Fork of Santiam River, at 1,700 to 3,700 feet elevation, 
from Chimney Peak to Humbug Creek Basin (T. >.) S., R. 6 E., lat. 44° 47', long. 1L'2° 4'), 
the northern limit. South of this it occurs on headwaters of Willamette River (T. 22 S., 
R. 1 and 3 E., T. 23 S., R. 2 to 4 E., T. 24 S., R. 3 to 4 E.), south of Fish Lake on 
main divide (T. 27 S., R. GJ E.) ; in Rogue River Valley; on Rogue-I'mpfiua river divide 
(T. .30 S., R. 1 to 5 E., T. 31 S., R. 1 to 6), and more abundantly southward on Cascades 
to Siskiyous. Crosses Cascades south of Fish Lake and occurs on headwaters of Des- 
chutes River between Sink Creeks, Walker Range, and Pengra, also on south and east 
basal slopes of Mount Mazama. Extends along east slopes at elevations of 4,500 to 
6,500 feet to beyond the Klamath Marshes and Klamath Gap. Extends southeastward 
between these marshes and upper Klamath Lake, while farther east, in Yamsay Range, 
it occurs on Fuego Mount;iin. in Black Hills, and eastward to Klamath-Deschutes divide, 
where it ranges from head of Deschutes Kiver to Gearhart Mountains and Drew Valley, 
west of Goose Lake. Ashland National Forest, up to about 5,400 feet. A few trees at 
about 1,700 feet in southern coast ranges of Curry County (S. 2, T. 38 S., R. 14 W., 
and S. 35, T. 37 S., R. 14 W.), about 5 miles from coast. 

Califou.vi.\. — In Siskiyous and southward over northern California abundant save on 
higher peaks and in Shasta Valley, at elevations of 3,000 to 6,000 feet throughout western 
two-thirds of State. Extends eastward to Mount Shasta and summits in Shasta National 
Forest north of Shasta, but unknown on Modoc and Warner mountains in northeastern 
California. Noted in Siskiyou Countj' eastward to near Beswick (on Klamath River, just 
south of Oregon line) ; also on Shovel Creek Ridge (near Klamath Falls). Little Shasta 
Valley, and on Goosenest Mountain. Western limit, same as that of yellow pine, follows 
inland margin of fog belt 20 to 30 miles from coast. Klamath National Forest, at 3,000 
to 5.000 feet elevation ; reported also to extend nearly to sea-level on tiats of Smith 
River (Del Norte County); western limits in Siskiyou County at least to west slope 
of Marble Mountain Divide and (west of it) Russian Creek basin ; northward on Salmon 
River to junction with Klamath River, and to 5.500 feet on Salmon Summit (on west) 
and basin betwen Salmon Summit and Trinity Summit. Humboldt County ; sparingly 
on west slope of Trinity Mountain, between about 3,700 and 5,000 feet ; about 2i miles 
from Hoopa Valley at l.fiOO feet, and a little farther west common at 1.800 to 2.100 
feet; here up north side of Supply Canyon to 2,600 feet (westmost limit). Mount 
Shasta National Forest, at from 3,000 to 6,000 feet, sometimes up to 6,500 and down to 
2.000 feet, and extending southward in Sacramento Canyon to the " Loop," while on 
Mount Shasta it occurs only from a point 4\ miles southeast of Edgewood, on northwest 
side, around west and south sides to Ash Creek, reaching about 6,000 feet, but on south 
slopes going to 7,500 feet. Farther south in Shasta County, east limits are Soldier 
Mountain (1 mile northwest of Dana), ridge cast of Fall River Valley (Shasta-Lassen 
county boundary) ; noted westward to point 3 miles east of Montgomery, and on McCloud 
River soutii to Baird. In Trinity National Forest it goes eastward to Lewiston on west 
border of Sacramento Valley ; Coast Range at 2,300 to 4,150 feet and southward to 
Bully Choop and Yolu Bull ranges and westward to upper Mad River ; on north slopes 



26 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

and flats, generally at 3,000 to 6.000 feet, but on South Fork Mountain it grows at 
5,000 feet elevation, on South Fork of Trinity Kiver at 3,500 to 5,000 feet, on Hay Fork 
Mountain and Bear Wallow Creek at 5,500 feet, and in Rattlesnake Basin at 3,900 feet. 
In Stony Creek National Forest, north of Clear Lake, on slopes of north and south 
ranges between 2,000 and 5,000 feet ; especially abundant on Pine and Sanhedrin Moun- 
tains, and headwaters of the South Fork of Eel River. On Mayacamas mountains, 
extending to Bartlett Mountain (northeast of Clear Lake), here on south side above 
3,000 feet, and on west side above 3,800 feet — and to Glenbrook and Cobb Mountain, 
in Lake County ; southward, it goes to Sutro Ranch, near Oakhill Mountain ; also on 
north and northeast slopes of Mount St. Helena, and on south side above Tollhouse 
and eastward, also at intervals down ridge southeast of mountain (south limit in northern 
coast ranges). Once found on I'ope and Howell mountains; also reported from many 
points in Mendocino County and from Oalloway and Austin creeks, in Sonoma County. 
Not detected in mountains about San Francisco Bay, but is found in westmost coast 
range at Palo Alto. In Santa Lucia Mountains, south of Monterey Bay, grows on north 
slopes of Santa Lucia and Cone Peaks in San Antonio and Arroyo Seco river basins at 
4,000 to 5,900 feet. In northern Sierras, mainly on west slopes, at 3,500 to 6,500 feet ele- 
vation, occasionally extending down to 2,000 feet and up to 7,500 feet. Tehama County: 
Westward on Sierras to near Lyonsville and 10 miles east of Payne. Lassen County: 
northwest corner from point 5 miles west of Bieber westward ; not east of Big Valley ; 
in southern part of county, eastward to Susanville ; general in Lassen Peak, Plumas, and 
Diamond Mountain National forests ; in Plumas Forest two belts occur east and west 
of divide, mainly at 3,000 to 5,500 feet elevation, but some trees at 7,500 feet. West- 
ward in Butte County to Magalia, North Fork Feather River, and to point about 4 miles 
north of Bidwell Bar (1,300 feet). Yuha Countij: To North Fork Yuba River and Oregon 
Hills. Eastward in Plumas County to Mount Dyer, Greenville, Quincy, and ridge west 
of Sierra Valley. Sierra County: East slope of mountains west of Sierra Valley, reach- 
ing 6,000 feet on west side of Yuba Pass. Xei^ada County: To country north of Lake 
Tahoe. In Tahoe National Forest, eastern limits are main Sierra divide, except that 
it extends to east slopes of Sierras at head of North Fork of American River, and near 
shores of Lake Tahoe (at 6,250 feet elevation) ; thence descending Truckee River Canyon 
into Nevada to a point opposite Reno, where it is scattered above 6,000 feet. Westward 
in Placer County to Colfax (2,500 feet), Applegate, and 5 miles east of Forest Hill; 
■westward in Eldorado County to Placerville, Pleasant Valley, 6 miles east of Nashville 
(at about 2.000 feet), and eastward on west slopes of Sierras to about 5,500 feet (Echo 
and elsewhere). Occurs generally in Stanislaus National Forest, but not throughout 
yellow pine belt, at 3.000 to 5,000 feet, and sometimes at 2,000 feet and 7,000 feet. Ama^ 
dor County: Westward to Oleta and Pinegrove, and eastward on west slope Sierras to Vol- 
cano. Calaveras County: Westward to point (1.500 feet) 6 miles east of San Andreas, 
and 4 miles east of Murphys ; eastward to West Point, Railroad Flat, Big Trees, and 10 
miles west of Bloods at 6,600 feet. Tuolumne County: Westward to Soulsbyville 
and Bigoak Flat ; eastward (at about 6,200 feet) to between Cold Spring and Eureka 
Valley, at Aspen Meadows (6,200 feet), North Crane Creek (about 6,000 feet). Mari- 
posa County: Westward to Ball Creek- (east Coulterville), points (3.000 feet) 4 miles 
east of Mariposa, and 3 miles east of Wassama. Extends eastward to Yosemite Valley, 
occurring here as follows : Little Yosemite and eastward at 6.800 to 7,000 feet, and Sun- 
rise Ridge at 7.600 feet; Yosemite Falls trail (near top of fall) at about 7,000 feet, 
and Indian Canyon Basin ; south of Yosemite from head of Nevada Fall (6,000 feet) 
to Glacier Point (7,300 feet), and southwestward to Yosemite, Wawona road (at Chin- 
quapin) ; Sentinel Dome at about 7,500 to 7,700 feet, or more. In southern Sierras it 
grows at elevations between 5,500 and 9,000 feet, or occasionally down to 4,500 feet. 
Fresno County: Eastward to Bubbs Creek (tributary of Kings River) ; Summit Meadow 
at 8,000 feet. Tulare County: In Sequoia National Park and adjacent parts of Kaweah 
watersheds ; in Buck Canyon, near Bear Paw Meadow, and between Cliff, Canyon, and 
Deer creeks (tributaries of Middle Fork Kaweah) ; Kern River Canyon (near Kern 
Lakes) ; part of Tule River Indian Reservation (South Fork of Tule River) and east- 
ward on Sierras. Occurs on Greenhorn and Piute ranges at 6,000 to 7,000 feet. Mount 
Breckenridge, on other mountains south of South Fork of Kern River, and on Tehachapi 
Mountains, where, as in Tejon Canyon, it grows at 6,000 to 7,500 feet. Quite general in 
southern California mountains at from about 5,000 to over 8,500 feet. In Santa Bar- 
bara National Forest, at 5,000 to 7.500 feet and sometimes up to 8,800 feet, on San 
Rafael to San Emlgdio Mountains, Mount Pinos, and other mountains in basins of Piru- 
Sespe and Santa Maria rivers. In Sierra Madre Mountains, it grows between 5,500 and 
8,500 feet at Strands, near Pasadena, on Waterman Mountain. Mount Gleason, Straw- 
berry Peak, Mount Wilson. Pine Flats, Mount Islip, Prairie Forks, and on Mount San 
Antonio ; on San Bernardino Mountains between 4.500 to 8.000 feet, and occasionally 
from 4,000 to 10,500 feet, but mainly on top of range from T. 2 N, R. 5, W, eastward 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SI^OPE. 27 

to Bear Lake. In timbered portions of San Jacinto Mountains, generally at elevations 
of 5,800 to 0,000 feet, sometimes descending to 5,000 and ascending to 0,800 feet ; com- 
mon on westside trail at 6,000 feet, and also on southwest side of Tahquitz-Strawberry 
Divide. In Cuyamaca Mountains, at from 5,500 feet, on east side Cuyamaca Peak, to 
6,500 feet on summit. 

Lower California. — Frequent in forests of San Pedro Martir Plateau at elevations 
from 8,000 to 10,000 feet. 

OCCURRENCE, 

Chiefly on north slopes and benches and in ravines and canyons ; occasionally on low 
mountain summits ; found also on south and west slopes at higher altitudes, (irows on 
variety of soils from glacial drift and volcanic ash to deep, loose sands and clays ; fresh, 
rich, well-drained, sandy loam or gravelly soils are most characteristic. 

Never in pure stands. At lower elevations, mainly with western yellow pine, incense 
cedar, Kellogg oak, and, in northern California, also with Douglas fir ; occasionally with 
tanbark oak. At high elfvations yellow pine and incense cedar decrease, and white fir, 
and occasionally red fir, together with the big tree, become chief associates, especially on 
east and north slopes. 

Climatic Conditions. — Atmospheric moisture is essential ; hence it prefers cool, moist 
sites on north and east slopes and in heads of gulches and canyons. Doubtless on account 
of this requirement its altitudinal range of 1,000 to 3,000 feet at the north increases, 
going southward, roughly at the rate of about 500 feet to every 200 miles, until, at its 
southern limit, 0,000 feet is reached. 

Tolerance. — In early youth requires partial shade, especially on dry, south slopes; 
when older it becomes very intolerant, even more intolerant than western yellow pine. 
Reprodl'CTIOn. — Not a regular or prolific seeder. A little seed is produced locally each 
year, but good crops occur locally .-it intervals of about from four to six years ; regularity 
in seed years doubtful. Trees below 20 inches in diameter seldom bear seed to any extent. 
Ordinarily trees shed seed over ground for a distance from base of tree about equal to 
their height ; distribution occasionally farther through increased wind, slope, or water. 

Limber Pine. 

P///;/.s- fc.riUs .Tames. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Comparatively little known, doubtless on account of its high, inaccessible 
range. It is a low, thick-trunlveil, much-branched tree, from 25 to 30 or some- 
times 50 feet in height, with short trunk from 12 to .30 inches in diameter ; 
occasionally very old trees are 3i to -i feet in diameter. Young trees are 
peculiar for their regular, distant whorls of short, very tough branches which 
stand at right angles to the trunk and extend down to the ground. Middle-aged 
and old trees (75 to 200 years) are characterized by extremely long and 
slender branches, especially -near the ground and at the top ; the latter are 
often 10 or IS feet in length, falling gracefully at a sharp angle with the trunk. 
These branches appear to develop entirely at the expense of the trunk, which 
remains stunted. Old trunks have hark from 1^ to nearly 2 inches thick, 
blackish or very dark brown, with deep furrows between wide rectangular 
blocks. On trunks from 8 to 12 inches thick the bark is broken into small, thin, 
gray-brown plates ; when separated, the scales expose a dull reddish Inner bark. 
The thin, smooth bark of. young pole trees and of branches is a bright whitish 
gray, often silvery. The foliage, densely set at the ends of the branches, is 
dark yellow-green, and the needles are 5 in a cluster (fig. 5). They are from 
about IJ to nearly 3 inches long. Each year's growth of leaves persists for 
approximately five years. Cones (fig. G), mature in late sunnner or early 
autumn of the second year, shed Iheir seed in September and early in October. 
They are from Si to 10 inches long and peculiar in having their light yellowish- 
browu scale tips greatly thickened; inner portions of scales, pale red. 



28 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



By early winter tbe cones have fallen from the trees. The seeds (fig. 
6, a) are deep reddish brown speckled with blackish brown. Seed leaves 
6 to 8, sometimes 9. Wood, very dense on account of its exceedingly slow 
growth ; light, soft ; heart wood, pale lemon-yellow. 




Fig. 5. — Pin us flexilis. 



Longevity.— Little is known of the longevity of this pine; trees from 200 to 
300 years old and from IS to 22 inches through are not uncommon. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



29 



On slopes of the Cordilleran Plateau from the eastern side of the Continental Divide, 
in Alberta and Montana, southward to New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and southern 
California. 

California. — Panamint Mountains, at from 7.100 tp over 10.000 feet, and on summits 
of Inyo Mountains. On east slopes of Sierras at about '(.."JOO to 10.000 feet, extending 
in a belt from h.'ad of Tuttle Cre.-k, southeast of Mount Whitney, to Cottonwood Creek- 
thence southward to slopes of Monaehe Peak. Occurs also at Mono Pass (east of 








F;g. G.—^Piinis puilin: a. cone .scale and seeds. 



Yosemite Valley) at 8,000 to 0.000 feet; at head of Mammoth Creek (T. 4 S., R. 27 
E.), at 0..->00 feet, and at Kearsarf;e Pass. On western slopes of Sierras along south side 
of South Fork of Kings Iliver, at 10,500 to 12.000 feet. Ueappears in southern cross 
ranges on Mount I'inos, at 8,400 to 8.82G feet; in Sierra Madre Mountains, at 8.000 
to 10.000 feet ; on summits of San Goraonio and Santa Uosa mountains, in San Bernar- 
dino Mountains, and on north side of Gray back Mountain, at about 9..3<iO to ll.SOO 
feet, while at Dry Lake it appears at about 9,000 feet, and in San Jacinto Mountains at 
9,000 to 10,500 feet. 

151SS— US 3 



30 FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

OCCURRENCE. 

On dry, rocky, east slopes, summits, tops of ridges and foottillls, and sometimes on 
sides of moister canyons and banlss of mountain streams. Adapted to a great variety 
of soils and not exacting as regards depth or moisture, but grows best in moist, well- 
drained soils. Usually in dry, rc^y, very shallow soil, .appearing to prefer dry, loose, 
gravelly loam, with little or no humus. Reaches higher elevations on clay soils than on 
sandy ones. 

Usually occurs singly or in small groves among other conifers, where it is of largest 
size ; occasionally in pure, open stands, commonly stunted, on exposed slopes and ridges. 
Apparently less frequent in Pacific than in Rocky Mountain range. Associated mainly 
with lodgepole pine and black hemlock at higher elevations, and sparingly wnth white 
fir and stunted sugar pine at lower altitudes. 

Climatic Coxditiox.s. — Endures a variety of climatic conditions throughout range. 
Mean annual rainfall varies from 15 to 30 inches. Snowfall heavy, except in southern 
Rockies and southern California. Growing season, from 3 to 4 months in north ; some- 
what longer in south. Minimum temperature from about —60° F. in north to —13° F. 
in south ; maximum temperature thoughout range, from 90° to 97° F. Little atmos- 
pheric moisture. 

Tolerance. — Appears to require full light. Never forms dense stands, and does not 
tend to crowd out other species ; only occasionally in fairly dense mixed stands. Similar 
in light requirement to white-bark and bristlecone pines, and less tolerant than other 
associated conifers. 

Reproduction. — Moderate seeder, varying with region and elevation. Generally bears 
cones abundantly in open stands at low altitudes, less abundantly in denser stands at 
higher elevations. Cones produced locally about every year. Seeds practically wingless 
and shed only near tree ; largely eaten by birds and squirrels. Mineral seed-bed most 
favorable for germination, which even under favorable conditions Is but moderate. 

White-bark Pine. 

Piiiu!< alhicaulis Engelmann. 

DISTIXGUISHIXO CHARACTERISTICS. 

White-bark pine has a low, long-branched, twisted or crooked trunk from 15 
to 50 feet high and from 10 to 24 inches in diameter. Taller and larger trees 
occur in protected situations. lu the high, wind-swept home of this tree it is 
often reduced to a sprawling shrub with enormous branches spreading over the 
ground. Young trees have distant, regular whorls of branches at right angles 
to the trunk, but in later life some of the upper whorls develop upward into 
long, willowy stems, giving the tree a loose, bushy crown. The branches, 
especially near the trunk, are exceedingly tough and flexible, so that the tree 
is characteristically able to withstand the fiercest storms. The bark, even that 
of old trees, is little broken, except near the base of the trunk, where it is 
ii'arely more than one-half inch thick. Narrow cracks divide the lower bark 
into very thin whitish or brownish scales, which, on falling or being torn off, 
reveal the characteristic red-brown inner bark. Elsewhere the bark is rarely 
more than one-fourth of an inch thick. Twigs of a year's and sometimes of two 
years' growth are slightly downy. The leaves (fig. 7), densely clustered at the 
ends of the branches, are dark yellow-green ; 5 in a bundle ; length, about 1^ to 
2f inches. Shorter leaves occur on trees in the most exposed situations. Leaves 
of a season's growth remain on the tree for approximately 7 or 8 years, but 
some of them persist only 4 or 5 years. The cones (fig. 7) are a deep purple, 
with very thick scales, vary in length from about 1^ to nearly 3J inches, and 
mature by the end of August or early in September of the second year. Usually 
they shed their seed during the latter month, but sometimes not until late in 
October. The cones dry out and oiien slowly in high, cold situations where this 
pine grows. The seeds (fig. 7, a), about one-half inch in length by one-third 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



31 



Ijich in diameter, are shed without their very narrow wings, wliich remain 
attached to the cone scales ; the thick, hard shell is dark chocolate brown. Seed 




Fig. 7. — Pinus alhicauUs: a, seed. 



leaves, from 7 to 9. Wood, pale brown, light, soft, and brittle when dry; not 
of economic use. 



32 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 

Longevity. — Trees attain an age of from 250 years (\yhen they are about 19 
inches in diameter) to 325 years. Very few records of longevity are available. 

RANGE. 

Timberline tree on the highest summits of northwestern and Pacific mountains, 
from British Columbia and Alberta to Montana, northwest Wyoming. Washington, 
Oregon, and southern California, at elevations of 6,000 to 7,000 feet toward the north, 
5,500 to 9,300 feet in Oregon. 7,000 to 11,000 feet in California, and at 5,000 to 10,000 
in Idaho and Montana. 

Caxada. — Roclsj Mountains at 6,000 to 7,000 feet, and northward to Rocky Mountains 
Park and Height of Land (latitude 52°). Appears as far east as Castle Mountain and 
the Sweet Grass Hills on the Canadian boundary. Selkirk, Gold, and southern interior 
ranges at 5,000 to 7,000 feet. Coast Range as far west as Silver Mountain, near Yale, 
at 5,000 feet; also at head of Salmon River and on Iltasyouco River (latitude 5.3°), but 
not yet found on Vancouver Island, 

Washington. — Cascade Range (mainly east side), northeastern and Blue mountains, 
hut absent from the Olympics ; generally, at 4,500 to 7,500 feet. Common on east- 
ern slopes of Cascades of Washington National Forest at 4.600 to 7.500 feet, and rare on 
west slopes above 6,000 feet. In Mount Rainier National Forest at 5,000 to 8.200 feet. 
In basins of Skykomish, Snoqualmie. Cedar. Green, White, Yakima, aud Wenache rivers 
and of Lake Chelan : also on Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helena, Mount Adams, State 
and Windy passes. Early Winters Creek. 

Okegon. — Frequent at timberline on both sides of Cascades and eastward to Blue and 
Powder River mountains, and highest ranges of Klamath River Basin ; generally, at 
5,500 to 9,300 feet. In northern Cascades forming timberline belt at 5,000 to 8,600 feet. 
Southward on both sides of main divide of Cascades, ranging from 6,000 to 9,300 feet ; 
scarce on I'mpqua-Rogue River Divide, and sparingly i-epresented in the Siskiyous 
between Siskiyou and Sterling peaks. Y'amsay Range only of interior Klamath River 
Basin and high ridges of Klamath-Deschutes Divide. On Movint Hood, Mount Pitt, 
Mount Scott, Mount Mazama. 

California. — Frequent from mountains about Shasta southward in Sierras to Kaweah 
peaks : generally, at 7.000 to 11.000 feet elevation. In Shasta National Forest on 
Mount Shasta at 7,000 to 8,000 feet, on warmest ridges up to 9,800 feet. Mount Eddy 
and Thompson Peak Ridge (between Canyon Creek and Salmon River, Trinity County) 
Mountain north of Mount Shasta and immediately east of Shasta Valley, aud on Goose- 
nest Mountain at 8.800 feet. West slope of Warner Mountains (northeastern corner of 
State) at 9,000 to 10,000 feet. In northern Sierras, on Lassen, Spanish, and Castle 
peaks, also Mount Pleasant and other high summits at head of North and Middle forks 
of Feather River, and elsewhere up to 7,800 feet. High peaks west of Lake Tahoe 
(Eldorado County). In Stanislaus National Forest, generally between 8,000 to 9,500 
feet. Tuolutnne Counly: Sonora I'ass and above (altitude 9,000 feet) and down on west 
side to 8,500 feet ; Mono Pass, down on east slope to 9,400 feet, and on west slope "to 
little below 10.000 fe^, thence above pass to about 11.500 feet. Trees in pass bear 
limbs only on east side (effect of prevailing wind). White Mountain and Mount Con- 
ness ; foot of glacier at north base of Conness Peak. Tuolumne Meadows region, above 
10,000 feet ; jipper Tuolumne River Canyon below Tuolumne Meadows ; Mount Lyell, 
north side at 10,500 feet and thence northward on west wall of Lyell Fork Canyon ; 
Mounts Dana and Gibbs on west slope down to Tioga and Saddleback lakes : Cathedral 
and Unicorn lakes and peaks (soutli of Tuoluulne Meadows). Mariposa Conniy: Sunrise 
Ridge, between Cathedral Lakes and Little Y'osemite. Mono County: From summit Mono 
Pass eastward down Bloody Canyon to about 9,400 feet ; DeviTs Cauldron (east of 
Sierras and about 10 miles south of Farrington"s .Ranch). In Sierra National Forest 
generally between 10,000 to 12,000 feet ; and southward to head of Little Kern River 
(latitude 36° 20'). Mount Whitney, up to 11,000 feet; Kearsarge Pass, to 12,000 feet; 
heads of North Fork of Kings River : rims of Granite Creek and on Middle Fork of 
Kings River between Dougherty and Simpson Meadows ; abundant on heads of North 
Fork Kings and South Fork San Joaquin rivers at 11.000 to 11.500 feet; divide between 
Silver and Mono creeks, and from head of Silver Creek to South Fork San Joaquin, 
Mount Kaweah. Tpper Bubbs Creek (tributary South Fork Kings River) ; about Bull 
Frog and East lakes. 

Detailed I'ange in Rockies will be given in a later bulletin. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Confined to narrow altitudinal limits on alpine slopes and exposed ridges to timber- 
line throughout its range. Gi'ows among broken, bare rocks, in disintegrated granite, 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 33 

and in shallow rocky soils with little superrtcial moisture ; best in deep, well-drained, 
moist soil. 

At north, sometimes in pure, open stands on snissy areas, but usually in open, park- 
like stands, preferably on north slopes with alpine fir, Englemann spruce, Lyall larch, 
limber pine, and lodgepole pine. On summits of Cascades, commonly pure at timberline, 
and often in clusters of from .". to 7 trees, as if growing from same root. In southern 
Washington, with alpine fir, black hemlock, and yellow cedar; in Oregon, with black 
hemlock, alpine, lowland, and noble firs, lodgepole and western white pines, and Engle- 
mann spruce. In the Sierras, forming pure groups at timberline, on east, south, and 
west slopes, with patches of black hemlock and western white pine, and at lower 
altitudes with logepole pine. 

CLiM.4Tir CoxDiTioxs.— Endures great seasonal and daily ranges of temperature, the 
former probably lying between —60= and 100° F. or more. Very heavy snowfall, exposure 
to fierce winds, and a short growing season are characteristic of its habitat. Its 
moisture reiiuirements are modcrati'. 

ToLBKANCK. — Somewhat intoleraut in youth, becoming less so with age. Rather 
intolerant in north, as compared with the .south, where it shows a preference for north 
slopes. Believed to be more tolerant on good moist soils and at low altitudes, than- on 
poor, dry ones near timberline. 

Reproduction.— Generally a good seeder, but varies greatly with region and locality. 
In north, seeds at long intervals, in south, frequently. Large quantities of seed 
destroyed by birds and squirrels, and reproduction therefore scanty. Seeds wingless, 
and reproduction confined mainly to vicinity of seed trees. Unprotected by mother trees, 
seedlings are often damaged by winds, which whip the stems about so that they are often 
worn In two by rubbing against rough granite soil. 

Four-leaf Pine; Parry Pine. 

Pintts quadrifoHa (Pari.) Siulworth. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

This little-known nut pine is a much-liranchert, short-tmnked, low tree, from 
15 to :{() feet high and 10 to IG inches in diameter. In old trees the trunk is 
often twisted and gnarled, with a wide crown of big, crooked branches ; young 
trees are short-bodied, with dense symmetrical crowns. Bark of old trunks is 
reddish brown, shallowly furrowed, rough, and with wide ridges, which have 
close scales. The foliage is blue-green, with a whitish tinge. The leaves occur, 
as a rule, in bundles of 4, but clusters of 3, and sometimes of 5, are also found 
on the same tree; they are incurved, and from about IJ to nearly 2 inches long 
(fig. S). The cones (fig. S) ripen in August of the second year and the seeds 
are often shed before the middle of September. Seeds fall from the cones, 
leaving their narrow, thin wings attached to the cone scales (fig. S, a). They 
are chocolate brown with yellow-brown blotches. Indians gather the seeds for 
food. Seed-leaves, 6 to 8. Wood, light yellowish brown, moderately light, very 
dense, and close grained ; not of commercial use. 

Longevity. — Trees reach an age of 200 to 280 years; those 10 to 12 inches 
in diameter are 130 to 150 years old. Few records of longevity are available. 

RANGE. 

Southern California and southward into Lower California. Arid mesas and low moun- 
tains southward from southeastern part of San Jacinto Mountains (.30 miles north of 
Mexican boundary). 

Calii-oknia. — Occurs sparingly at 5,000 feet on Toro Mountain (in Santa Rosa Moun- 
tains, Riverside County), in Coyote Canyon, at a point a few miles to west and near 
Van de Venter Flat, and a single tree stands on Nigger .Tim Hill between Ilemet and 
Coahuilla ; 10 to 12 miles farther south it occurs on Balkan Mountains (above .Tulian), 
at head of San Diego River; also vicinity of Larkin Station (near Mexican line). 



34 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



Lower Califoenia. — Near Mexican line ('20 miles southeast of Campo, San Diego 
County, Cal.), and from point a few miles south of boundary it forms forest about 30 
miles wide, extending over plateau (at middle elevations) ; on Hanson Laguna Range, 
and southward on San Pedro Martir Range to south end : generally at 4,500 to 6.000 
feet elevation above single-leaf piiion pine and below Jeffrey pine, completely covering 




Piiius quadrifoUa: a, cone; 5, seeds. 



lower parts of range, but in higher parts forming belts on both ocean and desert sides. 
Locally noted at San Matias Spring, 4.000 feet elevation ; mesas near Mattoni ; Rosarito 
Divide at 5,000 feet ; El Alamo, at 3.500 feet. 

OCCrRRENCE. 



On arid mesas, foothills, and east, west, and south slopes. Xot exacting as to moisture 
and quality of soil. Commonly on well drained, coarse, dry, shallow soils of decomposed 
granite or limestone. 



FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 35 

Never forms dense pure stands. Most abundant in chaparral on east slopes with single- 
leaf pifion, oaks, and juniper, and in thinner stands on west and south slopes In dense 
chaparral. Number of trees varies per acre from ."> to alx>ut lOU. In Lower California, 
in open forests, often with single-leaf piuou pine. Throughout its range, heaviest growth 
is at higher altitudes than that of piiion. 

Cli.matic C0NDIT10X.S. — Best growth requires moister climate, without such extremes 
of temperature as are endured by single-leaf pinon. Seasonal temperature of its range 
between 15° and 100° F. Rainfall averages between 15 and 25 inches throughout its 
distribution. 

ToLEUAXCE. — Little known of light requirements, but its growth in dense chaparral 
indicates tolerance of shade during early youth. 

Repuoductiox. — Moderate seeder : cones often locally produced about every year. 
Wingless seeds, shed near tree, are largely eaten by birds and squirrels and gathered 
by Indians for food. Exposed soil with little humus most favorable seed-bed. Germina- 
tion moderate. 

Single-leaf Pine. 
Pitius vioiioplryUu Torrey and Fremont. 

DISTINGUISHIXG CHARACTERISTICS. 

Unique among all American species in having single leaves, as indicated by 
its scientific name. Generally linown as " nut " or " pinon " pine, i)Ut it is 
highly desirable that the distinctive marlc of this tree sliould l)e fixed by adopt- 
ing " single-leaf pine " as its common name. Mature trees have short trunks, 
rarely straight, and wide, rather flat crowns of short, heavy, twisted, and bent 
branches, which are given off near the ground and often hang low, giving the 
appearance of an old apple tree. Young trees, with their low, thick trunks, sur- 
mounted by pyramidal crowns of rather straight, rising branches, have a very 
different aspect. As a rule, the single-leaf pine does not exceed 2.T feet in height 
and from 12 to lo inches in diameter. In protected and otherwise favorable 
situations it may reach a height of from :J5 to 50 feet, but it is characteristically 
a low, sprawling tree. Bark of young trunks is smooth and dull gray, 
while that of old trunks is roughly and irregularly furrowed, nearly an inch 
thick, and with thin, close, dark brown, sometimes reddish brown, scales. The 
general color of the foliage is pale yellow-green with a whitish tinge. The 
single (or very occasionally double) leaves are stiff, curved toward the branch, 
prickly, and from about IJ to 2^ inches long — generally about I5 inches long 
(fig. 9). A season's growth of leaves remains on the tree al)out five years; not 
rarely leaves persist ten to twelve years. A striking peculiarity of seedling 
trees is that they continue to produce only primary leaves for six or seven 
years, after which they put forth normal foliage. Cones (fig. 9) are matured 
in August of the second season ; they shed their seeds, which leave their thin, 
narrow wings attached to the cone scales, within about a month afterward, 
when the tips of the scales become shiny and a deep russet-ln-own. Most of 
the empty cones fall from the trees during the winter or spring. The seeds 
(tig. 9, c), are dark chocolate brown, with dull yellowish areas; extensively 
gathered by Indians for food. Seed leaves, 7 to 10. Wood, yellowish I)rown, 
very fine-grained, moderately light, and very brittle. 

Longevity. — An exceedingly slow-growing tree, reaching an age of from 100 to 
225 years. Further records of longevity are required. 

BANGE. 

Desert regions of Utah, Nevada, Arizona, southeastern California, and northern Lower 
California. 

Califorxia. — In southern Sierras, on east slopes at about 0,000 to S.OOO feet from 
Loyalton, Sierra County (extreme northern limit probably still undetermined) and 
MarkleeviUe Creek (east side of Sierras) southward to vicinity of Walker Pass, where 



36 



FOREST TBEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



it descends to 4.300 feet; while ,it Cottonwood Creeli (tributary west side Owens Lake) 
it occurs at 7,500 to 9.500 feet. On west slopes of Sierras, limited to following places 
near divide : Loyalton ; north slopes of Kings River, at 5.500 feet ; Middle Fork of Kings 
River at Tehipiti Valley and above Simpsons Meadow ; at head of South Fork of Kings 
River in main canyon, and on Bubbs and Copper creeks ; Kern River from mouth of 
Jordan Creek (extending upstream) to Rock Creek, at about 8,400 to 0,000 feet; South 




Fig. 9. — Pimis monophyUa: a, open cone; I, cone scale and seed; c, seed. 



Fork of Kern River, south of Monache Valley, occurs over whole basin to below Walker 
Pass and to mouth of Cottonwood Creek ; also on Erskine Creek (branch of Kern River 
near junction with its South Fork) ; west slope of I'iute Mountains; east slope of Green- 
horn Mountains. Mono Comity: (East side of Sierras) most of hills in north part from 
Nevada boundary on both sides of Antelope Valley southward ; West Walker River from. 



FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 37 

Antelope Valley southward ; West Walker River region eastward to within 8 miles of 
Bridgeport; westward on river into mountains to Leavitt Meadow (7,150 feet); east, 
side of Bridgeport Valley to west end of Mono Lake ; Mono Basin and lower slopes west 
of lake up slope on entrance to Bloody Canyon, also on east and southeast sides of 
lake; south of Mammoth region on hills about Long Valley and between Long and Round 
valleys. Inyo County: Hills at head of Round Valley; east slopes and summit of hills 
north of Bishop, and opposite bottom slope of White Mountains (near Benton), here down 
to upper edge of valley (about 5.500 feet altitude) ; northeast of Benton over plateau at 
about 7,000 feet (between California and Nevada) ; south of Bishop higher on White 
Mountains, forming belt on middle slope, and rising until lower limit on an east slope is 
6,700 feet ; west side Owens Valley forms a belt between 6,000 and 8,000 feet ; I'anamint 
Range west of iJeath Valley, common in juniper belt on summit, and ranging (in Ijasin 
above Wild Rose Spring) on northwest slope of Telescope I'eak, between about 6,400 and 
9,000 feet. On I'rovidence Mountains (west Colorado River) above 5,000 feet. On 
southern Cross ranges at Tehachapi I'ass (Tehachapi Mountains) down to 3,700 feet; 
en I'iute Mountains; near head of Caliente Creek above 4,000 feet; north part of Teha- 
chapi I'ass (Mohave Desert side Tehachapi Basin) at 3,700 feet; lower slopes of Teha-- 
cbapi Mountain, Antelope Canyon. Tejon Mountains (between Castac Lake and Cuddys 
I'eak) in Cudahay Canyon ; at Tejon Canyon and on hills near Fort Tejon, at 4,000 to 
6,000 feet. Occurs also on east base of Mount I'inos, in San Emigdio and Frazier moun- 
tains at 2,600 to 7,000 feet, and on San Rafael Mountains, above 3,000 feet. Not on 
southern mountains of Sierra Madre, but on Mount Islip and other north slopes westward 
to Big Rock Creek ; one tree known on Mount Lowe and another near mouth of Santa 
Ana Canyon. In San Bernardino Mountains, abundant on nortli slopes, in northeastern 
part, at 4,000 to 5.000 — sf)metimes up to 7,000 feet, and extending westward to Mohave 
River. From San .Tacinto Mountains to Santa Rosa Mountains it occurs on desert slopes 
above 4,200 feet, extending eastward to El Toro Mountain and I'alm Springs on Colorado 
Desert, here growing at an elevation as low as 2,000 feet. Summits of Coast Range near 
Mexican boundary and Jacumba Spring (23 miles east of Campo) at 3,000 feet. 

LdWEK Caltfoknia. — On east slopes (below 4, .500 feet) from central table-lands to 
plains of- Colorado Desert and several miles south of Mexican boundary. 

The detailed range of this pine east of the Pacific region will be dealt with in 
a future publication. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Arid low mountain slopes, canyon sides, foothills, and mesas. 

Requirements of soil moisture and quality of soil similar to those of associates, juni- 
pers and chaparral, and are less than those of other conifers in its range. Commonly in 
coarse, gravelly soils, shallow deposits overlying granite, limestone, or shale, often in 
crevices of rocks. 

Usually with otlier species, but frequently in pure, open stands over large areas. 
Sparingly in chaparral ; commonly with mountain mahogany, California juniper, oaks, tree 
yuccas, or occasionally with straggling white fir and Jeffrey pine. Largest growth and 
pure stands mainly at lower elevations. 

Climatic Condition.s. — Endures very great aridity, characterized by high tempera- 
ture, rapid evaporation, light precipitation, and little humidity. Rainfall varies from 
about 10 inches in North to less than 5 inches in South. Snowfall, 4 feet in Sierras, 
but absent or very slight over much of tree's range. Temperature ranges from —2° F. in 
Sierras to 122° F. in Mohave Desert. In desert mountains of southeastern California 
and Nevada it endures combined moisture and heat from February to May, extreme 
drought from .June to November, and extreme cold from December to January. 

ToLKUAXCE. — Very intolerant throughout life ; but seedlings appear to grow faster if 
protected for several years from hot winds. 

Repuoductiox. — Bears seed aljundantly about every year. Wingless seeds fall near 
tree. Largely eaten by birds and squirrels and collected by Indians and whites for food. 
Exposed soil best seed bed. Reproduction usually very open or scattered — never dense. 

Bristle-cone Pine. 

Pintis aristata Engelmann. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Bristle-cone pine, an alpine species, and only a straggler in the Pacific country. 
Is known in the field as "fox-tail pine" and "hickory pine," but since these 



88 



rOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



names are applied also to other species it is hoped that the more appropriate 
name, "bristle-cone pine," may replace them. The trunk is usually short, 








/a 




Fig. 10. — Pinus aristata: a, seed, 
from 15 to 30 feet high and from 12 to 18 inches in diameter, with a rather 
wide, bushy crown of long, irregularly upright top limbs, and shorter, drooping 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 39 

lower ones. Somewliiit hirj^er occasionally. The bark of old trunks is a dull 
reddish brown and is rather shallowly furrowed, the main flat ridses irregu- 
hirly connected by narrower slanting divisions, whereas the limbs, as well as 
the trunks of small trees, are smooth and chalky-white. The deep green foliage 
is densely clustered at the ends of the twigs, the needles seeming to be pressed 
down ; in this respect closely resembling the true fox-tail phie. Five leaves, 
about Ij to IJ inches long, are borne in a cluster (fig. 10). Leaves of each 
season's growth persist approximately twelve to fourteen years. Ripe cones, 
matured at the end of the second season. ai*e from 2i to about 3A inches long, 
deep chocolate brown with a piu'plish tinge, the end of each cone scale tipped 
with a bristle-like, very fragile prickle (fig. 10) : unexposed parts of the scales, 
clear reddish brown. Seeds (fig. 10, a), pale brown with irregular black spots, 
are shed from about the last of September to the middle of October. Seed leaves, 
6 to 7. Wood, pale brownish red, light, usually rather coarse-grained, soft, and 
very brittle. On account of the poor form of the tree the wood is of no economic 
use ; sometimes employed for minor local purposes in the region of greatest 
abundance. 

Longevity. — Little is known of the ages attained. Trees from 10 to 20 inches 
in diameter are from 200 to 250 years old. 

RANGE. 

On high peaks from Colorado to soutliern T'tah, central and southern Nevada, south- 
eastern California, and northern Arizona. 

Califohnia. — Known only on the Panamint Range at 7.800 to 10,800 feet, and also 
on the adjacent White and Inyo Mountains. Reported to be on the high Sierras east 
of Yosemite Park and on Mount I'inos in Ventura County, but these stations require 
further investigation. 

Range in Rocky Mountains will be described in a future bulletin. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Ridges, rocky ledges, and (mainly) south slopes, here often predominating. On thin, 
rocky soils ; often on volcanic soils of cinder cones. Usually In isolated situations 
where snow melts early and evaporation is rapid, so that the tree is sul)jected to more 
or less prolonged dryness of soil during summer. Rarely forms pure forest, l)ut usually 
is found in scattering stand with grassy ground cover and little or no underbrush. At 
lower altitudes, with limber and yellow pines, white fir ; higher up, in thickest part of 
its belt, associated only with limber pine. 

Climatic Conditions. — Seasonal range of temperature endured from al)Out —50° to 
05° F. Radiation rapid and daily range of temperature great. .Vnnual precipitation 
from 20 to .SO inches, and very largely snow. Rainfall Irregularly distributed ; dryest 
months, July and -Vugust. Atmosphere dry. 

ToLKRANCE. — Apparently intolerant of shade, never forming dense stands. 

RispRODUCTiON. — Trees bear com-s when about 20 years old, and seed is produced prac- 
tically every year thereafter. There appear to be regular seed years in which seed 
crop js heavier than usual. Seeding takes place to a distance of at least 600 feet from 
mother trees. Seeds eaten by rodents and quickly killed by flre. Best seed-bed is 
exposed mineral soil, but seedlings often grow in grass and litter; they thrive best on 
sUpes with little underbrush. 

Foxtail Pine. 

PinK.s halfoiiriuna Murray. 
DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 
Distinguished from its associates by a narrow, bushy crown of irregularly 
long upper branches, the smooth bark of which is chalky-white. The deeply 
fissured, bright cinnamon-brown bark of mature trunks (with squarish plates) 
is also very characteristic. Height, from .''>.t to occasionally 00 feet, and diam- 
eter, from 10 to 30 inches. Trunks are clothed with short branches, below the 
long upper ones, for one-half or two-thirds of their length ; fairly straight, but 
rough with knots and the swelled bases of branches, and usually tapering 
rapidly in the upper half. The foliage, which is a bright blue-green, covers the 



40 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



ends of the branches very densely for 10 to 20 inches; this close, tail-like 
arrangement of the leaves suggested the common name of the tree. The leaves, 
5 in a bundle (fig. 11), are curved and closely pressed to the branch. Some 
of the year's growth of leaves fall during the eighth or ninth year, but most 
of them persist until the tenth or twelfth year. The cones (fig. 11) are 
matured by the middle or end of August of the second year, when they are a 




Fig 



Pinus balfouriana: a, seeds. 



deep purple. They shed their seeds (flg. 11, a) in September, at which time the 
tips of the scales are a dark red-brown or russet-brown. Cones fall from the 
trees during late autumn or in winter. The seeds are blotched and speckled 
with dull purple. Seed leaves, regularly 5. Wood, soft, light, yellow-brown, 
very close-grained and brittle ; suitable for second-class lumber, but rarely used. 




Ch 



1518S— O: 




Fig. 12. — Piiuii tiimyana: a, leaf. Note 
1518S— O.S. (To face iiase 40.) 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 41 

Longevity, — Mature trees reach an age of from 175 to 310 years. Age 
limits imperfectly known. Trees from 18 to 21 inches in diameter are from 
320 to 355 years old. 

RANGE. 

Confined to California at liigh elevations on the liead of the Sacramento River, of 
northern Coast Ranffe, and of the southern Sierras. On Scott Mountains, Siskiyou 
County, at 5,000 to tJ.OOO feet. Mount Eddy, and Yola Bull (Tehama County). In south- 
ern Sierras on both sides of divide between head of South Fork of San Joaquin River and 
that of North Fork cf Kings River (in T. 8 S., R. 28 E.. T. 9 S., R. 20 E). Southward it 
appears on west side of main divide at Kearsajje Pass at the head of South Fork of 
Kings River, where it ascends to 12,000 feet, continuing southward to within a few miles 
south of Monacho I'eak. On Mount Silliman, ascending to 10,.")00 feet, on Tliarpe I'eak 
at 9,000 to 10,000 feet, at 10,fM»0 feet on Kaweah peaks, and at 0,000 to 11,000 feet on 
all divides which define head basins of Middle and East forks of Kaweah, Kern, Little 
Kern, Middle Tule, and South Fork of Kern rivers. On upper Kern River it occurs be- 
tween 10..J00 and 11, .500 feet, on Little Kern at elevations above 9,000 feet, on Middle 
Fork of Kaweah River at 10,000 to 10,.")00 feet. It reaches to the east slopes of the 
main Sierra divide only at the head of Cottonwood Creek, where it occurs at 9,000 to 
11,500 feet. 

OCCURKENCE. 

Bare, high, i-ocky slopes and summits of ridges at timber line. Chiefly on broken and 
disintegrated granite, which is often very coarse, shallow, and quick-drying and subject 
to great variation in temperature. With lodgepole pine, California red fir, and black 
hemlock in lower part of range ; at higher levels with western white pine ; toward its 
upper limit often in open stands with white-bark pine or in pure stands which are some- 
times of considerable extent ; at timljer line, usually the only species. 

Climatic Conditions. — Endures great seasonal and daily ranges of temperature, short 
growing season, h(>avy snowfall, moderate spring rainfall, and extreme drought in sum- 
mer. Re(iuires but little moisture. 

ToLEUAME. — Little tolerant of shade at any stage of growth; does not form dense 
stands ; similar in this respect to limber, white-bark, and bristle-cone pines. 

Rei'rodlttion. — Moderate seeder. 5ome cones locally produced nearly every year, 
with especially heavy seed years. Seed widely disseminated by wind and flood waters, 
but eaten in large numbers by birds and rodents. Best germination in exposed mineral 
soil. Reproduction never dense. 

Torrey Pine; Soledad Pine. 
Piiius torrcyana Parry. 

DISTINOUlSHIXt; CHARACTERISTICS. 

The Torrey pine is little known, except in its very confined seacoast range. 
Exposed to liigli winds it is a low, crooked, bent, or sprawling tree from 25 to 
35 feet in height and from 8 to 14 inches in diameter. Away from sea winds 
it has a straight trunk and a height of 50 or 60 feet. The crown is small, 
rounded, and often composed of only few large, greatly developed branches. 
The trunk bark, about an inch thick, is roughly and deeply broken into ridges 
with wide, flat, p.ile reddish-brown scales. The bark of branches and of young 
trees Is thick, sjujugy, and dull gray. The foliage is clustered in large bunches 
at the extremities of the stout branches, and has a dark gray-green color. 
The heavy leaves (fig. 12, a). 5 in a bundle, vary from TA to al)out 13 inches 
in length. Little is known of the duration of the leaves, but they are retaineil 
for at least 3 or 4 years, llie cones (fig. 12) are ripe early in August of the 
third season. By the middle of September some of the seeds (fig. 12) are 
shed; a number are held in the cone for several years after the cones fall. 
The ends of the cone scales are a deep russet or chocolate l)r<)wn. Cones are 
.strongly attached to the branches l)y thick stems and usually remain on the 
tree for 4 or 5 years ; they break away at their base, a part of which is left 



42 FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

attached to the tree. Seeds dark brown with areas of yellov-brown. An 
unusually large number of seed leaves are developed by seedlings, from 12 to 
14 being the usual number. Wood, pale reddish-brown, soft, very brittle, and 
wide-grained. This tree is of such rare and limited occurrence that the wood is 
of no commercial importance. 

Longevity. — Little is known of the longevity of this pine, which is rarely 
cut. Trees from 10 to 12 inches in diameter are from 75 to 80 years old. 
It appears to be a comparatively short-lived pine ; its ordinary age is probably 
from 100 to 150, and not more than 200 years. 

RANGE. 

Confined to a limited area in San Diego County and to Santa Rosa Island, southern 
California. On the mainland it occurs in a strip about 1 mile wide on both sides of 
the mouth of Soledad River, from a point on the north 3 miles north of Del Mar, a 
mile and a half from the Pacific coast, to a point 5 miles south of Point Pinos. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Highlands adjacent to sea and on sides of deep ravines and washes leading to coast. 
On mainland growing in a disintegrating yellowish sand rock. On Santa Rosa Island, 
in a soil of mingled earth and loose rock, or sometimes in rather thick soil over un- 
broken rock. Largest trees on sheltered sides of hills and spurs of canyons protected 
from sea winds ; sprawling and distorted in exposed situations. Much scattered and 
with little or no other growth except thin chaparral. 

Climatic Coxditions. — The temperature of its range varies annually between 2.'>° and 
95° F. About 15 inches of rain falls during the year. The air is humid and a large 
proportion of the days are cloudy or foggy. 

Tolerance. — Apparently demanding full light, as shown by scanty foliage and growth 
in very open, scattering stands. Little is known of its silvical characteristics. 

REPRODncTiox. — Prolific, annual seeder, bearing well when from 12 to 18 years old. 
Seeds discharged mostly during third year, the cones with remaining seeds falling about 
the fourth year. Germination takes place in crevices and washed mineral soil. Seed- 
lings are rather numerous in vicinity of trees, both on mainland and on Santa Rosa 
Island. 

TELLOW PINES. 

Western Yellow Pine. 

Pin us i)onderosa Lawson. 

DISTIXGLISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

This is a massive, straight-trunked tree with a long, narrow, open crown of 
hugely developed bent branches. The narrow columnar crown, with scattered 
branches, upturned at their ends, is characteristic. Often one or two large 
lower branches are separated from the crown by 20 or more feet of clear 
trunk. Trees grown in an open stand bear branches close to the ground, retain- 
ing this long low crown throughout life. The trunk is smoothly cylindrical, 
with little taper until the large crown branches are reached. Height, from 125 
to 140 feet, with a practically clear trunk of from 40 to 60 feet ; diameter, from 
3 to 4 feet. Its majestic size is surpassed among its kind only by the sugar 
pine. Unusually large trees are from 150 to 180 feet high, while trees are said 
to have been found over 200 feet high. The largest diameter recorded is about 
8 feet. The bark of old trunks is marked by very' broad, shield-like, russet-red 
plates, which may be from 3 to 4 inches thick, especially near the base of the 
tree. The surface of this bark is peculiar in being made up of small, concave 
scales. Younger trees, up to 2 feet in diameter, are quite unlike older ones in 
having dark red-brown or blackish, narrowly furrowed bark. Young shoots, 
which have a strong odor of orange wheia broken, ai'e yellowish green and 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



43 



later brownish. The foliage, borne in heavy brush-lilie clusters at the ends of 
bare branches, is deep yellow-green. The leaves (fig. 13, a) occur 3 in a 
bundle (rarely 4 and 5, chiefly on young saplings). They vary from about 4J 










Fig. 13. — Pwius pondeiosa : a, leaf; b, seed. 

to Hi inches. Each season's growth of leaves remains on the tree about three 
years. The cones (fig. 13) mature early in August of the second season and 
are variable also in size and color. The cones of some trees are bright grass- 
green when mature, while those of other trees are dark purple; there is no 



44 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

other essential difference between trees bearing cones so dissimilar in color. 
The cones are from 2J to about 5| inches long and from 1* to about 2 inches 
thicii. The ends of the cone scales, after shedding their seed (mainly in 
September), are russet-brown and shiny. After this the cones begin falling, 
and by early winter they are all down. A characteristic of the cone in break- 
ing away from the branch is that some of the basal scales are left on the tree. 
The Seeds (fig. 1.3, b) are marked with purple spots and blotches on a dull 
yellowish groimd ; the wings are light purple-brown. Seed leaves, 5 to 9. 
Wood, very variable in color, from a pale lemon yellow to an orange bro^\^\ or 
reddish yellow. Wood, usually rather light, fine-grained, and sometimes so 
light and so slightly resinous as to be sold as lumber for " white pine ; " of high 
commercial value. 

Longevity. — A long-lived tree, attaining an age of from 3.50 to 500 years. 

RANGE. 

From southern British Columbia to Lower Califoi-nia and northern Mexico, Including 
Its Rocky Mountain form (P. pondcrosa scopuloriim), occurring in every State west of 
the Great Plains and one hundredth meridian. 

British Colump.ia. — East of Eraser River and south of " Chasm," near CUnton and 
Great Shuswap Lake (latitude 51° 30') to Gold and Selkirk ranges; in Columbia- 
Kootenai Valley to head of Upper Columbia Lake, to head of Lower Arrow Lake, and 
along Kootenai Lake to Canadian line. 

Washington. — East of Cascades, between 1,800 to 3,300 feet — sometimes up to 6,000 
feet, and nearly to sea level on Columbia River in Cascades. West of Cascades, limited 
to following localities : Dry slopes 2,000 to 5,000 feet above Lightning Creek in Upper 
Skagit River basin, and gravelly prairies near Roy and Hillhurst (Pierce County), south 
of Tacoma. East of Cascades (Washington National Forest), at 1,500 to 3,000 feet 
reaching 1,100 feet on Lake Chelan and 6.000 feet at head of Poison Creek and Chelan 
Range; southern part of Forest, watersheds of Entiat, Wenache, and Yakima rivers at 
200 to 5,500 feet. Rainier National Forest, at 400 to 6,200 feet. Colville National Forest 
(northeastiTU part of State), below 4.000 feet; noted in valleys of Trout Creek, West 
Fork of Sans Poll River, and on Kettle River. Blue Mountains (Wenaha National For- 
est.), at 1,500 to 4,000 feet. Limits on west and north sides of Columbia and Snake 
rivers as follows: At southwest, to Bickleton and Cleveland (Klickitat County), and 
upper west slopes Yakima River north and northeast to Ellensburg (Kittatas County) ; 
sometimes reappearing on latter river along Northern Pacific Railroad, along both sides 
of Columbia River — Yakima River Divide, below 5,000 feet, sometimes down to Columbia 
River bottom, southward at least to Priest Rapids. Chelan. Okanogan and Ferry coun- 
ties, nearly to Columbia River and often on opposite slopes. Lincoln and Spokane 
counties, to south slopes of Spokane River and west and south borders Spokane County. 
Whitman County, only near Colfax and in tongue northeastward into Idaho. 

Oregon'. — Cascades, Klamath River Basin, and Blue Mountains, generally at from sea 
level to 5,850 feet. East side of Cascades, low foothills up to 5.000 feet at north, and 
at 4,000 to 7,000 at south. Eastward along Columbia River from Bonneville (west limit) 
to The Dalles, into Deschutes River Valley west of river, to point 5 miles west of Wapi- 
nitia, down to 2,300 feet near Simnasho, 10 miles west of the river at Warm Springs 
Indian Agency, Metolius Canyon, west l)order Fly Creek Desert, upper Squaw Creek, 
east side Deschutes River (few miles north of Farewell Bend), Pine Mountain (half 
way between Pauline Lake and Bear Buttes), 3 miles below Farewell Bend (road to 
Prineville), Pauline Creek, East Fork Deschutes, Sinks Creek, and Klamath Marsh. 
West side Cascades, south only of latitude 44° 25', extending southward into Siskiyous 
and on east slopes of Coast Range, at 1,300 to 6,000 feet elevation, Klamath Gap and 
gaps south of Lake of Woods, valley between main Cascades and mountains west of 
Aspen Lake, eastern base of Cascades, and eastward throughout Upper Klamath Basin 
to Warner and Kokeep mountains (east of Warner Lake). In Warner Mountains, east 
and northeast of Goose Lake to mountains and east of Lakeview in gap between north 
and south masses of Warner Range ; not on west side lower slopes of Warner Mountains, 
but in canyons and from Sugar Loaf Mountain southward for several miles ; descends on 
east base of Warner Range to about 5,600 feet. Kokeep Mountains, in few canyons and 
elsewhere on cooler slopes ; De Garmo Canyon, from 5,500 feet upward ; east side of 
Kokeep Range, at site of old Camp Warner (Warner or Guano Creek) at 5,800 feet 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 45 

elevation. In Blue Mountains (low hills west of Canyon City), including Grande Uonde 
Basin, at from 1,500 to 4,000 feet 

California. — Northern part and southward in coast ranges and Sierras to southern 
cross ranges. Throughout northern California from a little above sea level to 7,000 feet 
but not in immediate valleys of Upper Pitt, Shasta, Scott, and Iloopa rivers, southern 
part of Modoc lava beds, highest peaks of Salmon, Trinity, Scott, and Siskiyou mountains. 
Eastward to northern part of Modoc National Forest, Shafer, and Warm-r mountains, on 
latter at from 7,000 feet eastward into Surprise valley to 4,800 feet ; absent from 
Madeline I'lains and desert ranges of northern Nevada. Westward to Pacific coast fog 
belt, ranging over lower slopes of Scott Mountains, east and west arms of Salmon 
Mountains, valleys of Uussian Creek and Smith River, in which it goes nearly to sea 
level, and southward in Modoc County to Glass Mountain (at 4,.")00 to 6,700 feet), 
Happy Valley, and 10 miles north of Lookout. Shasta and Modoc counties to ridge 
between Fall Uivor and Big valleys. Hot Creek, Lassen Peak, and nearly to Ilaydenhill ; 
also about Eagle Lake, Susanville, and west side of Henry Lake. North and South 
Forks of Salmon River, Trinity and Klamath rivers, reaching its western limits on 
mountains between Hoopa Valley and Redwood Creek, valley of T'pper Mad River and 
Van Dusen ("reek, and those near Sherwood (Mendocino County) ; near Cahto and 
Russian Valley from Willits southward. Eastward to Shasta (town) at from 1,.")00 to 
.'),000 feet, and in Mount Shasta National Forest at 2,000 to 6,000 feet. Southward in 
McCloud, Pitt, and Sacramento valleys to Keswick (Shasta County), south of which it 
descends Coast Range eastward only to 2, .300 feet altitude (west of Redding) ; farther 
south to point miles west of Beegum, and in Tehama County to .3.000 feet (west of 
Paskenla). Lassen I'eak, Diamond Mountain, and Plumas National Forests, on ridges 
and flats generally at 2,000 to 6.000 feet. Northern Sierras, at 1.000 to 7,000 feet, and 
in Sacramento Valley above l..j00 feet. Absent from Sierra Valley. Westward on east 
side of Sacramento Valley (Tehama County) to point 2 miles west of Payne (1.700 feet) 
and 1 mile west of Lena; Butte County to 1 mile west of Paradise (1,700 feet), ridges, 
west of Yankee Hill, and Bidwell Bar (1,300 feet) ; Yuba County to upper Dry Creek and 
neighboring hills, Laflferty Peak (l,l.oO feet), Stanfield Hill (880 feet), Flannery Peak, 
and mountains east of Willow Glenn Creek, hills between Oregon House and Dobbins 
Creek, and Oregon Hills ; Nevada County to west of Nevada City, Grass Valley, Wolf Creek, 
Bear River, and Colfax ; Placer County to Weimer, Applegate, Clipper Gap, and first one 
above Auburn (1,500 feet) on Southern Pacific Railroad. Eastern limits: Plumas 
County, to Indian and Genesee valleys, Quincy, Beckwith, and mountains on east border 
of Sierra Valley ; Si(>rra County, east on west slopes Sierras to Bassett Road House 
(5,200 feet), on east slope from 5,800 (east of Y'uba Pass) eastward into Nevada to east 
front of Sierras and Mount Rose above Reno, at 6,000 feet and over. Placer County: 
Eastward on west slope of Sierras to Blue Canyon and Emigrant Gap at 5,200 feet, 
Cisco at 5,900 feet, and beyond Forks House (5,500 feet). East side of main Sierra 
divide, north of Webber Peak, and south of it at Donner Pass; also on heads »f Miller 
and McKinney creeks, but not about Beckwith Pass. General on west slope of southern 
Sierras and in Stanislaus National Forest, at 2,000 to 6,000 feet, but in Lake Tahoe 
National Forest at 3.000 to 6,000 feet. Eldorado County: Westv^'ard to Coloma (1,000 
feet). Shingle Springs (1,500 feet), 1 mile east of Nashville (1,500 feet) and Oleta 
(1.800 feet I ; eastward on west slope Sierras to Echo (5,500 feet). Amador County: 
Westward to P.ig Indian Creek (between Nashville and I'lymouth), 4 miles east of 
Plymouth, Rancheria Creek at 1,200 feet (between Amador and Oleta), upper Sutter 
Creek, and IJ miles east of Jackson at 1,400 feet. Calaveras County: Westward to 4 
miles east of Mokelumne Hill at 1,500 feet, 3 miles east of San Andreas and on Mount 
San .loaquin and Bear Mountains; eastward on west slope Sierras to 10 miles below 
Bloods at 6.600 feet. Tuolumne County: Westward to Robinsons Ferry (Stanislaus 
River), gulch between Sonora and .Tamestown. Saulsbyville (or Soulsbyville?) Tuolumne, 
1 mile west of Big Oak Flat, Penon Blanco Ridge (5 miles northwest of Coulterville) ; 
east on west slopes of Sierras to Middle Fork Stanislaus River between Cold Spring and 
Eureka Valley at G.OOO feet. Aspen Meadow at 6.200 feet, and Iletch Iletchy Valley. 
Mariposa County: West to Coulterville (2.000 feet), ridge west of Mariposa, Chow- 
chilla Hill and upper Chowchilla Canyon to 2,000 feet, 18 miles northeast of Raymond 
at 2,000 feet ; eastward on west slope Sierras to Y'osemite at 7,000 feet. Chinquapin ridge 
between Wawona and Yosemite at 6.200 feet, and to a few miles south of Wawona 
at 5,700 feet. Madera County: Westward to point 2 miles northeast of Wassama at 
3.000 feet, Fresno Flat at 2,400 feet, ridge between Fresno Flat and Coarse Gold 
Gulch at 3.100, short distance west of North F'ork at 2,600 feet; eastward on west 
slope of Sierras to head of Fresno Creek at 5.000 feet. Fresno County: Westward 
to Tollhouse and Burr Valley, Rush Creek, mountains east of Big Creek and between 
Eshom Valley and Badger ; eastward on west slope Sierras to Kings River, upper 
Mill Creek, and Redwood Mountain. Locally noted on East Fork of Kaweah River, 

15188—08 4 



46 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

at 6,000 to 7,000 feet ; Middle Fork of Kaweah to Buck Canyon at 7,500 feet ; Sequoia 
National Park, at 5,000 to 6,000 feet ; Middle Fork of Kings River at mouth of Crown 
Creek ; South Fork of Kings River, from mouth of Bubbs Creek 2 miles up, and from 
Copper Creek 2 miles up, at 8.700 feet ; Kern River canyon to point above Soda Springs ; 
South Fork of Tulc River from East Tule Indian Reservation eastward. Greenhorn 
Mountains ; Piute Mountains and Mount Breckenridge at 6,000 to 7,000 feet. Tehachapi 
Mountains on most of ridges above 6,000 feet ; noted in Tejon Canyon, south of which it 
has not been detected. Coast ranges, abundant in Stony Creek National Forest at 3,000 
to 6.000 feet : scarce in Sonoma County, common in Napa County, especially on Howell 
Mountain plateau south of Angwins, but unknown on inner ranges bounding Solano and 
Yolo counties. In San Francisco Bay region, recorded only from Mount Hamilton. 
Santa Cruz Mountains and northward in seaward coast range to Woodside. Southern 
Santa Lucia Mountains, at 1,000 to 5,000 feet. Santa Barbara National Forest, only 
between Thorn Meadows and Pine Mountain Lodge, on San Rafael and Big Pine moun- 
tains, Mount Mcdulce, and in part of Alamo Mountain region, at 4,750 to 6,750 feet; 
near Mount Pinos (S. 12, T. 6 N., R. 22 W.), above 5,750 feet. San Gabriel National 
Forest, at 5,500 to 9,000 feet from head of Sheep Creek throughout Upper Swarthout 
Valley, as well as to some of higher parts of San Gabriel and San Antonio watersheds; 
also on Mount Wilson, Pine Flats, Brown Flats, and in Mount Gleason country. San 
Bernardino National Forest, in Little Bear Valley to Sawpit Canyon, and less abun- 
dantly nearly to Cleghorn Pass and Deep Creek ; usually at 4,-")00 or lower, to 9,000 feet, 
but sometimes at 9,800 on the range fronting Mohave Desert ; Santa Ana Range at about 
1,600 feet. San Jacinto Mountains, at 3,000 to 9,000 feet; Tahquitz Valley at 6,000 to 
9,000 feet, Onstatt and Strawberry valleys ; Palomar Mountain, in Doane Valley only. 
Farther south, noted about .lulien and in San Luis Rey Canyon. 

Id.\ho.'' — Northern and central parts generally at 2,000 to 7,000 feet. Priest River 
National Forest, at 2,000 to 4,000 feet. Coeur d'Alene Mountains, valleys, bottoms, 
benches, and lower slopes, up to 4,900 feet. Bitterroot National Forest, slopes and flats 
up to 7,500 feet ; also about west and south boundaries, including a deep extension into 
the reserve near south and middle forks of Clearwater River. Thatuna Flills (near Pull- 
man, Wash.). Sawtooth National Forest slopes and ridges at 2,500 to 5,000 feet. 

Montana. — Mainly west of Continental Divide up to .3,300 feet ; Flathead Valley re- 
gion, up to 4,125 feet. Valley of North Fork of Flathead River, between Indian and 
Logging creeks, and Kootenai Valley (small areas). Bitterroot Valley up to 5.800 feet. 
Northern part of State, but not on east side of Continental Divide, nor on Whiteflsh 
Mountains. Farther south, east of Divide, sparingly on Little Belt Mountains between 
6,000 and 6,500 feet ; in Elkhorn Mountains at 4,000 to 5,500 feet, and in Absaroka 
Division of Yellowstone National Forest at 5,500 to 6,000 feet. 

The pine occurriug mainly east of the Rockies and throughout the region 
southward to Texas and Arizona is Piniis pondcrosa scopuloruDi. the detailed 
range of which will be dealt with in a later bulletin. 

OCCURRENCE. 

On dry and moist slopes, on tops of ridges, and in canyon bottoms. Very moderate in 
soil reijuirements. Grows on all soils from glacial drift and volcanic ash to deep, loose 
sands and stiff clays ; dry, well-drained sandy or gravelly soils most characteristic. Re- 
quires very little soil moisture ; its enormously deep roots enable it to thrive In soils 
nearly as dry as those in which pifion pines and junipers grow. 

Occurs in pure extensive stands and in mixture with other conifers and broadleaf 
trees. I'ure large, but interrupted, forests are found on east slopes and foothills of the 
Cascades in Washington and Oregon ; open, grassy park lands intervene ; little or no un- 
derbrush or even grass occurs in these forests, on account of continued fires. Occasionally 
with western larch and Douglas fir. In Sierras, in scattered smaller pure stands, or, 
more often, variously mixed with sugar pine, incense cedar, Douglas fir, white fir, and 
smaller numbers of California red fir. Often associated with Kellogg oak, occasionally 
with bigtrees, and at lower elevations sparsely mingled with gray pine. Mixed forests 
usually with brushy ground cover and considerable young growth. 

Climatic Conditions. — Great seasonal and daily variations of temperature are en- 
dured. Seasonal range between about 28° and 110° F. Mean annual rainfall in region 
of principal occurrence from 10 to 50 inches; an annual rainfall of less than'20 inches 
probably limits its occurrence in commercial quantities. 

« The north Rocky Mountain range of this tree is given in order to complete the dis- 
tribution of what must be regarded as the ordinary form of western yellow pine. South- 
ward and eastward it passes imperceptibly into P. ponderosa scopuloium. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 47 

Tolerance. — Demands large amount of light throughout life, especially in older age. 
Stands may remain dense for from 10 to 15 y^ars, but after that they thin out rapidly ; 
trees above 20 feet in height require almost unbroken light. Trees in mature stands are 
rarely closer than 30 feet, and the crowns seldom touch. In south, seedlings do 
not endure intense light and heat, usually coming up in shade of old trees, in openings 
near logs, bowlders, and brush, which afford slight protection ; in north they grow in 
unprotected openings. 

IlEPKODUCTiON. — Frequent and abundant seeder. Cones are locally produced every year, 
so that there is always some seed in a forest ; good seed years occur at intervals of from 
3 to 5 years. Germination of natural sowing, about 50 per cent ; of artificial planting, 
from (50 to 80 per cent. Seed is produced by trees from 20 to 25 years old, but generally 
is scanty and of poor quality until trees are 50 years old. Large, thrifty trees produce 
over 1,000 cones; average amount of seed, from 1 to 6 pounds. Seed is not carried far 
in dense stands, but in open forests it is scattered from 500 to 700 feet from the tree 
in direction of prevaHing wind. A mature tree can seed about one-fourth of an acre in 
an ordinary seed year. Squirrels and birds eat large numbers of seeds and disseminate 
considerable numbers, but can not be depended on for regular reproduction. Much seed 
is washed down steep slopes to stream beds and depressions, where good reproduction 
often occurs. Well drained, fresh soils, and a moderate daily range of temperature are 
necessary for germination. 

Jeffrey Pine. 

Pinus jeffreyi " Oreg. Com." 

DISTIXGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Jeffrey pine is scarcely less magnificent in size tliau its associate tlie western 
j-ellow pine. Some specialists consider it a variety of Pinus pondcrom, wiiich 
it resembles so closely in its habits and soil and climatic requirements that 
from the forester's point of view there appears to be no practical reason for 
(listiuguishing the two. Dendrologically, however, the typical form of 
Jeffrey i)ine (discovered in northern California in 3850 by John Jeffreys) dif- 
fers in many respects from western yellow pine. It is a large-bodied, straight 
tree, with a long, narrow crown, the branches of which are much less stout 
and angled than those of its relative. Its foliage is heavier, more dense, and 
a distinctly dark blue-green. As a rule, the dark red-brown bark is deeply 
fun-owed, and the ridges, often narrow, are irregularly connected with one 
another. On very old trees the bark is deeply broken into long, wide plates of a 
bright red-brown color. The leaves (fig. 14, a), 5 to 9 J inches long, occur in 
bundles of 3 and persist for from 5 to 8 and sometimes 9 years. In conse- 
quence, the foliage appears dense. The twigs of a year's growth are con- 
siderably thicker than those of the western yellow pine, and distinctly purple 
when young; they exhale, when cut or bruised, a fragrant, violet-like odor. 
The cones (fig. 14), purple at maturity, are a light russet-brown after shedding 
rheir seeds, and are from ol to llf inches long. The seeds (fig. 14, b), larger 
than those of the western yellow pine, are similarly mottled. Seed leaves, 7 
to 10 — sometimes 11. Wood, light straw color and rather wide grained; simi- 
lar in commercial value to the western yellow pine. 

Longevity. — Long-live<l, I'eaching an age of from 300 to 410 years. Further 
age determinations are reciuired. 

RANGE. 

Mountains of southern Oregon and southward to northern Lower California. 

OiiEijox. — Found at only two stations — one about ;^0 miles south of Roseburg, In 
I)ougl;is County, and the other near Waldo, in the Siskiyou Mountains. 

C.M.iFOKNiA. — Sources of I'ltt River and (high levels) on Scott Mountains (near Mount 
Shasta), west of and on east slope Mount Eddy down to level and near Sisson ; reported 
in Trinity Mountains at elevations above 3.500 feet, and on Snow Mountain (Lake 
County). East side of Sierras, in central and southern parts, between about 9,000 and 



48 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

9,500 feet, and southward to head of Cottonwood Creek ; also throughout western slopes, 
forming a similar belt, above and with Pinus ponderosa (usually at and near its upper 
limits) and extending southward through Tehachapi Mountains to southern cross ranges. 
On west slopes of Sierras (Stanislaus National Forest), found about Strawberry and Bear 
Meadow. North slope of Lassen Peak (Shasta County), eastward to 5 miles west of 
Quincy and Beckwith, Sierra Valley westward to Bucks Valley (5,200 feet),, and 30 
miles down Feather River Valley. Lassen County: Northwest corner between Fall River 
and Big Valley eastward to 6 miles west of Bieber. Sierra County: Eastward to ridge 
west of Sierra Valley (at levels between 5,700 and over 6,000 feet) to Sierraville and 
Truckee ; westward to Bassett Road House (west of Yuba Pass) at 5,200 feet. Nevada 
County: Eastward on east slope of Sierras and into Nevada to hills west of Steamboat 
^'alIey ; westward to Bowman Lake (between Middle and South forks Yuba River), and 
to Cisco. Placer County: Eastward to Lake Tahoe and into Nevada ; westward to Sugar 
Pine sawmill (4,000 feet). Eldorado County: East side of Sierras; west side, westward 
to Echo (5,500 feet). Alpine County: East side Sierras from Woodfords and Markleeville 
to east part Mokelumne Pass ; west side, from 8,400 feet westward to about G,500 feet 
(Calaveras County). Tuolumne County: Westward to between Cold Spring and Eureka 
Valley (5,000 feet) and Aspen Meadows (G,300 feet) ; eastward on west slope of Sien-as 
to Sonora Pass and to over 8,000 feet, and 2 miles west of White Wolf (Middle Fork 
Tuolumne) at 7,500 feet. Mono County: East side of Sonora Pass on mountains about 
West Walker Creek and in pass to about 8,300 feet ; from little southeast of Junction 
House nearly to Bridgeport Valley ; between latter and Antelope Valley in West Walker 
Canyon, disappearing several miles south of Antelope Valley ; west of Mono Lake on east 
slopes of Sierras and on Leevining Creek nearly to lake ; Walker Lake at lower end of 
Bloody Canyon, and sparingly to about 9,300 feet ; south of Mono Lake (east side Mono 
Craters) on east base of Sierras to point beyond Mammoth ; in valley west side of Mono 
Craters to a point 7.300 feet about 7 miles, south of Farringlon's. In belt about 15 
miles wide lietween Mono Desert and Casa Diablo (at 7,000 to 8,000 feet) eastward from 
Sierras to south end of Mono Craters ; south of Mammoth, on both sides of head of 
Long Valley, and between Long and Round valleys. Inyo County: Divide north of 
Round Valley and westward to foot of Sierras ; west of Owens Lake, on east slope of 
Sierra between 9.000 and 9,500 feet. Mariposa County: Eastward to Sunset Ridge (ea.lt 
of Little Yoaemite) at 9,000 feet. Mount Hoffman, headwaters of Snow Creek, at 8,500 
feet, on Y'osemlte Creek (north of Yosemite Valley) to 8,500 feet, and westward to point 
(5,500 feet) 8 miles north of Wawona. Middle Fork of Kings River, at 9,500 feet; South 
Fork Kings to Rubbs Creek and Horse Corral Meadows. Cliff Creek to Deer Creek (Mid- 
dle Fork Kawash River), Farewell (iap, and Kern River canyons to 9,000 feet; junction 
of Kern and Little Kern rivers, at G,000 feet; Dry Creek meadow (near Kern River), at 
4,800 feet. Mount Breckenridge, at 5,000 to 7,000 feet, Tehachapi Peak (Tehachapi 
ilountaius), and Bear Mountain (west of Tehachapi Pass). Southern cross ranges 
(Santa Barbara National Forest), at elevation of from 4,500 to 8,800 feet, as follows: 
Big Pine Mountain, at 7,000 feet ; Seymour Creek, at 6,700 to 7,000 feet ; South Fork of 
Piru River, at 5,000 feet ; near junction of Alamo River, at 4,500 feet ; near Mount Pinos, 
at 5,750 to 8,800 feet. San G;il)riel National Forest, on Mount Wil.son and Pine Flats 
(Frazier Mountain). San Bernardino Mountains, at altitudes from 5,000 to 6,700 feet 
in Bear and Little Bear Valleys, in vicinity of Crafts Peak, and on other north slopes; 
also on San Jacinto Mountains ; San Jacinto Peak, at 5,200 to 9,300 feet ; noted in east 
end Round Valley, Tahquitz, Onstatt, Strawberry, and Thomas valleys : throughout Cuya- 
maca Mountains, being reported in Pine Valley, at 3,600 feet. 

LowEK California. — Mount San Pedro Martir, at 6,000 to 10,000 feet. 

OCCURBENCE. 

Commonly between the upper altitudes of western yellow pine and of white fir, with 
no sharp line of separation between its range and the ranges of these trees ; usually over- 
lapping the upper range of yellow pine and sometimes exceeding that of white fir. Best 
commercial growth between 5,000 and 6,500 feet elevation. Soil requirements moderate, 
but for best growth demands well-drained, loose, coarse, sandy or gravelly soil with 
abundant moisture. Occurs extensively, however, though in poor form or much stunted, 
on poor, shallow soils and in crevices of bare rock. Appears to require more soil moisture 
than white fir and sugar, yellow, and Coulter pines. 

Occasionally in pure stands, and often predominating in mixture. Pure forests occur 
at lower altitudes where soil and moisture conditions are the best, as in bottoms and 
along streams, or at higher elevations, soil on rocky summits, where more exacting trees 
are excluded for want of sufficient moisture. At north, associates with western yellow 



^. 



15188- 




rii;. 14, — riniis jiffreyi: a, l>af ; b, seed. 



1518S— 08. (To face page -IS.) 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 49 

pine, lodgepole pines, white and red firs, sugar pine, and incense cedar ; in south, asso- 
ciates with bigcone spruce, wliite fir, incense cedar, western juniper, and Coulter, sugar, 
linil)er, western white, and lodgepole pines, the last three near its upper limits. 

Climatic Conditions. — Endures wide annual ranges of temperature, hut lowest and 
highest in regions of best growth are about zero and 100° F. Mean annual rainfall of 
greater part of range varies from 20 to over GO inches, with an average of about 35 inches 
where best growth occurs. Requirements of atmospheric moisture less than for white fir 
and sugar pine, but greater than for Coulter pine, western yellow pine, and incense cedar. 

Tolerance. — Fairly tolerant in youth, ranking between yellow and sugar pines and 
permitting its seedlings and low trees to persist under shade of chaparral on east and 
south exposures ; in later life, as tolerant of light as western yellow pine. 

Reproduction. — I'rolific seeder. Seed years rather irregular, but seeds locally in range 
nearly every year. Seed of high germination (50 or 60 per cent) and persistent vitality. 
I'roduees seed only at rather advanced age, becoming less productive in old age. The 
heaviness of its seeds confines reproduction chiefly to neighborhood of seed trees. Range 
of reproduction increased as seed trees stand on slopes, down which seed is washed or 
blown. Birds and rodents eat large numbers of seeds and assist some in dissemination. 
Has vigorous reproduction at higher altitudes than has western yellow pine. Exposed 
mineral soil is the best seed-bed. Germination not prevented bj* moderate shade. 

Lodgepole Pine. 

PinuM con tort a Loudon. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

The pine described under this name is one of the most interesting of Pacific 
fH^ecies on account of its variable characters and .on account of its enormously 
wide range, which extends from sea level to nearly 11,000 feet elevation. For 
many years a fruitless effort has been made to keep the tree which inhabits the 
nortlieni I'acific coast region, extending to Alaska and eastward over the 
western Cascades, and known as Finns contortu, distinct from the tree of the 
high Sierras and Rocky Mountains plateau.s known as lodgepole pine (Finns 
mnnai/ana and I*, contorta mnrrayana). The distinctions assembled to sepa- 
rate these trees are one after another broken down when the trees are carefully 
studied thoughout their great range. Differences in thickness of bark, size of 
cones and leaves, or size and form of the tree, are not too great to be 
consistentlj- merged in one polymorphous species, as it is proposed to do here. 
The reproductive organs of these supposedly distinct trees are essentially the 
same. With no characters found in these organs to warrant a distinction of 
species, the other so-called distinctions depended upon are believed to be un- 
worthy of serious consideration. Perhaps no other North American trees have 
given so much trouble, or left so much uncertainty in the minds of those who 
have attempted to hold them separate. Recent students of trees have been slow 
to depart from the time-honored judgment of earlier writers. It is confidently 
believed, however, that those writers would have taken the broader view had 
they been able to study the trees as they grow in all their retreats. 

In its Pacific habitat this pine is a low tree with a dense rounded or pyram- 
idal crown, the large, much-forked branches often extending down to the ground. 
This form is the result of an open stand, which permits other pines to produce 
n similar form. In very close stands it develops a tall, clean, slender shaft 
with a short, rounded, small-branched crown. This is its characteristic form 
in its more ea.stern range, and has there given the name of " lodgeix»le pine." 
The trunk bark of the Pacific coast form is about an inch thick over the lower 
half or third of the stem ; it is a deep purplish red-brown and has deep, rough 
furrows and ridges which are sharply cross-checked ; young poles and the crown 
branches and stems of old trees have thin, .smooth, fine scaly, pale brown bark, 
with a grayish tiuge. Bark of the latter character is borne mainly by trees 



50 



POEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



growing away from the coast and by the eastern representative of this species. 
The thin bark results in extensive destruction of this tree by fire, which soon 
iscorches the thickest of this baric so badly as to kill the trees. The Pacific 
tree is 20 to 40 feet high and fi'oni 6 to 20 inches in diameter ; the trunk is 
short and thickly set with hugely developed branches, except in very dense 
stands. In its eastern range the tree attains a height of from 50 to 100 feet, 
and in close stands develops a smooth, clean trunk for from 30 to 60 feet ; from 
12 to 24 inches is the usual diameter. Taller and larger trees occur. The 
foliage of the coast tree is dark yellow-green, but away from the sea it becomes 
distinctly a bright yellow-green, which is characteristic throughout the interior 
Pacific and eastern range. The leaves (fig. 15), regularly 2 in a bundle, are 




Pig. 1.5. — Pinus voniorta: a, seed with and without wing. 



from about 1 inch to nearly 3 inches long ; usually about 2 inches long. A 
season's growth of leaves remains on the trees from six to eight years; long 
persistence appears to belong more to young trees, on which leaves are retained 
pometimes for nine years. The leaves of the Pacific form are only about one- 
third as thick as those of the inland and eastern representative, which are nearly 
an eighth of an inch wide. Cones (figs. 15, 16) ripen late in August and Septem- 
ber. Very many trees open their cones in late fall and shed nearly all of their 
seeds, while the cones of other trees in the same locality may remain closed for 
a number of years. Open or closed they adhere to the branches for a great many 
years, some of the closed ones finally opening and liberating their seed. The 



FOKEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



51 



wonderful reproductive power of this species on areas over wliioli its stand has 
been killed by fire is dependent upon the ability of the closed cones to endure 
a fire which kills the tree without injuring its seed. After fire, the cones 
open and shed their seeds on the bared ground and a new growth springs up. 
Another remarkable adaptation insuring this tree against extinction by fire is 
its habit of producing fertile cones at the early age of from 7 to 10 years. 

When the cones are fully ripe the scale tips are shiny and a clay-brown color, 
their inner portion being a bright purple-brown. The seeds (fig. 15, a) are deep 
reddish brown, with black-brown spots. Seed leaves, commonly 5, but some- 
times 4. Wood varies in grain ; fine in dense stands, moderately coarse in the 
open ; connnercially important. Wood of the Pacific tree is a pale reddish 




Fig. IG.—Pinua vontorta. 

brown, while the eastern wood is yellow or yellowish-brown. Both are hard. 
The eastern wood is lighter, less resinous, and straighter-grained. 

Longevity. — Attains an age of from 100 to 175 years; but doubtless it is 
capable of reaching from 200 to possibly 300 years, if exempt from fire, to 
which, throughout its range, it quickly succumbs on account of its thin bark. 
.Many stands have in the past attained an age of only 60 years before being 
killed by forest fires. 

RANGE. 



From Alaskan coast and interior Yukon territory soutliward to northern Lower Cali- 
fornia and through the Rocky Mountains to the Black Hills (South Dakota) and through 
western Colorado. The so-called typical Pinxie contorta (exclusive of Pinus contorta vat. 



52 rOKEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

murrai/ana) ranges from the coast and islands of Alaska southward mainly in the im- 
mediate vicinit.T of the Pacific coast of British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and Cali- 
fornia to Point Arena. Mendocino County, and Gasquet, Del Norte County. In this range 
it grows commonly from near sea level to about 500 feet elevation, but forms of it are 
reported in Washington and Oregon up to about 3,000 feet. 

Alaska and Canada. — From western Coast Range in British Columbia eastward to 
plateau east of Rockies. At north, on Pacific slope at Chilcat Inlet, Square Island, and 
Skagway at sea level, and up to 1,900 feet at Glacier Station. Headwaters of Yukon 
River from north side of White Pass to Lake Le Barge, Lewes River, and thence down 
Yukon River to point a few miles below Fort Selkirk (latitude 62° 45'). East of the 
Yukon, northward on divide between Klondike and McQuestion rivers to latitude 64" 
(northern limit now known), 80 miles east of Dawson, and eastward to Mayo Lake, 
in same latitude ; eastward on MacMillan River to a point 50 miles up the south fork, 
and eastward on Pelly River, to longitude 133° 30'. Plateau east of Rockies, on Dease 
and Liard rivers to Devils Portage, and on Peace River to hills between Athabaska 
River and Lesser Slave Lake and Athabaska Landing. Follows eastern foothills of 
Rocky Mountains southward, at about 4.000 feet elevation, on line of Canadian Pacific 
Railroad, occurring from Silver City to Laggan, but not reaching timberline. At south, 
eastward in Assiniboia to C.vpress Ilills. from summits of which it extends down 500 
feet. Throughout interior mountain region of southern British Columbia above 3,500 
feet, and below that on sandy benches and river flats. 

Wasiiinctox. — West of Cascades, on Pacific and Puget Sound shore and also away 
from coast in bogs and about gravelly prairies below 3,300 feet. Noted at Westport, 
McAllisters Lake. From Cascades eastward to northeastern and Blue mountains. Abun- 
dant on east side of Cascades at from 3,300 to 5,000 feet, occasionally reaching 7,100 
feet and descending to 1,500 feet ; occurs sparingly on west side in Washington National 
Forest at 3,000 to 5,000 feet near Darrington, on Suiattle River, State Creek, upper 
Skagit River, and northward to the Canadian boundary. On east slope of Cascades 
descends, on Stehekin River, to 2,100 feet ; southern Washington National Forest, between 
1.500 and 7.000 feet : Rainier National Forest, between I.SUO and 7.100 feet ; ascends to 
5.000 feet in Chelan Range ; Blue Mountains, above 3.000 feet. Colville National Forest, 
above 4.000 feet. Noted on Mount Rainier, Mount Adams. Wenache Mountains, Falcon 
A'alley, Pend Oreille River, divide between Columbia and Yakima rivers, near Lake Cush- 
man, and between Union City and Shelton — south of Olympic Mountains. 

Oregon. — Sea beaches, bogs, creeks, and meadows to east slopes of Cascades (below 
6.000). Noted at Seaside and Clatsop Beach (near Tillamook Head). Cascades and east- 
ward to Warner Mountains and Wallowa National Forest, generally between 4.000 to 
8,000 feet ; mainl.v on east side of Cascades, and only at high elevations on west side. 
In northern Cascades, at 3,500 to 5.500 feet ; noted on north side at Mount Hood from 
3,100 (22 miles south of Hood River Station) to 5.000 feet; also on south side of 
Mount Hood, above Government Camp at over 2.500 feet and down west slope to 
1,700 feet (mile east of Tollgate) ; Camas Prairie (south of Mount Hood). In south- 
ern Cascades, on east side, at 4,200 to 8,500 feet, and at 6,200 to 8.000 feet on 
west side. Eastward over upper Deschutes River Valley to Lava on Paulina Creek, 
Paulina Lake and Pengras Ranch ; farther south, to East Fork Deschutes, Walker Range, 
and Sinks creeks at 4,900 to 6,300 feet. Mount Mazama, at 4,800 to 6.300 feet and east- 
ward to Fort Klamath, west shores Klamath Lake, and eastward on Klamath-Deschutes 
Divide and ranges of Klamath River Basin to Warner Mountains between Goose and 
Warner lakes. Noted in Goose Lake National Forest above 6,000 feet, east and north of 
Gearhart Mountain, on Swamp Creek down to 5,500 feet. Elder and Bear creeks and west- 
ward from Summer Lake to Sprague and Sycan river valleys. Reported from southern 
coast range in Siskiyou National Forest. Blue I\Iountains. at 3,000 to 6.000 feet : here on 
headwaters of North, Middle, and South forks of John Day River ; region of Meacham ; 
headwaters of Grande Ronde and Powder rivers ; Granite Creek ; vicinity of Strawberry 
Butte, and elsewhere. In Wallowa National Forest ; noted on Big and Little Sheep 
creeks at 5.950 feet. 

Califoknia. — Klamath and Trinity mountains. Mount Shasta region and southward 
throughout Sieri-as. Immediate sea beaches southward to Point Arena (Mendocino 
County) and inland up Smith River (northwest Del Norte County) to Gasquet, below 
500 feet. West side of Sierras to head of Little Kern River and to South Fork of Kern 
and main Kern River Divide ; on east side, down to Cottonwood Creek. Southern cross 
ranges and southward to San Jacinto Mountains : westward to the coast redwood belt, 
and eastward to Warner Mountains. Northern California, at 5,000 to 7.000 feet : at 
6,000 to 10.000 feet in central part: at 8.000 to 11.00.0 feet in southern pan. Klamath 
National Forest, at 5.000 to 7.000 feet ; northeast of Mount Shasta, about Black Butte 
and Butte Creek, at 5.000 to 5.600 feet ; Goosenest Mountain and eastward to east and 
northeast slopes of Glass Mountain (about 14 miles south of Tule Lake on line between 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 53 

Siskiyou and Modoc counties) at 6,700 to 7,500 feet, and Warner Mountains (Modoc 
County), here noted on South Deep Creek; west base Mount Eddy in Trinity National 
Forest, at 5,000 to 7,000 feet ; northeast slope of Mount Shasta at 5,400 feet altitude (3 
miles northeast of Ash Creek) to 5.000 fcft {'■'> miles northwest of Inconstancy Creek) ; 
between south base of Mount Shasta and Black Fox Mountain ; general over Mount Shasta, 
Plumas, Lassen I'eak, and Diamond Mountain National forests, at 0,000 to 7,500 feet, or 
sometimes between 4,000 and 8,000 feet. North slopes of Lassen Peak on Hat Creek, 
south slopes down to 5,500 feet. Plumas Count!/: Eastward to Prattville and to west side 
of Spanish Peak range (west of Quincy), below 5,500 feet and westward to Bucks Valley 
at 5,100 feet. Sierra County: Eastward to east side Yuba Pass (aljove Sierra Valley) ; 
westward from 0,000 feet on west slope of main divide down to 5,200 feet (Basset Road 
House) ; South Sierra Valley eastward into Nevada. Nevada and Placer counties: West- 
ward from Truckee on Truckee Canyon to Donner Lake region and down west slopes of 
Sierras from 8,000 feet, to Cisco and Emigrant Gap below 0,000 feet. Eldorado County: 
Eastward to Tallac (south end Lake Tahoe) and southward (along Little Truckee River) ; 
westward to Grass Lake Valley at 7,800 feet; west slope Sierras from Summit (7,500 feet) 
westward to Echo (5,500 feet). Alpine County: Eastward to Silver Creek at 7,500 feet, 
and westward over Mokelumne Pass into Calaveras County, here extending to point 10 
miles west of Bloods. Northern Sierras, at 6,000 to 9,000 feet — sometimes down to 4,500 
feet on west slopes ; Stanislaus National Forest, at 6,000 to 9,300 feet — rarely down to 
:'..500 feet or up to 10,000 feet. Tuolumne County: Eastward on east side Sierras over 
Sonora Pass (9,000 feet) to Walker Creek Valley (8,1:00 feet), Mono I'ass (10,200 feet), and 
adjacent west slopes of Mount Dana. Mount Gibbs. Saddleback Lake, and Tioga Pass; 
westward on west side Sierras to between Cold Spring and Eureka at 6,200 feet ; Aspen 
Meadows at 6,200 feet. Mariposa County: Westward to 0,400 feet (road Yosemite to 
Crockers), Fish Camp (3 miles south of Wawona) at 4,900 feet. Mono County: Eastward 
nearly to Mono Lake on Leevining Creek, below Mono Pass from 9,400 feet down to Walker 
Lake, Devil's Cauldron, and southward to Mammoth. Southern Sierra National Forest, at 
6,900 to 10,500 feet — rarely down to 5,500 feet or up to 11,500 feet ; generally at 9,000 to 
11,500 feet on east slopes. Fresno County: Westward to .Junction Meadow, Dinkey Creek 
(tributary Kings River) below 5,500 feet: eastward to Kearsarge Pass. Tulare County: 
Noted around Rowell Meadow and southward to Clover Creek divide ; upper Kaweah River 
region ; upper part of Sequoia National Park and about Alta Meadow ; head basin of East 
Fork of Kaweah River (Mineral King to Farewell Gap) ; on high ridge between Cliff 
Creek and Deer Canyon (tributaries Kaweah River). Headwaters South Fork of Kaweah 
River. San Gal)riel National Forest, summits of eastern part, at 8,000 to 10,000 feet — 
rarely down to 3,000 feet or up to 10,400 feet. San Bernardino National Forest, sum- 
mits of eastern part, mainly aljove 8,500 feet — rarely down to 6,900 ; in this Forest, 
known on Grayback Mountain, Big Bear Valley, Bluff Lake, ridge between Santa Ana 
Canyon and Bear Lake, and Bear Creek Meadows. San Jacinto Mountains, above 9,500 
feet on west slope, and above 7,000 feet on east slope. Only on San Jacinto and 
Tahquitz peaks ; noted in Round Valley, between Deer Springs and San Jacinto Peak, 
between latter and Marion peaks at over 10,000 feet elevation. 

Lower Califounia. — Northern part of Mount San Pedro Martir at about 8,500 feet. 

East of the Pacific re,giou, this pine i*anges from northern Id.iho and Montana 
southward through Wyoming, Utah, and western Colorado, also in the Black 
Hills of South Dakota, and will be dealt with iu a future publication. 

OCCURRENCE. 

On high plateaus and benches in vicinity of streams, mountain meadows, and lakes, 
on broad ridges, and on long, gentle slopes and bottoms of stream basins. North and east 
slopes are more favorable than west slopes, while south slopes, except in sheltered coves, 
are least favorable. Especially abundant in Sierras about mountain meadows and lakes. 
The typical coast form (commonly distinguished as Pinus contorta) occurs on sea coast 
in sand dunes and barrens and sometimes about tide pools and swamps. Adapted to 
dry, gravelly soils, but prefers sandy, moist ones of gentle slopes, depressions and pla- 
teaus, where the largest growth occurs. Stunted forms grow persistently, however. In 
crevices of solid rock throughout head basins of nearly all Sierra streams. It avoids 
limestone. 

In Sierras it forms extensive pure forests, particularly about meadows, while on 
higher, rocky, broken ground it is associated mainly with Jeffrey pine, red fir, and west- 
ern white pine, and sparingly with black hemlock and aspen. At liigh elevations in Ore- 
gon, with Douglas fir, alpine fir, straggling noble and amabilis firs. 

Climatic Conditions. — .\pparently intermediate in requirements between Douglas fir 
and Engelmaun spruce, Demands more moisture iu soil and air and a lower average 



54 POEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

temperature than Douglas fir or yellow pine, but probably less moisture and higher 
temperature than Engelmann spruce and alpine flr. Actual climatic requirements not 
fully determined. 

Tolerance.- — Very intolerant of shade, especially when young, but able to persist for 
a long time (20 or 30 years) in very dense stands or for a shorter period under spe- 
cially adverse light conditions. Requires and thrives best in full light. Even aged 
stands with full top light, such as commonly follow complete destruction of the former 
forest by flre, thrive for many years (50 or 60) in dense stands with little natural thin- 
ning out, while a thinning of overtopped trees at earlier periods in uneven-aged stands 
is a proof of its inability to endure long-continued shade. 

Reproduction. — Usually a prolific annual seeder and large numbers of cones are borne. 
Seed of high rate of germination, and with persistent vitality. Bears fertile seed at 
from 6 to 10 years of age when in the open. In crowded stands cones are borne by trees 
from 15 to 20 years old. Small, light seed widely disseminated by wind — to about 200 
yards from mother ti-ees. Squirrels and birds destroy great numbers of seeds, but the 
effect on reproduction is inappreciable. Extension by natural seeding is ordinarily slow, 
scant, and uneven, but with aid of flre is exceedingly thick and even. Full light and 
exposed mineral soil are requisites of good reproduction. The latter condition is pro- 
duced by fire, which, when it does not consume the cones, leaves them open or in condi- 
tion to open and release their seeds. Fire is thus especially instrumental in the repro- 
duction of this pine. 

Gray Pine; Digger Pine. 

Pinus sahhiiana Douglas. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Gray or Digger pine owes its common names to the pale blue-green color of 
its foliage and to the fact that the large seeds furnish an important food to the 
California Digger Indians. Its gray, thin-foliaged crown of one or two long 
upright forks with lower drooping small branches distinguishes it at long dis- 
tances from associated trees. The meager foliage permits the big, dark cones 
to be seen half a mile away. Young trees form a rounded or pyramidal crown 
of upright branches from a short, thick stem. In middle age two or more of 
the upper branches grow very large and long, forming conspicuous U-shaped 
forks. Old trees are from 50 to 75 feet high, with a bent or rarely straight 
trunk from 20 to 30 feet long and from 18 to 30 inches in diameter. Larger 
trees are sometimes found. The bark of young trees and of branches is a dull 
gray ; that of mature trunks is about 2 inches thick and very roughly furrowed 
and ridged. The ridges are scaly, wide, irregularly connected, and of a dark 
gray-brown, tinged with purple-red in unweathered parts. The thin, drooping 
clusters of leaves, a light blue or gray-green, occur two in a bundle (fig. 17, a), 
and are from 8* to about 12 inches long. Those of a year's growth remain on 
the tree for three or four years. When the tree is planted for oi*nament in a 
rich, irrigated soil, within its natural range, the foliage becomes very much 
stouter, giving the tree an entirely different aspect from one grown in its dry 
native habitat ; the cones of such cultivated trees are usually smaller. With 
the exception of the Coulter pine, the gray pine produces the largest and heav- 
iest cones of any American pine (fig. 17). They mature by September of the 
second season, remaining firmly attached to the branches for a number of years. 
The cone scales open very slowly, so that seeds continue to be shed for several 
months. Indians hasten the opening of the cones by placing them in a small 
fire. Cones are from 6i to lOi inches long. The tips of the scales are a red- 
dish or chestnut brown, later weathered and grayish brown. The seeds (fig. 
17) and short wings are very dark chocolate or blackish brown. Seed leaves 
commonly 15, but often IG. Wood, very coarse-grained (the result of scattered 
or open stands), dark yellowish brown, often tinged with red; locally used for 
fuel. 




Fig. 17. — /•liiu* .labliiiuua: u, leaf: d, seed, both 
151S,1— OS. (To fnop imfie .'-,4.1 



tural size. Cone sllubtl.v reduced ; original '.> Indies long. 



FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 55 

Longevity.- — Little is definitely known of the longevity of this pine. It ap- 
pears to attain its average full growth in from 00 to 80 years ; trees from 20 
to 24 inches in diameter are from 40 to 50 years old. Recurring fires, to which 
it has been subjected, seem to prevent its longer survival. If permitted, it 
would probably not attain an age of over 150 years except in a broken and 
decrepit form. 

RANGE. 

California. — Foothills, lowor mountain slopes, and high valleys (at north) of coast 
ranges and Sierras. 

Coast Rniujes. — Prom upper Sacramento and Trinity rivers and Hoopa Valley (on 
Klamath River, Humboldt County) to southern cross ranges; generally at elevations of 
fiOO to 4,000 feet^occasionally to 5,000 feet. Shasta Countij: North limits, delta in 
Sacramento River Canyon, above mouth of Pitt River, at 1,1.50 feet, and at point 15 
miles up McCloud River ; eastern limits, isolated bodies in northeastern corner of county 
on hills west and south of Fall River, and on Ilat Creek (near Cassel), main body end- 
ing 2 miles east of Montgomery Creek (tributary Pitt River) ; west limit, on west side 
of Sacramento Valley on ridge west of French Gulch at 2,400 feet ; south limit, immedi- 
ately on Sacramento River at Anderson (11 miles south of Redding). Triniti/ County: 
North limits. Trinity River and Weaver Creek considerably above Weaverville at 2,100 
feet. Canyon Creek (10 miles above .Junction) at 2,400 feet; western limit, east side 
Mad River Valley on bottom slopes of South Fork Mountain. Humboldt County: Only 
in Trinity River bottoms, mainly in IToopa Valley (north limit). Supply Creek Canyon 
and Redwood Creek (west of Hoopa Valley near Bair ranch), west limit. Tchnma 
County: Eastward on west side of Sacramento Valley to point 8 miles west of Red Bluff 
(700 feet), and 2 miles southwest of Paskenta ; on coast range (fi miles west of Beegum 
post-oflSce) at 3,000 to .'?,400 feet. Mendocino County: Westward to west slopes of Eel 
River, at 1,900 feet, and northward on Russian River to Hopland. Sonoma County: 
Westward to west side of Russian River; southward to Alexander Valley (Russian River, 
south limit in coast ranges), yapa County: South and southwest slopes of Mount St. 
Helena at 400 to 2,800 feet, southward on ridge east of Napa Valley to point several 
miles south of Calistoga ; also on ridge west of Napa Valley nearly to Rutherford (south 
limits in north coast range). Yolo County: Eastward to east ends of ranges on lioth 
sides of Capay Valley (south limit in north coast mountains). Colusa County: East- 
ward in Sacramento Valley foothills to hills about Sites, ridge west of Antelope Valley, 
hills hordering Cortena Creek, to point within about 10 miles of Williams, and to 
one between Arbuckle and Dunnigan (Southern Pacific Railroad). Lake County: Gen- 
eral between 2,300 and 3.000 feet, but on north slope of Mount St. Helena only up to 
1,500 feet. South of San Francisco, on north slopes of Monte Diablo (Contra Costa 
County) at 800 to 3,000 feet, and on east slope near headwaters of Marsh Creek. Mount 
Hamilton Range (Santa Clara County), west side at 2,000 to over 4,000 feet; also 
farther south about Gilroy Hot Springs. Not in Santa Cruz Mountains west of Santa 
Clara Valley nor about Monterey Bay (Monterey County). Common in Santa Lucia 
Mountains, east of summit, at 400 to 2,500 feet ; and also on west slopes in vicinity of 
Los Burros. Abundant in Reverse Canyon south of Arroyo §eco and east of Santa Lucia 
Peak ; also on nearly all slopes on south side of divide, except on Santa Lucia Peak : 
south of Santa Lucia I'eak about 1 mile below Milpitas schoolhouse ; on San Antonio 
Creek to .lolon and vicinity upper San Antonio Creek slopes and tributaries to 2,000 or 
2,500 feet, here meeting lower border of Coulter pine ; southeast border of Monterey 
County on hills about Priest Valley, and eastward into west border of Fresno County. 
San Benito County: Common on Gabalan and San Benito ranges; Chelone Creek Canyon 
and neighboring hills ; higher hills west side of Bear Valley and northward on higher 
parts of Gabalan Range to point opposite Tres Pinos ; second ridge east of San Benito 
Valley (south of San Benito post-office i, and farther south on hills most of the way to 
Hernandez and New Idria ; hills about Bitter Water Valley. In San Luis Obispo National 
Forest, at 1,000 to 3,000 feet. Noted a few miles south of Templeton on east side San 
Luis Obispo Divide, but very rare on west side of San .Toaquin Valley from south border 
of San Benito County southward to end of valley. Below 4.000 feet in San Rafael and 
San Emigdio mountains, and on north slopes of Mount I'inos ; Santa Ynez Range, at 
500 to 5,000 feet ; slopes of Sierra Liebra and extending nearly down to .\ntelopc Valley. 
Sierras: General on west side, in upper foothills, from mouth of Pitt River to Walker 
Basin. In northern part, chiefly at 500 to 2,500 feet — sometimes to 3,000 feet, or in 
canyon of South Fork of Yuba River, to 4,200 feet ; in central part, range mostly 800 to 
3,000 feet, but occasionally reaching 4,000 feet. Tehama County: West limit on Sierra 
foothills, 7 miles east of Red Bluff (on Sacramento River) ; east limit, 1 mila east of 
Paine post-office, at 3,000 feet, and Lyonsville. Butte County: Westward to point 2 miles 



56 rOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

east of Chico, 8 miles east of Nelson, and to Palermo ; eastward to point 1 mile east of 
Magalia (2,300 feet), West Branch Feather River, Yankee Hill, Harts Mill (1,700 feet; 
7 miles east of Bidwell Bar). Yuba County: Westward to point 12 miles east of Marys- 
ville : eastward to west base of Oregon Hills. Nevada County: Eastward nearly to 
Grass Valley and Nevada City. Placer County: Westward to Rocklin (22 miles north- 
east of Sacramento) ; eastward to Colfax and considerably farther in canyon of North 
Fork of American River. Sacramento County: Westward to Natoma (American River) 
and Michigan Bar. Eldorado County: Eastward 3.000 feet to point 5 miles east of 
Ilacerville, Pleasant Valley, canyons of North, Middle, and South Forks of Cosumnes 
River and Mount Orcum. Amador Countii: Westward to point 1 mile east of Carbon- 
dale; eastward to Oleta, Jackson Reservoir (1,900 feet), volcano basin (Sutter Creek), 
and between volcano and Oleta. Calaveras County: Westward to point few miles east of 
Wallace and some miles below Tuttletown and Angels; eastward to Rich Gold Gulch, 
Mountain Ranch, Mokelumne River at least to crossing between West Point and Defender, 
to point 5 miles east of Murpheys (3.200 feet), and farther In canyon of North Fork 
Stanislaus River. Tuolumne County: Westward to point 8 miles east of Cooperstown 
(1,200 feet) ; eastward to Cherokee Mine (east of Soulsbyville), Hetch-Hetchy Valley 
(on main Tuolumne River), to 3,500 feet on Middle Fork of Tuolumne River. Mariposa 
County: Westward to point 3 miles east of Merced Falls ; eastward to point 5 miles east 
of Coulterville (3,200 feet), to point 2 miles north of Cold Springs (Mariposa road), 
to point on Merced River about 5 miles east of Mariposa, some distance east of Chow- 
chilla at 3,100 feet, ridge near South Fork of North Fork San .Joaquin River. Maderd 
County: Westward to point 2 miles west of Raymond (000 feet) and 16 miles east of 
Madera (1,000 feet) ; eastward to point 3 miles northeast of Wassama (3.100 feet), 
some miles east of Fresno Flat, at 3,000 feet, ridge east of North Fork, at 2.600 feet. 
Fresno County: Westward to point 4 miles east of PoUasky, to Letcher, mouth of Mill 
Creek, on Kings River about 20 miles east of Sanger ; eastward to Pine Ridge east of 
Toll House, Big Creek, and Trimmer Springs (on Kings River). Distribution interrupted 
in southern Sierras ; occurs in valley of Kern River from point 1 mile west of Walker 
Pass to Kernville, at elevations of 2. .500 to 5,000 feet ; southward to Walker Basin at 
3,100 feet, and northward on Greenhorn Mountains, continuously into Tule Indian Res- 
ervation. Abundant from Kings River northward, but absent from parts of Tule River 
basin, from Kaweah basin, and from region between Kaweah and Kings rivers, but 
reported in Eshom Valley. Kern County: Kernville to Havilah, Walker Basin, and nearly 
to Caliente; east of Caliente on north slopes about li miles up Caliente Creek (1,400 
feet), and to far beyond Piute post-office, going eastward to west edge of desert, here 
meeting upper border of tree yuccas ; west of Caliente, on slopes of Bear Mountain ; 
south of Caliente; common on slopes of Tehachapi Pass ; encircles Tehachapi Basin, east 
of Tehachapi, on hills between Tehachapi Basin and Mohave Desert ; west of Tehachapi 
Valley, on divides about Brite and Cummings valleys ; westward from west end of Cum- 
mings Valley for about 12 miles to promontory overlooking Kern River plain. 

Reported northward in Coast Mountains to south slopes of Siskiyous, eastward to 
Owens Valley, and southward to San Bernardino Mountains. 

OCCUBRENCE. 

In "hot, dry valleys and on dry foothills. Grows thriftily on driest, shallow, coarse, 
gravelly soils — often baked and cracking throughout rainless summer. Unafifected even 
where brush is killed by drought. Nevertheless it grows rapidly and very thriftily 
when planted in moist, rich soils within its range, where it becomes a much heavier 
foliaged tree. 

Does not form forests, but occurs mainly in open groups or widely scattered at lower 
elevations, mostly with chaparral and foothill oaks ; higher up, less abundant and 
mingled with scattered western yellow pine, which often extends below its main belt. 
Best growth between 2.000 and 3,000 feet, where it is the only pine in chaparral. 

Climatic Conditions. — Not fully determined. Climate most suitable, apparently that 
only of arid regions. 

ToLER.\NCE. — In early life endut;es shade, but does not require it. Seedlings come up 
and grow rapidly under chaparral. In late life general appearance of tree indicates need 
of, or adaptation to, the fullest light. 

Reproduction. — An annual seeder, but certain years cones are more abundant than 
others. Germination only moderate, and vitality of seeds (out of cones) transient. 
Large, heavy seeds scattered but little by wind, and falling mostly close to seed trees; 
hence reproduction mainly near seed trees. Seeds germinate late in winter during rainy 
B«ason, usually under some shade and upon rough, bare mineral soil. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 57 

Coulter Pine; Bigcone Pine. 
Pinus coiilteri Lambert. 
DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Although a smaller tree, Coulter pine remotely resembles in general appear- 
ance young or middle-aged yellow pine, from which, however, its stiff, much 
heavier foliage, stouter twigs, and luige cones distinguish it at once. Ordina- 
rily it is from 40 to (K) feet high, with an Irregularly open, heavy-branched 
crown. The clear trunk is short (from 10 to 15 feet), and from 18 to 30 inches 
in diameter. Occasionally trees reach a height of nearly 7.5 feet and a diameter 
of 3i feet. The big lower branches are long, bending downward, often to the 
ground, and with an upward curve at their ends; immense bunches of erect, 
stiff leaves conceal their extremities. The bark is early roughly broken, even 
on young trees. That of old trunks is roughly furrowed and ridged and of a 
very dark or blackish brown ; the ridges are wide, roughly scaly, and irregularly 
connected with one another. Leaves, .3 in a bundle (fig. 18, a), are from (U to 
about 12 inches long ; as a rule, about 9 inches. Many of the leaves begin 
falling during the third summer, but they persist until the fourth summer. 
They are a deep bluish-green. The horribly armed, extremely heavy cones 
(fig. 18) distinguish this pine from all of its relatives and associates. Young 
trees (from 20 to 30 years old) bear cones. The cones mature by August of the 
second summer and are from 9 to about 14 inches long. During October the 
cones open partly and continue to shed a few of their seed for several months 
afterward. Some of the cones remain attached to the branches for five to six or 
more years. The ends of the cone scales and their sharp, strong points are yel- 
lowish day-brown ; the inner portions of the scales are dark purple-brown. 
Seeds (fig. 18, h) and their short narrow wings are a deep chocolate brown, the 
latter often paler. Seed leaves, 9 to 12, sometimes 13 or 14. Wood, light, soft, 
coarse grained, and i-eddish brown ; suitai)le for second-class lumber, but rarely 
cut. A comparatively short-lived tree. 

LoNGE\aTY. — Trees from 20 to 2G inches in diameter are from 110 to 12.5 years 
(lid. It probably does not reach a gi-eater age than 200 years. Further study 
of its longevity is required. 

RANGE. 

Southern California (coast and cross ranges) into northern Lower California. Only 
on inner coast range from Monte Diablo to Monterey Bay. south of which on western 
coast ranges also, south to San Diego County ; generally between :i,000 and 6,000 feet 
elevation. 

Califounia. — Monte Diablo in places to crest of main ridge. Fremont Peak at north 
i-nd Gahilan Range (between Salinas and San Benito rivets) and on higher ridges of this 
range a few miles south of Fremont I'eak ; formerly over whole summit of range. Santa 
Lucia mountains at 550 to 4,600 ; Santa Lucia Peak nearly to summit and west in upper 
Arroyo Seco canyon, divide between head of latter and Milpitas Creek, Willow Creek 
(tributary Arroyo Seco) from mouth to head of Tassajara Creek, Bear Valley, Carmel 
River, Indian Creek, coast ridge near Sur River (above 3,600 feet), near Cone Peak 
(southwest Santa Lucia Peak) from 2.500 to 4,000 feet, but not in I'ine valley. Summit 
of ridge west of Carisso Plains (San Luis 01)ispo County) at 1,500 to 2,750 feet. Santa 
Barl)ara National Forest on summits and north slopes from Zaca Lake to Mansana Creek 
( tritiutary Sisquoc River), on upper Sisquoc River Basin, and on Big Pine Mountain and 
Mount Medulce in San Rafael Mountains, at 1,.500 to 2,700 feet, and on summits of 
Santa Ynez Mountains ; noted on Rancho Xuevo Creek. San Gabriel Mountains up to 
6,000 feet in vicinity of Mount Gleason. .on Tujunga canyon at 3..'iO0 to 4,000 feet, at 
head of Alder Creek at 5.000 feet, in vicinity of Waterman Mountain at 5,.500 to 6,000 
feet, and on Strawberry Peak at 5.000 to 6,000 feet. Common in San Bernardino moun- 
tains at 3,900 to 6,000 feet, sometimes down to 3,500 and up to 0,700 feet, limited to 



58 FOKEST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Ueef Creek and Grass valley drainages, Bear Valley (6,700 feet), south side Little Bear 
valley, Santa Ana and City Creek canyons, but not west of Strawberry Ridge nor east of 
Coxey Ranch. Common in San Jacinto Mountains at 4,500 to 6,500 feet, sometimes down 
to 3,500 feet and up to 7,000 feet or 7,500, as above Strawberry valley ; only on south 
and west sides of mountains. Santa Ana Range only at head of Trabuco Canyon and 
southwest side Santiago Peak nearly to summit. Palomar or Smith Mountain (south- 
west of San Jacinto Mountains) only below Iron Spring. Common in Balkan Mountains 
to the south and in northern part of Cuyamaca Mountains at 4,500 to 7.000, and some- 
times down to 4,000 feet ; noted near Julian at 4,100 feet. Laguna Mountains (north 
of Mexican line), only on crest of east side. 

LowEE California. — Not within some miles of international boundary, but farther 
south in Hanson Laguna Range above 4,000 feet and south to Mount San Pedro Martlr 
at 8,000 to highest summits (11,000 feet). 

OCCURRENCE. 

On dry, warm slopes and ridges, as well as sometimes on more moist, sheltered north 
slopes in chaparral. In dry gravelly loam soils. 

Never in pure forests. At lower altitudes, singly or in groups on summits, in shel- 
tered ravines, and hill coves; higher up (from 3,500 to 5,000 feet), with incense cedar, 
yellow pine, big-cone spruce, and oaks ; sugar pine and white fir appear with it between 
5,500 and 7,000 feet, but here Coulter pine soon thins out and disappears. 

Climatic Conditions. — Temperature on coastal mountain slopes 25° to 35° F. and 
from 15° to 100° F. on inland mountains. Humidity high near coast, where cloudy, 
foggy days are frequent, and low toward inland, or eastern limit of range. Precipita- 
tion, from 20 to 30 inches, and chiefly rain. In southern inland mountains it some- 
times endures almost arid conditions, with long drought and rapid evaporation during 
summer. 

Tolerance. — Demands light except in youth, when it endures shade of chaparral. 

Reproduction. — Persistent, periodic seeder, bearing cones often when 10 to 15 feet 
high, and usually in three-year cycles. Germination of seed only moderate, and vitality 
(out of cones) transient.. Heavy seeds; ripe in August, shed very slowly, sometimes not 
until or after following January ; they commonly fall close to seed frees. Reproduction, 
never dense, is usually scattered and on exposed mineral soil and where there is little 
humus. 

Monterey Pine. 

Pimis radiata Don. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Monterey pine is unique in its isolated sea-coast habitat, where, according to 
. exposure and density of stand, it has a comparatively tall, clean trunlv topped 
by a conspicuously open, irregularly long, and hirge branclied crown. Old trees 
are apt to have flattish crowns, while younger trees usually have narrow, 
rounded crowns. The dense foliage is brilliant deep grass-green. Trees from 
fiO to 90 feet in height and from 16 to 24 inches in diameter are common, but 
a height of nearly a hundred feet and a diameter of 3i or 4 feet, and occa- 
sionally 5 or 6 feet, is sometimes attained. Barli of adult trees is a deep red- 
dish or blackish brown. It is broadly ridged and deeply furrowed, the flat 
ridges cut into close, distinct plates. Leaves of a season's growth, which are 
slender and about 4^ to 6 inches long, remain on the tree until the third year. 
They occur chiefly 3 in a bundle, with occasional clusters of t^o on the same 
branch or tree (fig. 19). A form of this tree [P. radiata var. (b) hinnata Lem- 
mon (1895) = P. i)isifi)iis var. hhinata Wats., 1876) growing on the California 
coast islands Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa, has most of its leaves 2 in a bundle, 
but not infrequently bundles of 3 on the same tree. Otherwise, the characters 
of this form are the same as those of the mainland tree. Other North American 
pines {Pin us echinata) exhibit similar variations, which, like those of the 
present tree, are deemed insufficient to establish varieties. The cones (figs. 




%^i3^~^^^^E^ 



ini.SN— (JS. (To face page OS. 



Fig. is.— Piinis coiiltcri: a, leaf; 6, 



FOREST TEEES OP THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 59 

20, 21) are mature by the middle or end of August of the second season. They 
remain strongly attached to the branches and closed for from six to ten or 
more years; cut from the trees and dried in the sun, they open readily. The 




Fig. 19. — Pinits radiata. 



tips of the cone scales are smooth, shiny, and a dark russet-brown, the inner 
portions being dark purple. The seeds (fig. 21. a), with their jet-black pimpled 
shells, are readily recognized. Seed lea\es commonly 5 to 6; occasionally 7. 



60 



FOREST TREES OE THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 



Wood, coarse-grained; annual rings often from one-half an inch to nearly an 
inch thick. It is soft, light, and pale yellowish brown; suitable for coarse 
lumber, but not used commercially. 

Longevity. — Short-lived. It grows very rapidly from the start, both in height 
and diameter, attaining its full size in from SO to 100 years, and probably rarely 
passing the age of 150 years. Trees from 16 to 18 inches in diameter are from 
28 to 35 years old. 




i'lG. 20. — Pinus nididtd, closed cone. 



RANGE. 

Central California coast and islands ; also Guadelupe Island off Lower California. Cali- 
fornia coast, on Point Finos, south of Monterey Bay. from sea over Huckleberry Hill to 
Mn elevation of 800 feet, and inland also, for about 3 miles, on the summit and north- 
east side of the ridge (LOOO to L200 feet high) which connects El Toro Range with 
Huckleberry Hill; also on coast in Santa Cruz County; north of Monterey, from Point 
Ano Xuevo to Big Creek. A third tract, near coast in San Luis Obispo County, is near 
Camb^-ia occurs also on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz islands, off California coast, and 
at 2,000 to 4,000 feet elevation on Guadelupe Island, off Lower California coast. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



61 



OCCXJBBENCE. 

Confined to slopes, bluffs, and ridges. Grows well in coast sand and also heavier inland 
soils. Short lived in arid situations, but does not thrive in wet soils. On coast, occasion- 
ally mixea with Monterey and Gowen cypresses ; inland, forming interrupted pure forest, 
occasionally with groups of California swamp pine in moist places. 

Climatic Conditions. — Seasonal temperature from 25° to 9.5° F. Annual average pre- 
cipitation, not over 17 inches, and wholly rain. Close proximity of range to sea gives 
humid air, while at least one-third of days are cloudy or foggy. 




Fig. 21. — Pinus radiata, open cone: a, seed. 



TOLERAXCE. — Very tolerant, growing In pure, dense stands, where trunks clean them- 
selves well and tree's maintain good crown cover, under which humus accumulates rapidly. 
Isolated trees usually retain low side branches, with heavy foliage until old age. 

Rei'Rodiction.— Prolific annual seeder. Seed with very high rate of germination and 
persistent vitality. Produces cones at early age. Long persistent and closed cones shed 
seed only after several years ; often opened only by fire, which is followed hy very dense 
reproduction, particularly in exposed mineral soil. 

15188—08 5 



62 FOEEST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Knobcone Pine. 

Pinus attenuata Lemmon. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

The form and size of knobcone pine varies considerably, according as it grows 
in exposed or in sheltered situations. It is commonly from 15 to 30 feet high 
and from 6 to 12 inches in diameter. Exceptionally large trees are from 60 to 
80 feet high and from 18 to 20 inches in diameter. Except in very dense stands, 
trees of these sizes have broad, pyramidal crowns, the slender branches curving 
outward and upward toward the stem ; the branches grow from the trunk in 
distant circles, giving an open aspect to the crown. Old trees are peculiar in 
having the trunk forked near its middle, thus forming a thin-foliaged, open, 
narrow crown. The bark of old trunks is thin, dull brown, and shallowly fur- 
rowed and ridged, mainly near the ground ; the ridges have large, loose scales. 
The bark of young trunks and of branches and upper stems of old trees is 
smooth and light brown. The foliage is nearly always light yellow-green. The 
leaves (fig. 22), 3 in a bundle, are slender, often with a twist, and from 3 to 
sometimes 7 inches long, but mainly from 3A to 5 inches. Leaves persist for 
about four or five years. The cones (figs. 22, 23) mature by September of the sec- 
ond season. Clusters of them, rigidly attached and bent down, encircle the main 
stems of even small trees (from 5 to 8 feet high) and are the most striking 
character of this pine. They adhere to the branches and trunk indefinitely ; 
many trees showing that they have retained their cones for nearly fifty years 
(embedded in the trunk). Moreover, the cones very rarely open until the tree 
is killed or they are cut from it ; then they open only slowly. In collecting the 
seed it is necessary to force the cones open by moderate artificial heat. When 
ripe they are a light yellow or clay brown. The seed (fig. 23, b) is blackish. 
Seed leaves, 5 to 7, sometimes 8. 

Wood rather light and soft, coarse-grained, brittle, pale yellowish brown, and 
nsually with a thick layer of sapwood. 

Longevity. — But little is known of the age limits of this tree. It is com- 
monlj^ killed by the recurring fires which run over the dl-y slopes it inhabits. 
Considering the unfavorable conditions (barren and dry soils) under which it 
grows, its diameter growth, as well as its height growth, is rather rapid during 
early life (from 15 to 25 years old). Trees from 10 to 12 inches in diameter 
are from 40 to 60 years old. Probably it does not attain an age of over 100 or 
150 years. Further study of its lougevitj' is needed. 

BANGE. 

Throughout Coast Mountains of southern Oregon, of California, and also in southern 
Cascades of Oregon and northern California Sierras. 

Oregon. — Southwestern part south of McKenzie River, and eastward to western slopes 
of Cascades, where it occurs at 1,000 to 2,000 feet elevation. 

California. — Klamath National Forest, at about 5,000 feet ; Trinity National Forest, 
above 5,000 feet, extending eastward to Shasta and Whiskeytown (near Redding) and 
southward throughout the coast ranges. Siskiyou County: East slope of Scott Mountain, 
between Gazelle and Scott Valley, at about 4,000 feet, and thence to near summit ; 
west slope of Marble Mountain Divide (west of Scott Valley), and thence into Russian 
Creek basin, scarce on North Fork of Salmon River, especially west of Sawyers Bar ; 
extreme western Siskiyou County (between Salmon and Trinity summits, on trail from 
forks of Salmon River to Hoopa) up to about 5,400 feet. Hitniboldt County: West slope 
of Trinity Mountain (east of Hoopa Valley) between 3,700 and 4,100 feet. In Trinity 
County on Canyon Creek near Dedrick. Shasta County: Common on Sacram.ento River 
about Redding (westward also 10 or 12 miles, reaching Clear Creek), and sparingly 
up river to Gregory (Baird Switch) ; also along lower McCloud River near Baird, north- 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



6*3 



ward up river valley for about 15 miles. Lake County: East slope of Bartlett Mountain 
from about 3,000 feet down to Bartlett Springs, and eastward to west side of Indian 




Fig. 22. — Pin us attenuata, closed cone. 

Valley (about halfway between Bartlett Springs and Leesville) ; from Bartlett Springs 
southward to northern Long Valley (about 1,800 feet) ; on road between Kelseyville 



64 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



and Konokti Landing (west side of Clear Lake and soutli of Mount Konokti) ; Highland 
Springs, and about 5 miles west of it on road to Hopland ; saddle of Cobb Mountain 
(near upper Big Sulphur Creek), on road from Middletown to Geysers, and westward 
on Big Sulphur Canyon to Socrates Basin, Little Geysers, also between Little Geysers 
and Geysers (Sonoma County). A^opo County: Top of Mount St. Helena (at junction 
of Napa, Lake, and Sonoma counties) ; between Toll House and south summit. Occurs 




Pinus attenuata, open cone ; b, seed. 



in vicinity of San Francisco Bay. in Moraga Valley, on Santa Crnz Mountains, Point 
Pinos (near Monterey) ; eastern slopes of Santa Lucia Mountains at head of Arroyo Seco, 
San Antonio and Nacimiento rivers at elevations of about 2,000 to 3,000 feet ; but in 
southern Santa Lucia Mountains, at Cuesta Pass, and on south side of the San Bernar- 
dino Mountains, it occurs at 2,500 to 4,000 feet, or sometimes 5,500 feet ; on East Twin 
Creek, at about 3,000 feet, and on City and Plunge creeks, at 2,700 to 4,600 feet. 



FOKEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 6$ 

Reported from San Jacinto Mountains. Limited area on Mount Shasta at 4,000 to 5,600 
feet, between Panther and Mud creeks ; eastward to Fall River. West slopes of northern 
Sierras, at 1,500 to 3,000 feet — occasionally to 4,000 feet, and southward to Yosemite 
National Park (?). Forest Ilill (between forks of American River), at 2,500 feet eleva- 
tion; north slope of Merced River (T. 3 S., R. 18-19 E.) In Sierra National Forest 
(north) ; Lake Tahoe National Forest, only near Lynchburg, at 4,000 feet, and on ridge 
above Horse Shoe Bar (T. 13 N., R. 12 E.) 

OCCUBEENCE. 

Usually on dry, exposed, steep southeastern slopes, but often in deep gulches and pro- 
tected ravines. On poor, dry, rocky, or gravelly and sandy soils. Next to digger 
pine it is the least fastidious of its kind regarding soil moisture. Frequently forms 
extensive pure forests, especially in Oregon ; in foothills, it grows mainly in groups 
or singly, while in San Bernardino Mountains it is sparingly scattered in western 
yellow pine forests, with blgcone spruce, sugar pine, white fir, incense cedar, Coulter 
pine, and oaks. 

Climatic Conditions. — Endures seasonal temperature of from about zero to 95° F., 
with occasional heavy snows and an annual rainfall up to 45 inches. 

Tolerance. — Next to digger pine, the least tolerant of Pacific coast pines. 

Reproduction. — Abundant annual seeder, bearing cones at very early age. Seed with 
high rate of germination and with very persistent vitality in cones, no matter how old 
the cones are. Old trees often bear over 3.5 pounds of seed. Few cones open except 
by the aid of fire, which is nearly always followed by abundant reproduction. Seed germi- 
nates in the most barren soils, and seedlings are hardy from the start. 

Pricklecone Pine; Bishop's Pine. 

Pmus muricata Don. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Pricklecone or bishop's pine is a little-known species which, on account of 
its endurance of conditions most unfavorable to the growth of other pines, 
deserves the forester's careful attention. Ordinarily it is from 30 to 60 feet 
high and from 12 to 20 inches in diameter; trees from 75 to 80 feet high 
and from 24 to 36 inches thick occur rarely. Young trees in an open or scat- 
tered stand have dense, pyramidal crowns and short, clear trunks. Older trees 
under such conditions bear a dense crown rounded at the top, with stout 
branches still extending low to the ground. In dense stands, in which it fre- 
quently occurs, the crown is much the same, but shorter, and the trunk is 
cleaner. The bark, early broken even on young trees, is deeply furrowed and 
rough, with dull purple-brown scales. The deep yellow-green foliage is con- 
spicuously dense on the extremities of the numerous branches. The stiff leaves 
(fig. 24), 2 in a bundle, are from 34 to 5i inches long; usually 3 J or 4 inches. 
Leaves of a season's growth fall from the branches during the second and third 
summers. The cones (fig. 25), specially characterized by their indefinite per- 
sistence, are mature in August of the second season, when their prickly scales are 
shiny and a rich russet-brown. Many of them open and shed their seed in Sep- 
tember and October, while some of them remain closed for a number of years. 
A singular fact concerning the persistent cones is that they are rarely or never 
embedded in the stems of the trees, as in the case of other pines with persistent 
cones. The stems of the cones are broken and slowly drawn or forced from the 
wood by each year's growth pushing against the base of the cone, which is 
sometimes lightly held by the living bark. The seeds (fig. 25, «) are blackish 
or very dark brown, with a roughish surface. Seed-leaves, usually 5. but often 
4. Wood, light yellowish-brown, rather heavy and hard, moderately coarse- 
grained ; of no commercial use. 

Longevity. — Little is known concerning the longevity of this pine, which 
appears to grow rapidly in diameter for the first 40 or 50 years. Trees from 



66 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



12 to 14 inches in diameter are from 75 to 80 years old. It is probably a short- 
lived tree, rarely exceeding 150 or 200 years. Further study of its longevity is 
desirable. 




Fig. 24. — Pinus murlcata. 
R.\NGE. 



California coast region from Mendocino County to San Luis Obispo County ; also 
Lower California coast and island. 

California. — From Fort Bragg, Mendocino County (usually in widely separated 
areas), to Tomales Point — north of San Francisco Bay, ranging from near sea level to 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



67 



1,000 feet and extending about 1 mile inland ; south of San Francisco Bay, on summit 
and north side of Huckleberry Hill (near Monterey) at 500 to 800 feet elevation, and 
extending along coast to San I^uis Obispo County. 

Lower California. — Coast between Ensenada and San Quentin and on Cedros Island. 




Fig. 25. — Fiiiuts mitricata: a, seeds. 
OCCURRENCE. 



In swamps, sandy plains, or steep, dry, wind-swept sandy or gravelly hills near 
sea ; best in peat bogs (watersoaked, sandy plains with heath plants) in north part 
of range. Very moderate in demands ou moisture and quality of soil; thrives in poor, 



68 FOREST TREES OP THE PACIPIC SLOPE. 

dry, gravelly sand, in peat bogs, and grows also in cold clay soils. Occurs in pure and 
mixed stands. On sandy plains and gravelly slopes, in pure, crowded stands of slender 
trees. On cold clay soils, often with coast form of lodgepole pine and Gowen cypress ; 
sometimes also mingled with live oaks, Douglas fir, California laurel, wax myrtle, and 
madrona. 

Climatic Conditions.— Temperature of range rarely below 25° or above 95° F. Rain- 
fall, from 20 inches in north to 11 inches in south ; snow almost unknown. Atmospheric 
moisture, high ; more than one-third of days cloudy or foggy. 

Tolerance. — One of most tolerant pines; frequently in dense stands with fairly heavy 
crown cover and soil with good humus. 

Reproduction. — Good seeder, bearing cones when quite young and about every year. 
Seed of high germination and with very persistent vitality (a number of years) when 
held in closed cones. Seeds shed tardily ; opening of cones hastened by fire, which is 
usually followed by dense reproduction. Aggressive, extending its range particularly 
over cut and burned redwood lands contiguous to it ; then often replacing former forest 
by its dense growth. 

lARIX. LARCHES. 

The larches,o also called tamaracks, lose their leaves every fall, their branches 
becoming bare in winter and in the spring putting forth new foliage. Their 
leaves resemble somewhat those of other conifers in being needle-shaped ; but 
they are really distinct from all the rest of our native cone-bearers in being 
produced in little brush-like bundles, from 12 to 40 leaves in each (figs. 26 to 
28), on all but the leading shoots, on which the leaves are scattered singly. The 
little bud-like spurs which bear bundles of leaves are really aborted or sup- 
pressed brauchlets, which, if drawn out by growth, would show their leaves 
disposed as in the leading shoots. Male and female flowers are borne singly 
on the same branches or twigs of the previous year's growth. The male, or 
pollen-bearing, flowers are small, rounded, or elongated yellow-green bodies 
about the size of a small pea, and are borne naked; the female flowers, which 
produce cones and seeds, are also small, but are scaly. They are usually bright 
purple or red, and are accompanied by a bundle of leaves. 

The cones of larches mature in a single season and often remain on the trees 
for one or several seasons. Two winged seeds are borne under each of the thin 
cone scales. Larch cones open shortly after they are matured and shed their 
seed. Seed-leaves, 5 to 6 or 7. Succeeding these the young stem bears single 
scattered leaves, as do also the leading shoots of branches. This manner of 
leaf growth continues for several years, and then the seedling begins to pro- 
duce the adult clusters of leaves. 

The larches are important forest trees. They produce straight, tall stems, the 
wood of which is strong, moderately durable, and especially useful for round 
and pole timber, as well as for saw timber. 

At least three species of larch inhabit the United States. One is found 
mainly in northeastern LTnited States and the Canadian provinces, extending 
w-estward to southern Alaska. The two others inhabit the northwestern United 
States, extending northward into Canada. A fourth species is probably confined 
to Alaska. 

Western Larch. 

Larix occidentalis Nuttall. 
DISTINGOISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Western larch is the largest and most massive of North American larches. 
Its straight trunks grow ordinarily to a height of from 100 to 180 feet and to 

" The name Larch (from Larix) is properly applied only to trees of the genus Laria-. 
During the last twenty-five years, however, "larch" has been, and still is, applied by lum- 
bermen and woodsmen to the noble fir, Ahien nobilis. This tree is a true fir or " balsam ' 
and in no way directly related to the larches. The use of " larch " as a name for this 
tree should be discontinued. It has led to much confusion. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



69 



a diameter of 3 or 4 feet. Not infrequently trees reach a lieiglit of over 200 
feet and a diameter of from 5 to 8 feet. Tlie tapering trunlis are clear of 
branches for from 60 to ICX) feet or more, while tlie crown is a narrow short 




Fig. 20. — Larix occidentalis: a, seed. 



pyramid running up to a slender point. The crown is very open and carries 
comparatively few *mall. horizontal branches, which appear thinly clad with 
leaves. Trees growing in specially favorable, protected situations have rather 



70 FOREST TREES OF THE FACIFIC SLOPE. 

long, narrow crowns with more or less weeping branches. Middle-aged and old 
trunks have reddish cinnamon-brown bark, extremely thick (3 to 6 inches), 
deeply furrowed near the base of the tree, where the ridges are strikingly 
massive ; 20 or more feet above, it is much thinner and less deeply furrowed. 
The exceedingly thick bark of old and of half-grown trees is a most important 
protection against fire. Very many large trees bear evidence of having passed 
through a number of destructive forest fires without damage to their vitality. 
The bark of young trees and branches is thin, scaly, and dark or grayish brown. 
The color of the foliage, a pale yellowish green, becoming a bright lemon-yellow 
in late fall, distinguishes the trees from their associates. The leaves, flatly 
triangular and distinctly ridged or keeled on their inner face, are from about 
1 inch to nearly 2 inches in length. In cross-section they show a single fibro- 
vascular bundle in the center and no resin ducts. The number of leaves in a 
cluster, ranging from 14 to about 30, can not be depended upon as a distinctive 
character. The cones (fig. 26) mature in one season and are ripe early in 
August. They open soon aftei-wards and shed their seeds (fig. 26, a), which 
are light chestnut brown. By the end of October or November the cones have 
fallen from the trees. Cones vary from about 1 to li inches in length ; their 
foot-stalks are very short. Cone scales usually with a dense coating of delicate 
whitish woolly hairs on the outside, below their centers. Seed-leaves, as a 
rule, 6. Wood, clear reddish brown, hea\^, and fine-grained; commercially 
valuable. It is very durable in an unprotected state, differing greatly in this 
respect from wood of the eastern larch. 

Longe\t:ty. — Long-lived, attaining an age ordinarily of from 300 to 500 years, 
while the largest trees are probably from 600 to 700 years old. Trees from 16 
to 20 inches in diameter are from 250 to 300 years old. Further records of its 
age limits are i-equired. 

RANGE. 

High valleys and mountain slopes of southeastern British Columbia, northwestern 
Montana, northern Idaho, Washington, and southward to Oregon. 

Washin'gtox. — Mountains of northeastern part. Blue Mountains, and southern part on 
east side of Cascades. Not detected north of Omak Creek (eastern tributary Okanogan 
River in north central Oregon, latitude 48° 16'), nor in Cascades north of head of 
reshastin Creek (tributary Wenache River, latitude 47° 30'). Mount Rainier National 
Forest, 2,200 to .5,600 feet on divide between Natches and American rivers ; also on upper 
Natches, Tieton, upper Yakima, Atanum, Kliclcitat, and White Salmon watersheds, and 
on Mount Adams. Colville National Forest, northward from Columbia River to 4,000 
feet in Kettle Range. General in Washington addition to Priest River National Forest ; 
Columbia River in latitude 46° to 49°, and on Kamiak Butte, near Pullman (eastern 
part State). Occasional stands in Blue Mountains of Wenaha National B-orest, at 2,700 
to 6,000 feet. 

Oregon. — Blue and Wallowa mountains, and Cascades southward to head of Squaw 
Creek (T. 16 S., R. 9 E., lat. 44° 8'). Cascades, mainly on east side, but extending 
across divide for short distance, along west side, from township 4, south (south of 
Mount Hood) to head of Clackamas River (T. 6 S.). On north (at 2.000 feet to 4,600 
feet), east, and south sides of Mount Hood and southward, on east side of Cascades, to 
Tamarack Mountain (T. 6 S., R. 9 E.) ; here very abundant. Found next on Me- 
tolius River (T. 12 S., R. 9 E.), southeast sides of Mount Jefferson, thence extend- 
ing, southward to head of Squaw Creek (T. 16 S., R. 9 E. ), the southmost limit now 
known. In Blue Mountains, on both sides of north and south ranges (included in eastern 
division of Blue Mountains National Forest), at 5,000 to 6,000 feet; southward to head 
of John Day River, and westward to township 30 east. Eastward through Wallowa 
Mountains to Big and Little Sheep Creeks (T, 46 and 47 E., R. 3 and 4 S.) nearly to the 
Idaho line. 

The detailed range of western lai'ch in Montana and Idaho will be dealt with 
in a later bulletin. 

OCCUEBENCE. 

Mountain slopes, preferring north and west exposures — stream bottoms, valleys, and 
flats ; rare in canyon bottoms and on mountain summits. Exacting in requirements 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 71 

of soil moisture ; best in deep, fresh, porous soils, but thrives on low, moist sites and in 
dry, gravelly soils. 

Sometimes forms pure stands, but usually in mixed stands. Its best growth is in 
northeastern Washington, northern Idaho, and northwestern Montana, where it often 
occurs in pure open forests in valleys and slopes. In the Blue Mountains of Washington 
and Oregon, on typical flats. Here, also, areas of this larch and lodgepole pine are inter- 
spersed through the forest of Engelmann spruce, white and lowland firs, and Douglas 
flr ; the silvical characteristics of larch and lodgepole pine appear very similar in view of 
common association. Of largest size at lower elevations along Priest River (Idaho), In 
mixture with western white pine, western red cedar, Douglas flr, western hemlocic, Engel- 
mann spruce, and lowland flr. It is a more Important part of Douglas fir forests some- 
what higher up, where it is associated also with lodgepole and western white pines, 
lowland and alpine firs, Engelmann spruce, cottonwoods, and birches. In Bitterroot 
mountains (northern Idaho), in pure stands or with slight admixtures of Douglas flr and 
western yellow pine. 

Cli.matic Conditions. — Seasonal precipitation, from about 20 to about 30 inches, 
with a moderately heavy snowfall remaining on ground until summer. Rains frequent 
in spring and fall, but summers hot and dry. 

TOLEHANCE. — Very intolerant of shade throughout life ; probably demands even more 
light than western yellow pine. This intolerance partly compensated for by early rapid 
height growth, which carries it above suppressing heavier-foliaged associates. Appears 
more tolerant on moist than on dry soils. In moist sites it grows in fairly dense stands, 
and is tall, with a clear bole, and its lower branches are early killed and dropped ; while 
on drier soils open stands or isolated trees occur with branches often retained to the 
ground. 

Reproduction. — A proliflc seeder, but locally variable in seed production ; sterile 
periods of from one to several seasons are likely to intervene. Rarely bears seeds as 
early as the 25th year, but begins to bear prolifically at 40 or 50 years. Seed has a 
fairly high rate of germination and moderately persistent vitality. The thin scales of 
ripe cones open and close very readily with alternate dry and wet weather, so that the 
period and the rapidity of seed dispersion vary somewhat with local climatic conditions. 
Usually much seed is shed on snow. Abundant moisture required for germination and 
growth of seedlings. The chief competitor of larch is lodgepole pine, both finding suit- 
able seed bods in burned-over areas with exposed mineral soil, where the kind of repro- 
duction depends upon whether larch or pine has seeded first. If lodgepole pine has the 
start, it shades out the more intolerant larch. If both species start together, larch may 
preserve its numerical importance in the stand by more rapid growth. Its light foliage 
can not prevent the growth of the pines, or of spruce and firs, and tlie typical occur- 
rence of larch in mixed stands is a result. Favorite areas for pure larch reproduction 
are those so thoroughly burned over as to preclude the immediate heavy reproduction of 
lodgepole pine. 

Alpine Larch. 

Larix lyallil Parlatore. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

The .strictly alpine habitat of Alpine larch serves very largely to distinguish 
it from the Western larch, which it resembles in some features. It is stunted in 
appearance, from liO to 40 feet high and from 10 to 24 inches in diameter, with a 
long, broadly pyramidal, pointed crown. Some of the branches are verj' long and 
big, forming an open unsymmetrical crown. Somewhat larger trees are some- 
times found. As a rule, the ends of the branches turn upward, but frecjuently 
they droop conspicuously, while, in contrast with the brittle branches of Western 
larch, they are tough and withy. A notable character of the new branch shoots 
is their dense coating of white, fine wool, which is retained, more or less, for 
two seasons, and from which the tree gained the name of " woolly larch." 
Trunks are clear of branches for only about one-third or one-half the tree's 
height, and, as a result of exposure, are often crooked or bent. The bark of 
mature trees is rarely more than seven-eighths of an inch thick. It is indis- 
tinctly furrowed ; the irregular, flat ridges of loose scales are deep purplish or 
reddish brown. On young trees the bark is usually unbroken until they are 5 
or (i inches in diameter. Previously it is ashy gray. a.s are the crown branches 
of older trees. The foliage is distinctly light bluish-green, turning bright lemon- 



72 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



yellow late in autumn, when it is readily detected by its color on distant high, 
inaccessible peaks and crests. The leaves, from 30 to 40 or more in a cluster, 
are more or less 4-angled, and about 1 inch to 1| inches in length. A eross- 




FiG. 27. — Larix lyalUi: a, seed. 

section shows one resin-duct in each of the two angles of the leaf. The cones 
mature in one season and are ripe early in August, opening soon afterwards and 
shedding their seed. By late autumn the cones have all fallen from the trees. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 73 

They are from about IJ to 2 inches long (fig. 27). The bristly bracts that pro- 
ject from among the cone scales are a deep purple. The cone scales are deep 
purple-red, and their margins have a fringe of tangled, fine white wool, as do, 
moi'e or less, the outer surfaces of the scales. The seeds (fig. 27, a) are pale 
reddish brown. Seed-leaves, usually 5. Wood, clear red-brown or deep orange- 
brown ; fine-grained, heavy, hard, and tough ; suitable for use, but not used com- 
mercially. 

Longevity. — Long-lived, attaining an age of from 400 to 600 years. Exception- 
ally large trees are doubtless 050 to 700 years old, or even older. Trees from 
16 to 18 inches in diameter are from 470 to 510 years old. Age limits imperfectly 
known. 

KANGE. 

Timber line tree. Continental Divide in wesiern Alberta and eastern British Columbia ; 
northern Montana and southward to head of Middle P'ork of Sun River and Pend Oreille 
Pass ; northern Idaho, and southward to Nez Perces Pass and Lochsa-Selway Divide ; 
northeastern Washington and Cascades of Washington and Oregon, southward to Mount 
Hood. Range still imperfectly known. 

British Columbia and Alberta. — Eastern and western slopes of Continental Divide, 
at 6,500 to 7,000 feet, and northward to Mount Hector (near Laggani ; eastward to 
Cascade in Bow River Valley, and westward to southern Selkirk Range (between 
Kootenai Lake and head of St. Marys River, a branch of Kootenai Riven and CJalton 
Range (near Tobacco Plains, between Continental Divide and Kootenai River), just 
north of Canadian boundary. 

Washington. — Both sides of Cascades and high mountains of northeastern part of 
State. Not detected in Blue Mountains, Olympics, nor in coast ranges. In Cascades, 
from latitude 49° southward, probably, throughout the range, but abundant only to head 
of Icicle Creek (tributary Wonache River), at 6,000 to 7,400 feet; on Mount Stuart and 
Wenache Mountains. On east side of Cascades, in Washington National Forest, at 
5,800 to 7,100 feet ; abundant north of Lake Chelan at State Pass — about 6,000 feet at 
War Creek Pass — 6,700 feet, on divides both sides of Stehekin River from Lake Chelan 
to head of basin ; south of Lake Chelan, on Pyramid Peaks at elevations between 6,500 
to 7,000 feet, and in Emerald Basin at 5,000 feet. 

Okegon. — Rare in Cascades and southward to Mount Hood. 

The detailed I'ange of this tree in Idaho and Montana will be dealt with in a 
future publication. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Timber line tree, of high mountain slopes and plateaus, showing preference for north 
aspects and often for passes and sheltered sides of crests, and for divides. Very mod- 
erate in soil requirements, growing in rockiest soil and in crevices of rugged granite 
slopes, provided there is abundant soil moisture. Occurs as scattered individuals, in 
small, pure groves, or in open stands with white-bark pine, black hemlock, alpine fii-, 
and Engelmann spruce. 

Climatic Conditions. — Best climatic environment where there is heavy snowfall, 
beginning early and remaining well into the summer. Hardier than other alpine asso- 
ciates, in moist basins ascending higher and showing more vigor, while its light foliage, 
compact, strong trunk, and firmly anchored root system enable it to withstand, without 
serious damage, the rigors of high and bleak summits. 

Tolerance. — Like western larch, very intolerant of shade. 

REPRODncTiON. — Little is known definitely of the seeding habits. Sometimes pro- 
duces cones abundantly, but apparently at infrequent and irregular intervals. Repro- 
duction in the United States generally poor, and seedlings or saplings are not numerous. 

Tamarack." 

Larix laricina (Du Roi) Koch 

DISTIXGUISHIXG CHARACTERISTICS. 

In the far Northwest, where tamarack enters the Pacific region, it is a small 
tree often from 6 to 10 feet high and from 1 to 3 inches in diameter. East of 

" Since the manuscript of this bulletin went to printer Mr. W. F. Wight has published 
the following new species of larch from Alaska, His illustration of the tree is repro- 



74 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

the Canadian Rockies and in the Great Lakes country, trees from 60 to 80 feet 
high and from 20 to 24 inches in diameter were once common, but are now 
much rarer, the largest trees being seldom over 50 feet high and 12 or 14 inches 
thick. It has a single straight, slightly tapering trunk, and a narrow, sharply 
conical crown of slender, horizontal branches, which, during the first 25 or 30 
years, and in the usual dense stands, extend down to the groiuid. Later the 
trunks are clear of branches for one-half or two-thirds of their length. The 
thin, scaly bark is reddish brown, but outwardly more or less weathered to an 
ashy brown. Twigs of a season's growth are smooth, and whitish at first, but 
in winter, dull yellowish brown. Mature leaves (fig. 28), scattered singly on 
vigorous leading shoots but elsewhere in clusters of about 12 to 20, are indis- 
tinctly triangular in cross-section — convex on the top side, with a ridge beneath — 
and about | inch to IJ inches long. In cross-section the leaf shows 2 minute 
resin-ducts close to its outer edges. Cones (fig. 28) are matured in early 
autumn of one season, are pale russet-brown, as are the minute winged seeds 
(fig. 28, /), which escape slowly from the gradually opened cone-scales during 
late autumn or early winter ; probably the upright position of the cone prevents 
the rapid escape of the seeds usual from pendent cones. Seed leaves 5, sharp- 
pointed, and about i an inch long. Wood, pale yellowish brown; in larger 
trees, with rather thin layer of whitish sapwood; fine-grained or moderately 
coarse-grained, according as the trees are grown in dense or open stands ; 
rather hard and heavy, and elastic, used commercially chiefly for poles and ties. 
Longevity. — The largest trees are from 150 to 180 years old, while trunks 
from 10 to 12 inches through are from 60 to 75 years old. Further records of 
longevity are desirable. 

duced here (fig. 28a), together with his description and notes. The .writer has not been 
able to critically study the specimens upon which this species is based. In the absence 
of previous evidence to the contrary, a form of L. laricina has been held to be the larch 
commonly met with in Alaska. It is not at all unlikely, however, that the Alaskan tree 
is distinct, but the exceedingly close relationship of this tree with L. laricina, as shown 
by the form of the cone scales and bracts from specimens representing both species (figs. 
2S and 28a) suggests that further study should be made of these trees, especially in the 
field. 

Alaska Larch. Larix alaskensis Wight, sp. nov. 

"A small tree, attaining a maximum height of about 9 m. and a diameter of 20 cm. ; 
leaf-facicles at the ends of branches 3 to 5 mm. long ; leaves pale green, 5 to 20 mm. 
long, about 5 mm. broad, rounded on the upper surface, slightly keeled on the lower ; 
cones borne at the ends of lateral branchlets 3 to 5 mm. long, ovoid or short-oblong, 10 
to 15 mm. long, 9 to 12 mm. broad ; cone scales slightly longer than broad, the larger 
ones 8 to 10 mm. long, 7 to 9 mm. broad, rounded at the apex, abruptly contracted toward 
the base ; bracts of the cone about one-third as long as the cone scales, ovate, acute ; 
flowers not seen. 

"Distribution. — Upper Kuskowim River to the Yukon and Tanana rivers. 

" Type-specimen: No. 379,803, U. S. Nat. Mus. ; collected August 6, 1902, at Tanana, 
Alaska, by A. J. Collier (No. 117). 

" Larix alaskensis differs from L. laricina in its usually shorter leaves, but more par- 
ticularly in its cones. The cone scales are longer in proportion to their breadth ; the 
bracts of the cone scales are ovate and without a projecting mucronate point at the apex, 
while L. laricina has bracts short-oblong to nearly orbicular in outline, and commonly 
emarginate or lacerate on either side of a mucronate projection at the apex. From L. 
dahurica, the most closely related Asiatic species, it differs in its usually shorter leaves, 
in its smaller cones, with the cone scales less widely spreading in dried specimens, and in 
its narrower cone bracts. 

" Between the Ytikon and Cook Inlet. — Upper Kuskokwim, Herron, August, 1899 ; 
Tanana Valley, east of Cantwell River, Brooks & Prindle, August 27, 1902 ; Kaltag, on 
the Yukon, Collier, 1902 (No. 147) ; Tanana, Collier, 1902 (Nos. 117, 118) ; Weare, 
Georgeson, 1900 (No. 6)." — Reprinted from Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections (Quar- 
terly Issue), volume 50, 174, PI. xvii. Published July 10, 1907.) 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



75 



Newfoundland and Labrador to northern Pennsylvania, northern Indiana, Illinois, cen- 
tral Minnesota ; northwestward to Hudson Bay and Alaska nearly to Bering Sea. 




Fig. 28. — LariJi laricina: a, scale at base of cone; 6, scale near base: c, scales from 
center of cone; d, scales near top of cone; e, top scale of cone; all li natural size; 
f, seed natural size. 



Yukon and Alaska. — Pacific slope of Rocky Mountains in Yukon territory and Alaska, 
crossing Rockies on Liard River at about latitude 59°, and extending up Dease, upper 



76 



FOKEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



Liard, and Francis rivers nearly to Finlayson Lake (lat. 61° 35'). Locally noted on 
Francis Lake, Francis River at mouth. Reappears in central Alaska (long. 145° 45' to 
158° 40') in valley of lower Yukon, upper Koyokuk, Tanana, and Upper Kuskokwim rivers, 
extending north to latitude 67° on Koyukuk River and south to headwaters of Kuskokwim 
River (lat. 63°) ; extends from river valleys to 1,650 feet. Locally noted on Yukon from 




Fig. 28a. — Larix alaskensis: a, fruiting branch; h, back of cone scale; c. a cone scale 
with ovules ; d, bract of cone scale — enlarged ; e, bract of cone scale of Larix ameri- 
cana — enlarged. 



Kaltag near Norton Bay (long. 158° 40 / st least up to mouth of Tanana; Minook Creek 
(southern tributary Yukon above Tanana) ; upper Koyukuk River from Bettles down at 
least to Bergman ; Tanana River and tributaries as follows : Main valley, one patch be- 
tween Goodpastor and Salcha rivers (lat. 145° 45', east limit now known), Salcha 
River, two patches on small tributaries ; Cantwell River, one patch on east side near 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 77 

month ; Kantislina River, one patch between head and Toklat River ; Tolovana River, two 
patches on north tributaries ; Baiter Creels, one patch on head tributary ; Kuskokwim 
River, noted on its tributary Tonzona River. Also reported from upper Copper River. 

The detailed range of tamarack east of the Pacific region will be dealt with 

in a future bulletin. 

OCCUBRENCE. 

Most abundant in sphagnum swamps and muskegs, but of largest size on better drained 
margins of swamps and lakes, moist, porous benches, and bottomlands ; thrives also on 
well-drained hillsides. In parts of British Columbia, characteristic of damp, cool, north 
slopes. Grows on shallow, moist soils of nearly every consistency, from stiff clay to 
coarse sand. Thrives on moderately retentive loams, especially those with rich leaf 
mold. Occurrence in saturated soil seems to indicate not a special requirement, 
but aliility to exist where other species more tolerant of shade can not grow. It does 
not do well where its roots are constantly submerged. Near confluence of Tanana and 
Yukon rivers in Alaska it occurs In open scattering stands, while in its eastern range it 
forms rather dense, pure growths. At best, the crown cover is never very dense. Com- 
monly associated in mixed stands with black spruce, black cottonwood, alder, and willows. 
Other far northwestern associates have not been determined. 

Cli.matio Conditions. — With the widest range of all American conifers, it experiences 
great diversity of climate. In the Atlantic region, it grows in a humid climate with 
frequent fogs and an annual precipitation of from 30 to '>0 inches ; and seasonal temper- 
ature is moderate — 30° or over 100° F. being rare. But in north British Columbia and 
Alaska it is subjected to great seasonal ranges of temperature and to pronounced atmos- 
pheric dryness; temperature falls to —60° or —80° F. during winter and often goes 
above 100° F. in summer. The precipitation may be as low as 12 inches, and the growing 
season for tender vegetables may not exceed three weeks. 

Tolerance. — Requires a great deal of light throughout life, and at no time endures 
heavy shade. 

Repkodittion. — Frequent and abundant seeder. Some seed is borne annually, but 
especially abundant production occurs about every 2 to 4 years. Seed have only moderate 
rate of germination and moderately persistent vitality. Young trees often produce 
cones when from 10 to 20 years old. Conditions favorable to germination and growth 
are fresh organic or mineral soil, with a protecting cover of spare grass .or herbs. 
Seedlings retjuire this slight protection at first, and then grow fairly rapidly in height, 
60 that they persist in mixture with more tolerant but slower growing species of the 
same age. 

PICEA. SPRUCES. 

Tlie spruces are evergreen trees with sharp-pointed, pyramidal crowns and 
conspicuously straight, tapering trunks. The branches grow in regularly dis- 
tant circles. Their stiff, often very keenly pointed, single leaves have a char- 
acteristic spiral arrangement on the branches, to which those of each season's 
growth adhere for from about seven to ten years. All but two of the North 
American species have more or less distinctly 4-angled leaves. Of the excep- 
tions, one species has flat and only indistinctly 4-angled leaves, while the other 
species has flat-triangular leaves. Male and female flowers are borne on the same 
tree and on twigs of the previous year's growth. Male flowers, pollen-bearing 
only, are drooping, yellow, bright purple, or rose-red, long or short cylindrical 
bodies (about three-fourths inch to 1 inch by one-fourth to one-half inch), 
while the female flowers, which produce cones and seed, are erect, yellowish- 
green or bright red bodies of similar form, from three-fourths inch to about 
li inches in length by one- fourth to nearly three-fourths inch in diameter. 
The cones, which are matured in one season, are cylindrical or egg-shaiied, 
always drooping or bent downward (figs. 20-33). Most spruces bear their cones 
at the extreme top of the crown, while some bear cones only on branches of 
the upper half of the crown, .\fter sbetlding their seed, in early or late fall, 
the cones either drop from the trees by spring or remain on the branches for 
a luimber of years. The scales of spruce cones are thin and without prickles, 
in contrast to the thick, strong cone scales of pines, which often have sharp, 
strong prickles. The scales are firmly attached, as in the pines, to a woody 
15188— OS 6 



78 FOEEST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

central column. They never fall away until the cone is rotted to pieces. Two 
seeds are borne under each cone scale. The seeds are light and are provided at 
one end with a thin wing which enables the wind to disseminate them widely. 
Seed-leaves, sometimes 4, but commonly from 5 to about 15. 

The spruces are exceedingly important forest trees. They yield superior 
saw-timber and the even-grained wood can be used for a great many purposes. 
For paper pulp the wood of these trees is unsurpassed by any other. Seven 
species are indigenous to North America, all of which are abundantly, or 
exclusively, i-epresented in the United States. Four are distributed over the 
western half of the United States, and three range mainly through north- 
eastern United States and Canada, while two of these extend, almost entirely 
in Canada from the Great Lake region, into Alaslia. 

Engelmann Spruce. 

Picea engelmanni Engelmann.a 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

In dense stands Engelmann spruce has a straight, clean trunk with a close, 
very short, narrowly pyramidal crown of small branches; the upper part of the 
crown has exceedingly short sprays, forming a narrow spire. Such trees are 
from 80 to 100 feet or more in height, and from 18 to 36 inches in diameter. 
Larger trees occur sometimes. Singly, or in an open stand, it forms a similar 
but longer crown, with drooping lower branches which may extend down to the 
ground. Such trees are usually from 60 to 80 feet high with very tapering 
trunks, and if exposed to heavy winds, the lower branches are often long and 
stout. From all of the main horizontal branches hang numerous tassel-like 
side branchlets which give the tree a very compact appearance. At high altitudes 
it is often not more than 2 or 4 feet high. A spike-like stem bears a few short 
densely-leaved branchlets while enormously long branches spread over the 
ground from the base of the trunk. The foliage is a deep blue-green, on some 
trees with a decidedly silvery or whitish tinge. This silvery tinge is very 
marked on young trees ; occasionally, however, large and moderately old trees 
still retain it. The bark becomes scaly even on rather young trees. On 
maturer trunks it is thin, dark purplish-brown or russet-red, and outwardly 
composed of very loosely attached small scales. The 4-angled leaves (fig. 29) 
are soft to the touch, usually about an inch in length, but often longer, and are 
spreading on young branchlets (fig. 29) which do not bear cones, while on cone- 
bearing twigs they are commonly crowded and of a shorter type ; they are often 
crowded and curved so as to appear mainly on the upper part of the brauchlet. 
The point of the leaf is characteristically short and flat ; short leaves exhibit 
this more strongly than do the longer ones. A cross-section of the leaf shows no 
resin ducts. A disagreeable odor is emitted by leaves and young shoots when 
crushed. Young shoots are more or less minutely hairy and may remain so for 
about three years. The cones, which mature in a single season, are ripe by the 
middle or latter part of August. Most of them are borne near the top of the 
crown. By October the seed is usually all shed. Cones (fig. 29) vary greatly 

"Dr. George Engelmann did not name this tree in honor of himself. Parry (Trans. 
Acad. Sci. St. Louis, II, 122, 186.3) recognizing that the tree had been referred by Engel- 
mann to Ahies niora (another species), called it Abies Engelmanni, which proved to be a 
nnmcn nudum. Later Engelmann (loc. cit., 212) cited Parry's name, and in doing this 
formed a new name, Picea engelmanni, which he credited to Parry. As a matter of fact, 
Parry did not write Picea engelmanni, consequently Engelmann was the first publisher of 
Picea engelmanni, but certainly not with a knowledge that he must be cited as its author. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



79 



in length from about 1 to nearly 3 inches, the usual length being li inches. The 
cone-scales are also very variable in form. They are commonly narrowed to 
squarish ends; sometimes the ends of the scales are pointed, and occasionally 
rounded. At maturity and shortly after shedding their seeds, the cones are 
somewhat shiny and from light brown to daili cinnamon-brown. They fall 
from the trees during autumn or early winter. The small winged seeds 




"^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 




Fig. 20. — Picea cnoclmainti: a, leader ; b, side braucli and open cone ; c, seed. 



(fig. 20, r) are blackish brown. Seed-leaves, G. Wood, light, soft, fine, and 
straight-grained, and of a very light yellowish to faintly reddish brown color; 
used commercially. 

Longevity. — Very long-lived, even in the most unfavorable situations. Trees 
from 10 to 22 inches in diameter are from 350 to 460 years old. Stunted trees 



80 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

of high wind-swept crests, from 3 to 5 inches in diameter, are from 150 to 200 
years old. Extremely large trees occasionally found would doubtless prove to 
be from 500 to 600 years old. 

RANGE. 

Yukon Territory and British Columbia to southern Oregon and through the Rockies 
into New Mexico and Arizona. Rocky Mountains of western Canada from Peace River 
southward through western Montana and Idaho, western Wyoming, eastern Nevada, 
Utah, western Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona ; westward to east slope of Cascades 
in Washington and to west slope in Oregon, extending southward to California border. 
In Canada, at elevations from 2,500 to 6,000 feet ; at 4,000 to 6,000 feet m Washington ; 
at 8,500 to 11,000 feet in Arizona, and at 8,500 to 12,500 feet in Colorado. 

Western Canada (Yukon Territory, British Columbia, Alberta). — East slopes of 
Rockies in Yukon Territory westward throughost British Columbia south of Peace River 
plateau (lat. 55° 45') ; probably only to inland slope of Coast Range, and not in more 
arid parts of southern interior plateau nor on mountains above 6,000 feet. Northern part 
of British Columbia, on streams at 2,500 to 3,500 feet, reaching Babine and McLeods 
lakes ; northern limits not yet determined. Eastern limit at south is Cascade Mountain 
on Bow River (along Canadian Pacific Railroad). Locally noted at Laggan, Kicking Horse 
Lake, Rundle Mountain (near Banff), Lake Louise, Kamloops Valley (central British 
Columbia). 

Washington. — East slope of Cascades and northeastern mountains ; generally at 4,000 
to 6,000 feet elevation. Washington National Forest appears to be mainly on east side, 
at 4,000 to 6,000 feet ; in sheltered passes occasionally up to 6,800 feet and down to 
2,100 foot, as in Stehekin River valley, where it extends westward from an island about 
5 miles above Lake Chelan to within 15 miles above Lake in lower edge of Abies amabilis 
growth. Other eastern limits are White River canyon (nearly to reserve line), Stamilt 
Creek (branch Columbia River south of Wenache River, long. 120° 20'), and divide 
between Yakima and Columbia rivers (Kittitas County), at 4,500 to 5,200 feet. Reported 
also on west side of Cascades on headwaters of Skykomish, Snoqualmie, Cedar, and 
White rivers. Mount Rainier National Forest, at 1,000 to 6,200 feet elevation ; Mount 
Rainier, at about 3,500 feet. Locally noted as follows : Mount Adams ; Early Winter 
Creek ; Bridge Creek, at 4,250 feet ; Stillaquamish River below Silverton ; Chelan-Entiat 
Divide, at 6,400 feet ; peak southeast of Twisp Pass ; tributary Similkameen River near 
Windy Pass, at 6,125 feet ; Rattlesnake Creek ; head of North Fork of Entlat River, at 
7,000 feet ; Emerald Basin, south of Lake Chelan, at 5,500 feet ; peaks south of Rainy 
Pass ; Slate Creek ; Falls Creek ; Crater Pass, at 6,000 feet ; Goat Mountain, at 4,800 
feet ; Upper Klickitat River, at 4,200 feet. Colville National Forest, in basins and 
draws, above 4,000 feet elevation. 

Oregon. — Cascades southward to California line ; also in Blue and Powder River 
mountains ; in north, generally at 3,000 to 5,500 feet, but at 5,500 to 8,000 feet, in south. 
In northern Cascades, mainly in groups on east side of range in canyons and on high 
cool slopes ; similarly scattered also on west side of range, on streams down to 2,500 feet. 
Locally noted on Mount Hood, at 3,000 to 6,000 feet, and at Badger's Lake and Brooks 
Meadow, Wasco County. In southern Cascades, grouped or scattered on both sides of 
main divide in canyons and on damp slopes, at 5,600 to 8,000 feet ; limited, on east side, 
to few larger canyons and moister slopes, but sometimes, as in high country between 
Mount Pitt and Klamath Point, forming 75 per cenf of stand In canyon bottoms — upper 
canyon of South Fork of Rogue River (T 34 S., R. 5 E). Not on Umpqua-Rogue Divide, 
nor in Klamath Pass, but reported on Siskiyous (Ashland National Forest) at head- 
waters of Ashland Creek (T. 40 N., R. IE); reported also from north end of Coast 
Range, near Astoria, at 3,000 to 6,000 feet. Blue Mountains, wide ridges and at heads of 
streams, above 3,000 feet ; John Day River ; also in Powder River Mountains (north- 
eastern Oregon). 

OCCURRENCE. 

Tree essentially of high altitudes ; its presence controlled to great extent by supply of 
soil moisture, demands for which limit its occurrence to high elevations or to land moist 
from springs, seepage, or overflow. Lower range limited to moist canyons or to pro- 
tected north slopes, while on other exposures it finds suitable soil moisture only at 
higher altitudes. Owing to lower temperatures and less intense light at north, favorable 
moisture conditions occur there at lower elevations than in south ; hence the gradual 
U)wering of altitudinal range from 8,500 to 12,000 (south) to 6,000 feet (north), with 
increasing latitude. This variation is not consistent throughout the range, but is often 
influenced by local climatic factors. Of merchantable size at middle and lower levels; 
stunted or depressed at timber line. Shows little preference of soil, if sufficiently moist. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 81 

Grows fairly ou dry aoils, but usually gives way on porous soils to lodgepole pine, Douglas 
fir, and to otlier trees requiring better drainage. Does well on retentive, fine, loamy soils, 
!)ut attains best growth on deep, rich soils of gulches and river valleys. A shallow root- 
system enables it to grow on thin soils of slopes and on wet margins of rivers, lakes, 
and swamps. Forms extensive pure forests and also occurs in mixed stands. Pure stands 
are somewhat more frequent in south than in north, where it chiefly meets trees of sim- 
ilar silvical requirements but of less extended southern range. Most generally with 
alpine fir and sparingly with Douglas fir near its lower limits. In Blue Mountains of 
Washington and Oregon, with western larch, lodgepole pine, alpine and lowland firs, and 
Douglas fir. In Washington, occasionally In pure stands, but usually with amabilis fir, 
alpine fir, Lyall larch, black hemlock, yellow cedar, and white-bark pine. In Cascades of 
Oregon, with alpine, noble, and amabilis firs, Douglas fir, black hemlock, and lodgepole 
pine. 

Climatic Conditions. — Subject to varied climatic conditions. Annual precipitation 
averages over 25 inches ; is largely snow. Seasonal temperature, with a minimum in 
north of approximately 40° P., and maximum of about 95° F. in south. Daily range of 
temperature great at upper levels, but less at lower altitudes and on north exposures. 
Near timber line the growing season is alwut two months, and freezing occurs almost 
nightly, resulting in very slow growth ; while at lower elevations the growing season is 
about four months and frosts are less frequent, permitting a more rapid growth. 

Tolerance. — Very tolerant of shade, surpassing most of its associates in this respect ; 
endures years of shading and makes good growth when released from suppression. Owing 
to great tolerance, it forms close stands of many ages and preserves good forest condi- 
tions. Somewhat more tolerant in youth than in old age. 

ItKi'uouucTio.v. — A prolific seeder over most of range. Heavy seed years occur locally 
at 3-year intervals. Seed with high rate of germination and persistent vitality. Produces 
seeds from about twenty-fifth year to an advanced age. Seeds germinate best in moist 
mineral soil ; seedlings rarely found in humus. Notwithstanding prolific seed produc- 
tion, seedlings are not generally abundant. They are most numerous in small protected 
openings in the forest. Low branches of isolated trees also favor germination and 
protect seedlings, through which groups of trees are built up, and which combine with 
other groups to form continuous stands. 

Sitka Spruce; Tideland Spruce. 
Picea sitchcnsis (Bong.) Trautvetter and Mayer. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Sitka .spruce growing in dense stands is tall, and has short thin open conical 
crowns of small branches and long clean trunks of only moderate taper. In 
open stands, or as it occurs singly, it develops a shorter, but still tall, rapidly 
tapering stem with branches down to or near the ground. The crown is still 
open, narrow and sharp in its upper part, but very broad at the bottom, where 
the huge branches are often 20 or 30 feet long. The branches have many hang- 
ing slender side branchlets from 1* to 3} feet long. It is a very large and 
massive tree when fully grown, attaining a height, exceptionally, of from IGO to 
180 feet, with a diameter of from 8 to 12 feet, 5 or 6 feet above ground. Still 
larger trees are reported. Ordinarily it is from SO to 125 feet high and from 
40 to 70 inches in diameter. Forest-grown trees are clear of branches for from 
40 to 80 feet, or more. The bases of big trunks are swelled by enormous but- 
tresses. The bark is scaly on very young trees; on lai-ge trees it is thin (one- 
lialf inch thick), is dark purple or deep reddish brown, and has big thin, easily 
(Ictaclied scales. Twigs of tlie year are always smooth and dark yellow-brown. 
Tlie foliage is a bright yellow-green. The bristling habit of the often keenly- 
l)()inted leaves, which stand out straight all around the branches (fig. .30), render 
it prickly to the touch. The leaves are flat, only very indistinctly 4-angled, 
stiff, and rather thick. The cones mature in one season, and hang down con- 
spicuously from the branches. They vary in length from about 2 to 4 inches 
(fig. .30). Soon after maturity, during early fall, tlieir tliin papery scales open 
and shed their small seeds (fig. 30, u) in a short time. Most of the cones fall 



82 



FOREST TREES OP THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



from the trees within a few months afterward, when they are light yellow- 
brown. The small seeds are characteristically light clay-brown, their compara- 
tively large, thin wings adhering to them tenaciously. Seed-leaves, from 4 to 




Fig. 30. — Picea sitchcnsis: a, seed. 



5, slender, and about three-eighths of an inch long. Wood varies greatly in 
color, but it is commonly a very pale brown, with the faintest tinge of reddish. 
It is light, soft, from fine to rather coarse grained. It furnishes the best of 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 83 

saw timber, the large percentage of clear, straight-grained wood making it very 
useful and important commercially. 

Longevity. — A very long-lived tree. It grows rapidly in height in moderately 
dense stands, and It grows very rapidly in diameter for several centuries when 
alone or in an open forest. Large trees attain an age of from 400 to 750 years ; 
such trees are from 4 to 6 feet in diameter and from 150 to ISO feet high. About 
800 or 850 years is probably the age of some of the much larger trees occasion- 
ally met. Further study of its longevity is desirable. 

BANGE. 

Generally from sea level to S,000 feet elevation in coast region (and inland about 
50 miles) from Alaska to northern California. 

Alaska. — Islands and sea slope of Coast Range from sea level to timberline (which 
in the I'anhandle, is 1,800 to 2,400 feet and 3,500 feet on exposed sea slopes) and 
westward to west shore of Cook Inlet and north end of Kodiak Island. At Lynn 
Canal extending up to 2,600 feet (limit of erect tree growth) ; west of Lynn Canal, 
extending from sea level to 2,200 feet. From Dry Bay to Prince William Sound at 
400 to 1,600 feet, and on Prince William Sound, from about 300 feet, in gulches away 
from coast to over 1,450 feet on slopes facing the sound. In the interior of Kenai 
peninsula to an elevation of 1,500 feet. Extends around Kenai peninsula, along shores 
of Cook Inlet and Turnagain Arm, down west side of Cook Inlet — here scattered on 
lower shore and southward, in sheltered places, to Kukak Bay at bottom of Alaskan 
peninsula. Occurs similarly also in northern part of Kodiak Island, a.s far south as 
Ugak Bay, on east shore, and to Cape Uganuk, on west shore. 

British Columbia. — Islands and vicinity of coast, on western slopes of Coast Range, 
from about 3,000 to 4,000 or exceptionally to 5.000 feet ; summit between Cold- 
water and Coquihalla rivers, to 3.280 feet ; on Nicolume River, a few miles beyond the 
summit between that stream and Sumallow River ; on the west side of Spioos River, near 
the trail crossing, and up, again, to 5,000 feet, at Taku Pass. On west coast of Van- 
couver Island, in Renfrew District, occurs up to 975 feet. 

Washington. — Mainly at mouths of rivers and on bottomlands about Puget Sound 
and along the Pacific coast ; also extending up valleys to the foothills of Cascades, 
sometimes to an elevation of 2,000 feet. In (West) Washington National Forest, scat- 
tered over river bottoms and benches below 2,000 feet; on Mount Viero (Whatcom 
County); in Mount Rainier National Forest, only on Nisqually River, at 1,800 feet; 
at Orting (near Voights Creek) ; in Olympic National Forest, only on Pacific coast and 
extending inland about 30 miles; in Soleduc Valley (at point 3 miles below Hot Springs) ; 
at a point 2J miles south of Port Crescent, and at Elma, near Iloquiam River. 

Oregon. — In northern part, along the coast and up valleys to foothills of Cascades ; 
south of Columbia River Valley, confined to coast. 

California. — At mouths of streams and in low valleys facing the ocean as far south 
as Caspar, Mendocino County. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Mainly from sea level to 3,000 feet ; altitudinal range determined chiefly by soil and 
atmospheric moisture. Contrary to habit of other trees of this region, which go to 
lower elevations at north, this spruce reaches higher elevations at north than at south. 
Generally in moist, coast alluvial and sandy bottoms, along streams, and especially on 
moist slopes facing sea. In north coast region it thrives on very thin, light moist soils ; 
also follows moist soils eastward and on mountain slopes. Best growth in constantly 
moist, deep rich soils, and in humid atmosphere. Deficient moisture occasions stunted 
growth. Quantity and quality of soil more important as soil moisture and the humidity 
decrease, and vice versa. Eiulures considerable inundation in coast ^ood plain, but 
usually grows a short distance from water's edge. 

Forms pure forests, especially at north, and occurs in mixed stands, most commonly 
with western hemlock ; associated also with redwood, western red cedar, lowland fir, 
yellow cedar. Pacific yew, black hemlock ; occasionally with Douglas fir, broadleaf and 
vine maples. Sitka alder, black cottonwood, willows, etc. Sitka spruce and western hem- 
lock are the chief components of Alaskan coast forests, where one or the other becomes 
dominant : the spruce is usually dominant on the coast, while hemlock holds higher ele- 
vations and areas away from coast. 

Climatic Conditkins. — Climatic conditions of range very favorable to forest growth. 
Climate generally mild and uniform, especially through influence of sea and warm sea 
current from Japan. Precipitation heavy ; humidity high, and dense fogs abundant ; 



84 rOKEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

changes of temperature, gi-adual ; summers generally mild and winters not severe. Nev- . 
ertheless, average daily, monthly, and yearly temperatures and average annual precipita- 
tion and humidity vary greatly from southern limits of range in California to northern 
limit in Alaslia. Precipitation ranges from about 20 inches in California to over 100 
inches in Alaska. The temperature drops to —35° F. toward north limit; while over a 
great part of range, notably at south, and along coast, light frost occurs and tempera- 
ture goes to zero. 

Toi-ERANCE.^ — Tolerant, but less tolerant than western red cedar and western hemlock. 
Seedlings endure dense shade, competing successfully with young hemlock. Endures con- 
siderable side shade in later life, but must have overhead light for best growth after 
seedling stages. Grows rapidly in height after first few years, and overtakes the slower 
western hemlock. Alone or in mixture it maintains a dense stand. I'ermancntly over- 
topped seedlings or older trees remain stunted and grow but little, but if shade be dense 
and persistent they die eventually. 

Reproduction. — Prolific seeder, especially heavy seed years occurring at intervals of 
two or three years, while some seed is usually borne locally nearly every year. Seed with 
high rate of germination and of persistent vitality. Germination and growth of seed- 
lings best on any wet or constantly moist soil ; muck, moss, duff, or decaying wood com- 
mon to its habitat. Seedlings are sensitive to frost for first few years, but not in later 
life. Root system, shallow ; in moist ground running near surface beneath moss, duff, 
and other debris; in drier soils, going deeper, when, for good growth, a deep, porous soil 
is necessary. 

Weeping Spruce. 

Picea breiceriana Watson. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Weeping spruce is a little-known tree, and a comparatively recent discovery. 
It was permanently brougbt to light in 1884 by Thomas Howell, but the first 
discovery probably dates from 1863, when Prof. William H. Brewer, in honor of 
whom the tree was afterward named, preserved leaves and a branchlet from a 
weeping spruce tree growing at the west base of Mount Shasta, California. The 
species has not been rediscovered in that locality. Professor Brewer's speci- 
mens can be likened only to those from weeping spruce, but the confirmatory 
evidence of cones, which were not collected, is required to make the identification 
sure. 

The marked weeping habit of its lower branches distinguishes this tree from 
its associates. It is thickly branched to the ground, forming a long-pointed, 
conical crown. The trunk" is greatly swelled at the base and tapers rapidly to 
the top. The usual height attained is from 50 to 75 feet, with a diameter of 
18 to 30 inches. Trees 100 feet or more in height occur, but they are excep- 
tional. The thin, spike-like ixtint of the crown bears short upturned branches, 
while on the lower crown the branches stand out straight, becoming more and 
more drooping near the ground. The unique characteristic of the middle and 
lower crown branches is their numerous, very long, string-like branchlets, which 
hang down from 4 to S feet in length. These also have numerous pendulous. side 
branchlets. Bark of large trunks is about three-fourths of an inch thick, dark 
reddish brown, and with thin, long, firmly attached scales. The dense foliage 
has a somewhat bright but deep yellow-green hue. The leaves (fig. 31) are flat- 
fish and obscurely triangular, the sharpest angle on the lower side. Two resin 
du(?ts are shown on cross-section of the leaf near its upper border. The cones 
(fig. 31) mature in one season, shedding their seed late in September or in Octo- 
ber. When full grown, and before opening, they are dark purplish green ; 
after shedding their seed, they are dull russet-brown. They fall from the trees 
slowly, many adhering until the end of the second autumn. The seeds are dark 
chocolate brown. Seed-leaves, as a rule, 6. Wood, little known; pale yellowish 
to very light brown, rather heavy, and fine-grained. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



85 



LoNGE\aTy. — Little is known of the longevity of this tree, concerning which 
furtlier study is required. Trees from 16 to Hi inches in diameter are from 
liu to 150 years old. Probably attains much greater age. 




Fig. 31. — I'icca brciicrUiint. 



RANGE. 



Southwestern Oregon and northwestern California ; locally flistrihiited In detached 
ui-eas at elevations between 4,000 and 8.000 feet. Range still imperfectly known. 

Oregon. — Coa.st Mountains, on east end of Chetco Range in .Icsephine County, between 
4,000 and .5,000 feet; divide between Canyon Creek and Fiddlers (Julch, at head of a 
West Fork of Illinois River, on north slope of Siskiyous (.Josephine County) ; Sucker 
Creek and high mountain tops south of Rogue River (north slope of Siskiyous). 



86 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

California. — Several hundred acres on north slope of Siskiyous, at about 7,000 
feet, on head of small south fork of Illinois River, just south of north boundary of 
California and near Waldo, Oreg. South slope of Siskiyous (few miles south of last 
grove), on headwaters of small northern tributary of Klamath River, at 7,500 feet 
elevation. About 600 acres at head of Elk Creek (tributary Klamath River) on high 
peak 2 to 3 miles west of Marble Mountain, and 80 miles west of Mount Shasta 
(Siskiyou County, Cal.) ; elevation, a little below 8,000 feet; several hundred trees on 
north side near summit. Summits of Klamath Mountains ; locations not determined. 
Trinity Mountains, crests of ridges; noted (in T. 35 N., R. 10 W.) at head of Canyon 
Creek from 7 miles above Dedrick (at 4.500 ft.) to lakes at over 6.000 feet, and near 
divide between Stewart Fork of Trinity River and Canyon Creek, at 6,000 feet. Said 
to have been found in 1S63 on Black Butte (north of Strawberry Valley) at base of 
Mount Shasta, but not seen there since. Headwaters of Parks Creek (tributary Shasta 
River), north slopes above 5,500 feet on north side of Shasta-Trinity Divide (T. 41 N., 
R. 6 W.) in Shasta National Forest. This is in neighborhood of the west Shasta sta- 
tion, and indicates that the early one may be found. Reported as abundant on north 
and east sides of Mount Shasta, but authentic records are lacking. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Steep north mountain slopes, ridges, and about protected heads of mountain streams. 
Dry, rocky soils, but best on deeper, moist, porous soils. Forms pure, rather open stands 
on small areas, but is commonly associated with black hemlock, straggling Douglas fir, 
white fir, incense cedar, western white pine, sugar pine. 

Climatic Conditions. — Temperature moderate, rarely much below zero, or above 
100° F. Precipitation, from 20 to 60 inches, snow. Snowfall often 15 or 20 feet deep 
and remaining on ground more than half of year. Atmosphere humid through greater 
part of year. 

Tolerance. — Little is known of its silvical characteristics. Its dense foliage, and 
habit of retaining low side branches in rather close stand, indicates considerable tolerance 
of shade. 

Reproduction.- — Information on Its seeding habits and reproduction is lacking. It 
appears to be a fairly good periodic seeder, intervals of good production probably not 
less than two or three years. 

Black Spruce. 

Picea mariaiia (Mill.) B., S. & P. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS, 

Black spruce is mainly an eastern and far northei'n species, included as a 
Pacific tree because of its occurrence in ttie interior of Alaska. Here it is a 
small or stunted tree, rarely over 12 to 15 feet Iiigli, and often only from 2 to 6 
feet high ; elsewhere from 25 to 40 feet high and from 4 to 8 inches in diameter. 
Exceptionally it attains a height of from 50 to 80 feet and a diajneter of 1 foot. 
The crown is characteristically open and irregular, extending to the ground 
except in middle-aged or old trees grown in a dense stand, in which the lower 
half of the crown branches are shaded out. The branches are short, slim, and 
often distant from each other. In forms of this tree growing in wet marshes 
there are tufts of short branches only, or chiefly, at the top of the stunted stem. 
On less wet or moist ground the crown branches are more numerous. As a 
rule, the branches droop at their ends, but sometimes they are peculiarly stiff 
and horizontal. The foliage is a deep blue-green, with a tinge of whitish, 
while the short leaves (fig. 32) stand out on the branches. Bark of older trees 
is thin and composed of small ashy-brown scales. The young twigs of a season's 
growth are usually a pale russet-browTi, coated with small hairs of similar 
color. The cones (fig. 32) are ripe by the end of August, and within a few 
weeks afterward they shed their small winged seeds (fig. 32, a) ; at this time 
they are a pale ashy-brown. Their habit of remaining firmly attached to the 
branches for very many years furnishes one of the most reliable means of dis- 




15188— OS. (To face page S6.) 



Fifi. 32.— Pffca mariaim: a. seed. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 87 

tingulshing this tree from its somewhat similar related species. The stems of 
the cones are very stout, firm, and curved downward or inward toward the 
branch. The open cone-scales are peculiarly stiff and resistant to pressure of 
the hand; but are easily broken if squeezed together. The seed is a deep 
chocolate brown. Seed-leaves, usually 0. about one-half inch long or shorter. 
Wood usually a clear, very light yellow. The common color of this wood, also 
of that of the white spruce and to some extent of the red spruce, with which it 
may be mingled sometimes as lumber, is not an entirely safe character to rely 
upon for identification. The color of wood from different individuals of the 
same species often differs greatly, so that it is easy to confuse it with the 
pale or yellowish white wood of the two other spruces. Rlack spruce wood is 
mainly very fine-grained. Of the other eastern spruces it is the least important 
commercially, mainly on account of its small size. 

Longevity. — Doubtless a moderately long-lived tree; average observed sizes 
are from 125 to 200 years old. Stunted trees growing in very wet situations 
and scarcely 2 inches in diameter are often from 50 to nearly 80 years old, 
but appear to be thrifty, considering the unfavorable situation. Further records 
of longevity are desirable. 

RANGE. 

Newfoundland to Hudson Bay and northwestward to Alaksa ; southward in Michigan, 
Wisconsin, Minnesota, and in the eastern mountains to North Carolina and Tennessee. 
Northwestern range very imperfectly known. It is probably much the same as that 
of white spruce, but further accurate field observations are required to establish the 
coincidence of ranges. It seems likely that black spruce will prove to be far less 
abundant in Alaska than the white spruce. 

Canada. — Abundant in Great Plains, especially north of Saskatchewan and on Beaver 
and Athabaska rivers, extending westward to eastern slopes of Rockies and southward 
to tributaries of Elbow River, 30 miles from Calgary. Northward, in Great Plains, 
through Peace and Mackenzie river valleys, to within 20 miles of Arctic Ocean and 
from mouth of Coppermine River (long. 116°) westward to Alaska. Crosses Conti- 
nental Divide into interior plateau of Rockies farther south than white spruce, being 
common on high plateaus of Upper Fraser and Blackwater rivers (lat. 53°) and north- 
ward on Stikine. Dease, Liard, Frances, and Pelly rivers. Abundant from Pelly River 
to McQuPstion River (tributary Stewart River) at about 3,500 feet elevation ; at Daw- 
son and westward on Yukon River and southward on White River to a point 212 miles 
from its mouth. 

Alaska. — There are no definite records for Yukon Valley, over which this tree very 
probably extends, northward to south slopes of Endicott Range, westward to Bering 
Sea, and southward to inland slopes of Pacific coast ranges. Records are avail- 
able for its occurrence on Cook Inlet, an arm of the Gulf of Alaska. Here it occurs 
sparingly at about 2,000 feet elevation in swamps of the plateau on Kenai Peninsula, 
especially on Chicaloon Flats, and in peat bogs at Hope, Sunrise, and Tyonek, on Cook 
Inlet coast. 

OCCURBENCE. 

Essentially a swamp tree, characteristic of cold, wet bogs and margins of lakes ; grows 
occasionally on high, well-drained hillsides, but is less abundant here than in wet sites, 
and is small or stunted. Best growth in constantly moist, alluvial, well-drained soils, but 
most abundant in wet soils. Depth of soil is not essential, owing to shallow root system. 
Grows on clay and heavy glacial drift, and sometimes even in sandy, hill soils, but of 
poor growth in such soils. 

In oast, forms pure forests over limitod and extensive areas, occurring also in mixed 
stands. In northwest, best growth in limited or small areas of pure stand in moist, 
well-drained alluvial bottoms of Athabaska River, and in river valleys in Saskatchewan 
and north Manitoba. Valley of Yukon River, grows in wet localities, usually over buried 
glaciers. Not common immediately on banks of the Yukon, but abundant in Pelly River 
drainage on swampy parts of bottoms, on moss-covered north slopes, and at heads of 
streams on low, broad divides. In mixture, associated with tamarack, black cottonwood, 
balm-of-gilead, aspen, willows, and red alder. 

Climatic Conditions. — At north, climate extremely severe, with low atmospheric hu- 
midity, small precipitation (sometimes not over 15 inches), great seasonal range of tem- 
perature, and occasional strong, drying winds. Annual range of temperature, rarely less 



88 FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

than 130° P., not uncommonly falling to —60° F. in winter and sometimes above 100° F. 
during summer. Growing season for tender vegetation is from about four montlis, in 
^\estern British Columbia and eastern Alaska, to three weelcs on Bering Sea coast. 
Owing to high latitude, sunlight is less intense during growing season, but of longer daily 
duration than farther south. In winter, insolation is very weak. 

Tolerance.— Very tolerant of shade, and recovers from suppression up to advanced age. 
In dense stands it produces heavy crown cover, and frequently shades out tamarack. 
Most tolerant on wet soils, which it covers with dense stands of slow-growing trees, and 
least tolerant in dry, well-drained situations, where it grows in more open stands. Re- 
tains side branches for a long time, producing clear trunks only in very dense stands. 

Reproduction. — Not a prolific seeder, although some seed is usually borne locally each 
year ; abundant seed production only at rather long, irregular intervals. Seed of moder- 
ately liJgh germination and with persistent vitality. Germination best on constantly 
moist mineral and humus soils ; seed germinates well al-so in forest on decayed fallen 
trees, moss, and moist decomposed spruce leaf litter. Leaf litter in broadleaf forests 
not as a rule favorable to germination. Seedlings demand moderate shade for first one 
or two seasons. 

White Spruce. 
Picea canadensis (Mill.), B., S., & P. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

White spruce is considered here because of its range in the interior (at least) 
of Alaska. It is mainly a tree of the northeastern United States and of Canada, 
with a very wide distribution in the latter region. In Alaska white spruce 
varies, according to situation, from a stunted form from 8 to 20 feet high to a 
well-grown tree from 50 to 75 feet in height and from 12 to 20 inches in diam- 
eter; much larger trees occur on very favorable sites. Elsewhere it reaches 
from 80 to 100 feet or more in height, and from 24 to 36 inches in diameter. 
Trees 3 or 4 feet in diameter and over 100 feet high are rather rare. The trunk 
is straight, smooth, and clear of branches for one-third to two-thirds of its 
length, with a somewhat open, irregular, and widely pyramidal crown, the top 
of which, especially in old trees, may be rounded or flattened ; very often, how- 
ever, the crowns are sharply pointed. The branches are long and thick, and com- 
monly curve down and then upward. A striking character of branches is their 
numerous small, drooping side branchlets. The dense foliage is also character- 
istic in its light blue-green color, which in some individuals has a distinct 
whitish tinge. This character has doubtless given the tree its widely recognized 
common name, "white spruce." Bark of trunks is thin (one-half inch thick) 
and is early broken into small, thin, pale, ashy-brown scales; the color varies 
greatly with the density of the stand. The 4-angled leaves (fig. 33) stand out 
all around the twigs, except at and near their ends, where they are massed on 
the upper side ; those on the lower side are curved toward the upper ones. 
Twigs of a season's growth are dark yellow-brown ; as a rule they are smooth, 
but on the far northwestern forms they are apt to be finely downy. A notable 
character of the young shoots and leaves is the fetid, polecat-like odor they 
emit when bruised; foliage a year old or older giyes off a much less distinct 
odor. This peculiarity has given the tree its name of " cat spruce." The cones 
(fig. 33) ripe by the end of the summer, shed their small light clay-yellow-brown 
seeds (33. a) in September. The pendulous cones are lightly attached and usu- 
ally fall during autumn or by spring. After shedding their seeds the cones area 
light clay-brown, whereas just at maturity they may be light grass-green tinged 
with red or bright rose-red. They vary from about 1 to nearly 2^ inches in 
length, but they are usually about IJ inches long. When open and dry the cone- 
scales are so thin and flexible that they can be squeezed together without break- 
ing them. Seed-leaves, about G, very slender, and one-half to nearly three- 
fourths of an inch long. Wood, pale yellowish white, soft, very straight and 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



89 



fine-grained. One of the two most important timber spruces of northeastern 
North America. 

Longevity. — Long-lived, full-grown trees reach an age of 250 to 350 years. 



Newfounflland to Hudson Bay and norfhwostwafd to Alaska ; southward to northern 
New York, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, South Dakota, Montana, and British 




Columbia. Western range, throughout Canadian plains region from Saskatchewan River 
Valley northward nearly to the Arctic Ocean ; extends southward, in a tongue, along 
east slope of Rockies, at 3,000 to 5,000 feet, through northern Montana (also in Cypress 
Hills, southwestern Assiniboia, and Black Mills, South Dakota) ; extending northwest- 
ward, at 500 to .3,000 or 4,000 feet elevation, it crosses the northern Rockies into the 
plateau of northern British Columbia and Yukon Territory, ranging throughout' .\laska, 
at 2,000 to 4,000 feet, and to Bering Sea. except on the sea slope of Pacific coast ranges 
on the south aud the Arctic watershed on the north, 



90 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 

Western Canada. — Crossps Continental Divide at Liard River, reacliing interior 
plateau and extending westward to eastern slopes of Pacific coast ranges and northwest- 
ward into Alaska ; southern limit now known is Stikine River, and seaward limits in Coast 
Ranges are I'pper Stikine and Taku rivers. Shallow Lake (north of White Pass, at 
about 2,400 feet), point near Divide at head of Chilkat River (at about 2,600 feet), 
and point at timberline (about 4,500 feet) on north side of St. Ellas Range. Common 
on rivers, islands, in sheltered valleys, hillsides, sometimes to tops of plateau (at 3,000 
to 4,000 feet) ; in valleys of Dease Lake and River, and of F'ranccs, Upper Liard, Yukon, 
Klondike, McQuestion, Pelly, and White rivers. 

Alaska. — Southward to Alaska Range, and on north slopes up to .3,500 or 4,000 feet 
elevation, but on south slopes, to 1,200 feet. Probably farther southward between 
Alaska Range and coast in valleys of Tipper Sushitna and Copper rivers, reaching I'acific 
side of Coast Range only at Cook Inlet (long. 150°) ; thence extending from shores 
of Turnagain Arm up lower Sushitna River, on west side of Kenai Mountains, to Kenai 
Lake (alt. 2,000 feet) ; southward on west shore of Cook Inlet, about Lakes Clark and 
lliamna to southern limit of timber at base of Alaskan Peninsula (possibly Kukak Bay). 
Abundant westward on Kokhtul and Mulchatna rivers, extending to mouths of Nushagak 
and Aleknagik rivers at Bristol Bay. Western limit of range is on Kuskokwim and 
Yukon rivers, near head of their deltas (long. 102°). Sea is reached again on north- 
eastern shore of Norton Soimd at mouth of Koyuk River, in Norton Bay, and at mouth 
of Niukluk River, in Oolofnin Bay. but limit turns eastward in northern part of Seward 
Peninsula, including only head of Buckland River, and not entering Selawik River basin. 
Northward white spruce reappears throughout Kobuk River Basin, reaching sea on 
Kotzebue Sound, and reappearing still farther north on middle course of Noatuk River, 
here reaching its western and northern limit on- west coast of Alaska (in about lat. 68°, 
long. 163°). Extends eastward along southern slope of Endicott Range, between Yukon 
River Valley and Arctic Slope, on Koyukuk River and its tributaries, to about latitude 
67°, toward the international boundary, and farther northward on Porcupine River 
and its tributaries, to about latitude 68° ; reappears in Turner River Basin, on Arctic 
Slope, to about latitude 69°, the northern lirnit in Alaska. Northward on Alatna River 
(tributary Koyukuk River) to point 00 miles from mouth; northward on John River 
(tributary Koyukuk) at about 2.500 feet elevation, to point 25 miles south of pass at 
head, and in valley of Chandlar River to head. 

, OCCURRENCE. 

On river banks, terraces, dryish margins of swamps and lakes, and up adjacent sides 
of ridges and hills. Most frequent on sandy loam soils with moderate moisture, but 
grows on very shallow soils from margins of swamps to tops of mountains. Largest In 
moist, well-drained, finely divided porous soil ; soils too dry or too wet produce dwarfed, 
slow growth. Forms pure, dense forests of large and limited extent and occurs in mixed 
stands. 

The principal timber tree in Yukon drainage, occurring in dense groves and belts on 
alluvial flats and on islands, but in more open stands away from the river. Toward 
north limit in Alaska, more and more dwarfed, small clumps growing commonly in 
gulches. Dominant tree in Kenai Peninsula of Alaska on drier situations, but replaced 
by black spruce in swamps ; in such localities always very scrubby. In north British 
Columbia generally forming extensive pure forests on rivers and lower valley slopes ; it 
often gives way to black spruce, tamarack, or cottonwoods on flats and to lodgepole pine 
on dry terraces ; at timberline, on inland mountains of north Canada, sometimes with 
alpine fir. Often in dense, pure groves and strips of forest ; closely associated with 
birch, red alder, aspen, willows, and near streams with black cotton wood. On Kenai 
Peninsula, with black hemlock, balm-of-Gilead, aspen, and western birches. Toward 
north limit in Alaska, more and more subordinat* to poplars, here single trees and small 
clumps being scattered among birch and poplar. 

Climatic Conditions. — With much the same range as black spruce, white spruce 
endures practically the same severe features of climate. 

Tolerance. — Tolerant of considerable shade, young trees maintaining a slow growth 
for many years under heavy crown cover. Marked in recovery from suppression, being 
surpassed in this only by black and' red spruces. Retains side branches persistently ; 
long, clear stems occur only in close stands. Thriving under light shade of poplars and 
birches, it often replaces these after fire or lumbering. 

Reproduction. — Moderately prolific seeder ; considerable seed produced locally every 
year, while heavy seed production occurs at more or less regular, but long, intervals over 
parts of range. In New England, periods between seed years about eight years ; seeding 
habits in Northwest not determined. Seed with only moderately high rate of germina- 
tion, but with persistent vitality. Moist, decomposed organic, or mineral soils necessary 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 91 

for good germination. Natural reproduction usually abundant under mature spruce on 
damp moss over considerable organic soil. Reproduces poorly on thick leaf litter under 
broadleaf Irees. Mos.s-covered decayed logs favor germination, as does moist mineral 
soil near streams. Tolerance of seedlings permits them to thrive under a crown cover 
which shades out most associates. 

TSUGA. HEMLOCKS. 

The henilocks are evergreen trees with soft, flat or rounded triangular leaves. 
Their branches grow at irregular intervals from each other. The slender ter- 
minal sprays droop gracefully, and the slender leaders droop or nod conspic- 
uously from the tops of the crowns. They are large trees with broad pyramidal 
crowns and long, only slightly tapering trunks, with the characteristically 
rough, hard bark narrowly ridged and furrowed. The bark contains tannin, 
which gives it an astringent taste, and when broken it displays a clear choco- 
late-red color. The leaves, which have small, thread-like stems, are spirally 
arranged around the branch, but by the twisting of their stems they appear 
to grow mainly from the two opposite and the upper sides of the branches; 
thus forming, in one western species, very flat sprays. The leaves of hemlocks 
are peculiar in having a single resin-duct, which is seen in a cross-section in 
the center near the lower surface. Leaves of a season's growth remain on the 
trees for about .'} to years. Male and female flowers are borne separately 
on different parts of the same tree on sprays formed the precetling season. 
The female flowers grow at the ends of the sprays, while the male flowers are 
borne singly from buds at the bases of the leaves near the ends of the branch- 
lets. Female flowers, producing cones and seed, are small, greenish, scaly 
bodies, while the male flowers, pollen-bearing only, are small yellowish bodies 
attached by thread-like stems. The cones of the hemlocks mature in one 
season, and are composed of thin overlapping scales, beneath each of which 
2 wingetl seeds are borne; only the scales in about the central half of the 
cones, however, bear fertile seeds, those above and below this part being 
imperfect. The small seeds are easily wafted by the wind and thus may be 
widely disseminated. Seed-leaves of our species, 3 to 4, and very short. 

Hemlocks are important forest trees both for saw timber and tanbark. As 
yet thejrwood is of comparatively lower commercial value than that of the pines, 
firs, and spruces, often associated with hemlock. Unciuestionably, however, the 
commercial importance of hemlock wood will be greatly increased as the supply 
of other timl)ers, abundant now, is reduced. The true value of western hemlock 
timber has not been appreciated on account of its name, since it has been con- 
fused with the eastern hemlock, which produces wood of inferior quality. 

Four species of hemlock are indigenous to the United States and portions of 
Canada. Two of these inhabit the eastern United States and the adjacent 
Canadian provinces, while two are found in the Pacific forests. 

Western Hemlock. 

Tsuya heterophylla (Raf.) Sargent. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

We.stern hemlock is a large forest tree. Its tall, clean, smooth-looking trunks, 
fine foliage, and drooping branchlets distinguish it readily from associates. The 
trunks taper very gradually. Forest-grown trees have small narrowly pyram- 
idal crowns of slender branches, and are from 1275 to IGO feet high and from 
2 to ') feet in diameter. Occasionally, nmch larger trees are found. The bark 
of larger branches and young trees is thin, finely scaly, and russet-brown, while 



92 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



that of old trunks is about li to IJ inches thick, hard, and deeply furrowed; 
the ridges are wide, flat, and irregularly connected with one another by nar- 
rower cross-ridges; it is dark russet-brown, tinged with red. The foliage is 




deep, glossy, and yellow-green, and clothes the branchlets thickly, but the small 
size of the leaves gives it a thin appearance. The leaves (fig. 34) appear to 
mccvTM maiulv from two opposite sides of the branchlets — a sort of comb-like ar- 
rangement. They are flat, grooved above, have a rounded end, and a distinct 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACTFTC SLOPE. 93 

thread-like stem, and are about one-fourth to seven-eighths of an inch long. 
The leaf-bearing branchlets, especially those of the season's growth, are more 
or less minutely hairy. The small, few-scaled cones nod from the tips of 
branchlets, maturing from the middle to the end of August. They open rap- 
idly afterwards and usually shed their small, winged seeds during September. 
By spring most of the cones have fallen from the trees. The cones are from 
about three-fourths inch to sometimes nearly li inches long, and when open are 
reddish clay-brown (fig. 34). Cone-scales, peculiar in being sharply narrowed 
from about their middle, are faintly downy on their outer surfaces. The seeds 
(fig. 34, a) are light brown. Their comparatively large wings enable the wind to 
carry them to a considerable distance from the parent tree. Seed-leaves .5, 
pointed, and about one-fourth inch long. By the third year seedlings produce 
foliage like that of the adult tree. In the dense, moist forests in which this 
tree grows best its numerous seedlings grown on moss-covered stumps and 
logs— often high in the air, and even in the moss on living trunks — are a 
familiar sight. Not infrequently seedlings extend their roots through or over 
their host stumps and decaying logs into the soil and become firmly rooted; 
many others, unable to do this, die. The ability of this tree to grow throughout 
its life in the densest shade explains the often almost pure stands which have 
followed removal of the older forest in which hemlock was widely but only 
sparingly repi'esented. The hemlocks had covered the shaded ground with 
seedlings which later excluded other species trying to come in after the old trees 
were removed. 

Wood, fine-grained, pale yellowish brown, with the slightest tinge of red. It 
is rather light, soft (works like soft pine), and very unlike the slivery wood of 
its eastern relative, which it otherwise resembles. The unfounded pre.iudice 
against western hemlock wood is exceedingly unfortunate, for in its best grades 
it is useful for many of the better commercial purposes, while its bark yields 
a nnich higher percentage of tannin than does that of the eastern hemlock 
(TsiKja canadensis), so extensively used for tanning. 

LoNGKviTY. — Very long-lived, growing slowly in height and diameter. Trees 
16 or 17 inches in diameter are 105 or 200 years old. Large trees are from 30(1 
to 500 years old, and it is believed that very much older trees will be noted. 

RANGE. 

Pacific coast region from Alaska southward to northern California ; inland to southern 
British Columbia, northern Idaho, and Montana, and into the Cascades in Oregon and 
Washington. 

Alaska. — Islands and seaward slope of coast ranges westward to Cape Puget on west 
side of Prince William Sound; generally from sea level to timber line (3,000 feet on 
southeastern coast to 1.000 feet on I'rince William Sound). Lynn Canal region, from 
elevations of 130 to 2,000 feet. South slope of St. Elias Range to 1,62.5 and 2,700 feet; 
Yakutat Bay, up to 2,200 feet on Mount Tebenkof (east end of bay), gradually dropping 
to sea level at Disenchantment Bay (head of Yakutat Bay). Coast from Dry Bay 
to Prince William Sound, up to 400 feet, and to 1,600 feet ; on coastal- plain, hillsides 
facing open water and valleys of streams, sometimes extending inland 3 to 5 miles, 
as at head of Cordova, Gravina, and Fidalgo bays. 

British Colombia. — Islands, Coast Range, and inland up river valleys to limit of 
abundant rainfall, from sea level to 2,000 or 3,000 feet elevation. Reappears eastward 
in Gold and Selkirk mountains, reaching 3,500 to 5,000 feet. Up Dean Inlet and Salmon 
River to point 18 miles from sea and to elevation of 600 feet; appears still farther in- 
land, in Coast Range, sparingly on lower part of Iltasyouco River (tributary Salmon 
River). Inland 53 miles on Homathco River (flows into Bute Inlet) to an elevation of 
2.320 feet. In lower Fraser River Valley eastern limits are Uztlihoos River (north- 
eastern branch of Anderson River), at point G to 10 miles east of Fraser River, and sum- 
mit between Coquihalla River (eastern tributary Fraser Riven and Coldwater River. 
Abundant on southwest coast of Vancouver Island, reaching elevation of 975 feet about 
Port Renfrew. Extends into Gold Range (from eastern Washington) and into Selkirk 

15188—08 7 



9^ FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Mountains (from northern Idaho), stretching northward to Canadian Tacific Railway 
line (possibly farther), reaching 5,000 feet on west slope of Selkirk; while on east side, 
which it ascends to summit, its first abundant appearance is on Beaver Creek, at 3,500 
feet. Eastern limit is Donald, on Columbia River, at 2,586 feet. 

Washington. — Throughout western part, except on high summits, and generally extend- 
ing from sea level to 4,000 or 5,000 feet elevation ; westward to east slopes of Cascades ; 
more abundant on west side middle slopes of Cascade and of coast ranges than on coast 
or in depression between these ranges. Mountains of northern Washington and east- 
ward to Idaho, but not in Blue Mountains (southeastern Washington). Washington 
National Forest, common over west slopes of Cascades on benches and mountain sides, 
up to 4,000 or 5,000 feet ; on east slopes only in moist valleys, at 2,100 to 4,700 feet 
elevation on Stehekin River, Agnes, and Early Winter creeks, on headwaters of Entiat 
and Wenache rivers, throughout upper Yakima and Chealum valleys and eastward to 
Chealum Lake. Mount Rainier National Forest, abundant on west slopes up to 5,000 
feet, but scarce on east slope on Tannum Lake and on head of Klickitat River. Abun- 
dant in Olympic Mountains up to 4,500 feet elevation. 

Oregon. — Throughout western part, up to about 5,500 feet, and down to sea-level on 
coast, but not on borders of Columbia River where it crosses Cascades nor in Willam- 
ette River Valley below 1,500 feet ; extends southward in Cascades to Lake of the Woods 
(T. 38 S., R. 6 E. ) and on Coast Range to California. Cascade National Forest 
(North), abundant west of range, at 1,600 to 4,800 feet, but on east side confined to 
headwaters of rivers and occurs only for a short distance south of Mount Hood to Bea- 
ver Creek and Warm Springs River (T. 6 S., R. 9 E. ) ; south side of Mount Hood, up to 
Government Camp, at 3,600 feet, and north side from 3,500 feet northward to point 22 
miles from Columbia River. Farther south in Cascades, scattered over west side only, 
south of Mount Thielson, occurring at elevations of 5,200 to 6,000 feet only on north 
and south slopes of Umpqua-Rogue River Divide, Huckleberry ^Mountain, headwaters of 
Rogue River and Big Butte Creek, Mount Pitt, about Lake of the Woods, and sparingly 
on mountain sides and flats eastward to east side of divide south of the lake. Not de- 
tected in the Siskiyous. 

CALIFORNIA. — In fog belt on west side of Coast Range, and southward to between Elk 
and Alder creeks (Mendocino County), reappearing farther south sparingly in Marin 
County ; approaches to within one-half mile of coast in Del Norte County, at Crescent 
City and other points ; eastward in Humboldt County to ridge east of Redwood Creek, 
at 3,200 feet ; but is farther from coast in Mendocino County, where it extends inland 
about 20 miles, and at Mendocino, about 10 miles inland ; generally on steep slopes of 
canyons and tops of ridges up to about 2,000 feet. 

OCCURRENCE. 

A tree of the middle, moist forest zone, from sea level to 7,000 feet elevation. 
More abundant on west mountain slopes than on east slopes, and avoiding dry in- 
land basins of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, but reappearing on west slope of 
Rocky Mountains. Largest growth on lower slopes, flats, stream bottoms, etc., on west 
slope of Cascades and coast ranges of Washington and British Columbia. At higher eleva- 
tions at South in Washington, Oregon, and California than toward its north limit in 
Alaska ; likewise, at lower elevations on coast mountains than in Cascades and on west 
slope of Rockies. With abundant atmospheric and soil moisture, it thrives on poor, thin 
soils and on any exposure, but best on deep, porous, moist soils. Soil and exposure 
become much more important with decrease in moisture. Lack of soil and moisture pro- 
duce stunted growth, as do also high elevations, even with abundant moisture and good 
soils. In dryish poor soils, it seeks chiefly cooler, north situations. 

Usually subordinate in association with other trees, but often dominating, especially 
in Alaska, where occasional pure stands also occur. Generally scattered in patches, 
groups, or singly through the forest. In Alaska, with Sitka spruce, western red cedar, 
and black hemlock, and usually dominant. In Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Wash- 
ington, and Oregon, chiefly with western red cedar, yellow cedar, Sitka spruce, lowland 
fir, amabilis fir, yew, Douglas fir, western white pine, and lodgepole pine ; while in north 
California it occurs with redwood. Its general and common associates are Douglas fir, 
western red cedar, and lowland fir, from the coast to the Rocky Mountains. Broadleaf 
and vine maples, black Cottonwood, and red alder occur with it also at low elevations. 

Climatic Conditions. — Climate of range, in general, favorable for tree growth, being 
comparatively mild and uniform, with gradual changes of temperature, which is not 
extreme. Precipitation generally heavy and humidity high. However, average annual 
precipitation, humidity, and range of temperature vary considerably from California 
to Alaska and from Pacific to Rocky Mountains, and from sea level to limit of eleva- 
tion (7,000 feet). Average annual precipitation, from about 20 inches in California and 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 95 

Oregon to over 100 Inches in British Columbia and Alaska. Temperature occasionally 
— 35° F. on west slope of Rockies In north Idaho, Montana, and British Columbia, 
and also in parts of Alaska, but elsewhere, especially in coast regions south of 
Alaska, well above zero. This hemlock generally follows humidity and precipitation 
of the region. Trecipitation and humidity decrease from the coast to the Rockies. 
I'recipitation is much less on east side of coast ranges and Cascades than on the 
sea slojies ; deficient in interior basins of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia 
between Rockies and Cascades ; abundant on west slope of Rockies. 

ToLERAXCK. — Very tolerant of shade throughout life, especially in seedling stages. In 
later life vertical light necessary for best growth. Allowed overhead light, it recovers 
remarkably well from long suppression and renews rate of growth. Prolonged sup- 
pression in dense shade greatly checks growth. Thrives in .cool, open, humid places 
with abundant soil moisture. Maintains dense stands, alone, subordinate to others, or 
as dominating tree with equally tolerant or slow-growing species. 

Reproduction. — Very prolific seeder, reproduces itself freely everywhere under favor- 
able conditions. Produces some seed every year, but heavy seed years occur at irregular 
intervals. Seed with moderate rate of germination and moderately persistent vitality. 
Germination excellent and growth of seedlings good on wet moss, humus, litter, decaying 
wood, muck, and mineral soils — the latter less favorable than moist vegetalile seed 
bed. Reproduction abundant under dense shade of mature stands and also in the open 
on cut-over areas with favorable moist forest floor. Restocks burned over areas at first 
only sparingly, where light-demanding Douglas fir, pine, larch, fir, etc., come in first. 

Mountain Hemlock; Black Hemlock. 

Tsuga mcrtensiana (Bong.) Sargent. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Mountain or black hemlock, an alpine tree, has little general resemblance to 
the ijetter-knowu western hemlock. Only the drooping slender branches and 
its bark suggest hemlock to the casual observer, by whom its foliage might be 
easily mistaken for that of spruce, or possibly of fir. Forest-grown trees have 
sharp-pointed, narrowly pyramidal crowns of slender, conspicuously drooping 
branches ; the upper third of the crown has very short drooping branchas, while 
the exceedingly slender whip-like leaders are gracefully pendulous. Trees grown 
in the open bear branches of the same habit down to the ground, rarely losing 
them for more than a few feet above ground, even in old age. Ordinarily, 
mountain hemlock is short, from 25 to 60 feet high and from lU to 20 inches in 
diameter ; the trunk is often rather sharply tapering ; on bleak crests, it is only 
a few feet high or sprawling on the ground. Trees 75 or 80 feet high are not 
uncommon, while trees 100 or 125 feet high, with a diameter of 30 or 40 inches, 
are sometimes met with. On high, steep slopes the trunks are strongly bent 
down the slope at their bases, in the form of a sled-runner. Heavy snows 
annually bend or crush the slender seedlings and saplings to the ground without 
killing them and later growth rarely straightens the bent stems. The bark is 
early broken and rough on young trees. That of old trees is about 1^ inches 
thick and dull purplish to dark reddish brown. It is deeply and narrowly fur- 
rowed ; the rough, hard, distantly connected ridges are narrow and rounded. At 
some distance the trunks have a blue-gray tinge. The dense foliage varies from 
a dark to a pale blue-green. Foliage of a season's growth is shed about the 
fourth year. The blunt-pointed leaves (fig. 35) are rounded and plump looking, 
in this respect imlike the fiat leaves of other hemlocks, but like them the leaves 
have small distinct stems. They clothe the branches all around, but appear 
thicker on their upper sides. The main branchlets are unique in having numer- 
ous short, erect side branches; both are minutely downy for several years. The 
cones are full grown in one season. They are usually so abundant as to almost 
cover the branchlets and to bend them down with their weight. Usually they 
are pendulous ; very rarely, and chiefly on stunted trees iu exposed situations, the 



96 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



cones, Jilsa stunted, are erect wlien mature. Cones (fig. 35, a) vary in length from 
about' one-half inch to 3 inches ; commonly they are about 2 inches long and 
three-fourths of an inch thick before opening. At maturity they are yellowish- 
green to a bluish purple. Great variation exists in the color of cones at matu- 




rity. Different trees of the same forest may each have wholly different colored 
mature cones; but the color is a transient character and there is no other dif- 
ference between such trees. When the cones open, and afterwards, they are 
dull to light brown, the scales spreading strongly at right angles to the cone 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 97 

axis (fig. 35). After the seeds are shed, usually late in September or October, 
the roues begin falling from the trees, and by spring most of them are down. 
The seeds (fig. 35, 6) are pale brown, with large wings which enable the 
wind to carry them for long distiinces. Seed-leaves, 4, and about one-fourth inch 
in length. Wood, very fine-grained, soft (considerably lighter than that of 
western hemlock), and pale reddish brown. It is without the silvery character 
of eastern liendock wood. It is practically never used for commercial purposes, 
and locally only occasionally on the prospector's alpine camp fire. 

Longevity. — Believed to be a very long-lived tree, but much more study of 
its age limits is required. Trees from 18 to 20 inches in diameter are from 180 
to 2G0 years old, while trees of high, wind-swept ridges are from GO to 80 
years old when from 5 to 7 inches in diameter. 



Timberline tree. From tlie I'licitic coast mountains of Alaska southward through the 
high Sierras of California, and to northern Idaho and Montana. 

Alaska. — Sea slope of Coast Range northward to neighborhood of Lynn Canal (in 
about lat. 60°), and westward to head of Yukla Creek on north of divide between Turn- 
again Arm and Knik Arm of Cook Inlet (lat. 61° 10', long. I'M"). Commonly at eleva- 
tions of 2.000 to 4,000 feet, except when occasionally inhabiting cold sea-coast bogs from 
Sitka northward, and when descending to sea level at west end of its range on shores of 
Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula. Timberline in southeastern Alaska is 
1,800 to 1'.400 feet on exposed seaward slopes, but is considerably higher in protected 
inland passes. About Lynn Canal dwarf trees reach 3,250 feet, or more ; westward, its 
upper limit ranges from elevations of 400 feet to 1,600 feet, and about Prince William 
Sound, at from ,S00 feet, in gulches away from sea, to over 1,450 feet, on warm slopes 
facing the Sound. On Kenai Peninsula, generally up to elevations of 1.200 or 1.600 
feet, but follows Resurrection Bay across divide to Turnagain Arm, reaching 2.500 feet 
on inland plateau. Occurs in following localities: Hot Springs (near Sitka), Baranpf 
Island, and Yes Bay, at sea level ; Kuiu Island ; White Pass, at 2,888 feet, and from 
inland to Shallow Lake, Long Lake, Chilkoot and valley of Chilkoot, Fort Wrangell. 

British Columbia. — Higher sea slopes of Pacific Coast Range and islands, generally 
at from 2,500 to 5.000 feet ; also abundant in interior of southern British Columbia on 
west slopes of Selkirk Mountains. All summits of Queen Charlotte Islands above 2,000 
feet, and up to 4,500 or 5.000 feet, especially those at head of Cumshewa Inlet. Fraser 
River Valley and inland on higher slopes above 2,700 feet to Silver Mountain (near 
Yale). Vancouver Island, at 3.000 to 5,500 feet elevation, especially on following sum- 
mits: Mount Benson (3,000 feet) ; Mount Mark (3. .300 feeti ; Mount Arrowsmith r5.,500 
feet) ; Mount Edinburgh (3,250 feet) ; locally noted at Vancouver, Victoria, and Port 
Townsend. 

Washi.ngton. — Both slopes of Cascade and Olympic mountains at elevations of 5,000 
to 7,000 feet, and on one peak of Blue Mountains, but not on Okanogan Highlands. 
Olympics, at 5,000 to 6,000 feet, and at following points : Iloh Divide ; head of 
Bogachiel River, near pass to .lordan's Lake; near Close Call B.asin ; sphagnum swamp 
3 miles below Hot Springs; main head of South Fork of Skokomish River. Northern 
part of Washington National Forest (west side of Cascades), at from 4.000 to (timber- 
line) 6,000 feet ; east side of Cascades in moist valleys and passes at 3,100 to 6.400 feet — 
sometimes to 7,000 feet, as on slopes above Lake Chelan, and down to 2,200 feet, as in 
Stehekin River Valley and on east side of Stevens Pass (mouth of Great Northern Rail- 
road tunnel). Southern part of Washington National Forest, at 2,000 to 7.200 feet; 
most abundant at 4.000 to 6.000 feet in Skykomish, Tolt. Snoqualmie. Cedar. Creen, 
White, Yakima, Wenache, Entiat river basins and of Lake Chelan. Also at following 
points : Cascade Pass, at 5.421 feet ; headwaters of Stehekin River, at about 7.000 feet ; 
pass between Montecristo and Index ; trail to Columbia Peak ; Skagit Pass ; Bridge 
Creek. Mount Rainier National Forest, at 3.500 to 7,500_feet with best growth at 4,500 
to 6.200 feef, in river basins on both sides Cascades. Locally noted as follows ; Mount 
Rainier, at 4,000 to 6,000 feet; Mount Adams, at 6.000 feet; Cascade Divide (3 miles 
north of Cowlitz Piiss) at 4,800 feet ; at point 2 miles west of divide at Cowlitz Pass, at 
4.750 feet; head of Summit Creek; Cowlitz River, at 3.650 feet; Dewey Lake (head of- 
American River) at O..300 feet ; main divide on head of Cispus River, at 5.200 feet. 

OuECON.^Both slopes of Cascades at elevations of 5.500 to 7.000 feet, and iu Powder 
River Mountains (northeastern Oregon). Cascade National Forest (North), principal 



98 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

tree at o.iiOO to 7,000 feet — sometimes to 7,800 feet, and straggling down to 3.000 feet. 
Locally noted as follows: Mount Hood (timberline) on head of East Fork of Hood River 
at 6,400 feet, and of Clear Fork at 5.100 feet, down on southwest side to a little below 
Government Camp (3,600 feet); on north side to about 3,000 feet; Mount Jefferson; 
headwaters of Clackamas River, at about G.OOO feet : Salt Creek ; divide between Row 
River and Middle Fork of Willamette River. Cascade National Forest (South), abundant 
on both sides of Cascades and on Umpqua-Rogue River Divide ; on east side, at 6,000 
to 9,200 feet, and on west side, at 5,900 to 9,200 feet: best growth at 6.200 to 7,000 
feet. High summits of Siskiyous — also on north slopes of Siskiyou Peak, but not detected 
east of Cascades, in Klamath ranges. Locally noted at Crater Lake (rim of Crater), 
down to near Pole Bridge Creek (6,100 feet)-, and on Mount Scott, up to 8,000 feet. 
C.iLiFOKNiA. — Northern cross ranges and west side of Sierras southward to Bubbs 
Creek at head of South Fork of Kings River (lat. 36° 40'), probably also in San .Jacinto 
Mountains," generally at from 6,000 to 11,000 feet elevation. On northern mountains 
from Siskiyous and Trinity Mountains eastward to ranges north of Mount Shasta and 
west of Butte Creek, including Goose Nest Mountain, extending northward to the 
Oregon line, reappearing on Glass Mountain (boundary of Siskiyou and Modoc counties) 
at 7,500 to- 9.000 feet, Siskiyous above 6,000 feet. Reported in mountains east of Cres- 
cent City (Del Norte County). Marble Mountain Divide (west of Scott Valley, Siskiyou 
County) on summit of pass (5,700 feet), and on higher parts of ridge. Trinity County: 
Canyon Creek, at point about 7 miles north of Dedrick, at 4.500 feet elevation, and 
northward to head of creek, here mingled with Shasta fir and weeping spruce. North 
part of Mount Shasta National Forest, at 7,000 to o^er 8,000 feet ; throughout southern 
part at elevations from 6,500 feet to timberline (8,000 to 9,000 feet). Mount Shasta, at 
various points between 7,200 and 8,700 feet. Abundant on west side of northern Sierras, 
at 6,000 to 10,000 feet; less frequent in southern part, and at 8,000 to 11.000 feet. 
In Lassen Peak, Plumas, and Diamond Mountain National Forests at elevations above 
6,000 feet and on such peaks as Lassen Peak, slopes near Drakes, Spanish Peak, and 
Mount Pleasant. Tahoe National Forest, Mount Fillmore and southward on all summits, 
at elevations from 7,500 to timberline (about 10,000 feet), except on main divide between 
south end of Sierra Valley and north line of Sierraville Quadrangle (Sierra County) ; 
locally noted on Pyramid Peak (IJ miles above Fornis), near Ralston Peak, in Devils 
Basin (east of Pyramid I'eak), and on high summits near Donner, at 7,500 to 8,500 
feet. Stanislaus National Forest, on summits at 6,900 to 9,400 feet. Here locally 
noted on divide south of North Fork of Mokelumne River (9 miles north of Bloods) ; 
Mount Reba (north Fork of Mokelumne River) ; near Wood's place (road to Kirk- 
wood). Placerville Pass and adjacent peaks southwest of Lake Tahoe, at 7,500 feet 
to timberline. Sierra National Forest, summits at elevations between 8,000 and 
11,000 feet, and southward to Bubbs Creek (tributary, South Fork of Kings River, 
T. 14 S., R. 33 E.), reaching east slope of Sierras at head of Owens River; lower part 
Kearsarge Pass, at north base of West Vidette Mountain and canyon between Vidette and 
Junction Meadows. Locally noted as follows : Mokelumne Pass (headwaters of Silver 
Creek and upper Mokelumne River) ; Tuolumne Meadows, at 9,500 to little over 10,000 
feet on White Mountain and Mount Conness, Lookout Knob, Lambert Dome, ridge 
between Dingley and Delaney creeks, old Tioga mine, upper Tuolumne Canyon, base of 
Unicorn Peak, Cathedral Lakes and Peak, head of Cathedral Creek, Lyell Fork of Tuo- 
lumne, at 10,500 feet; head Snow Creek (Mount Hoffman), about May Lake, and south- 
west flank of mountain down to 8,500 (near Tioga road) ; near Lake Tenaya ; head of 
Mono Creek and Pass; Sunrise Peak (between Tuolumne Meadows and Yosemite), at 
10,000 feet; Tuolumne Dome, at 8,000 feet; Snow Canyon (Yosemite Park); Kings 
Creek Mountain ; head of North Fork of San Joaquin River, at 8,000 feet, and on its 
tributaries Silver and Fish creeks, at about 10,000 feet ; Bubbs Creek. San Jacinto 
Mountains, on Wellman Flat, at 7,500 feet. 

The detailed range of mountain hemloclc in Idaho and Montana will be dealt 
with in a later bulletin. 

OCCUERENCE. 

Mainly at timber line, but in far north at sea level. Southward, vertical range is 
determined by gradual ascent of favorable climatic and moisture conditions, until, at 
south, the tree is confined to high, cold, moist, mountain slopes and valleys. Thrives in 
most well-drained soils, not too dry ; but best in loose, coarse, moist ones. 

" This remarkable extension of range is supported by a photograph of a large tree 
taken in 1899 ( ?) by T. P. Lukens. It is hoped that this record may be fully verified 
later. 



i 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 99 

Best stands on flats, gentle slopes, heads of moist valleys, or In sheltered ravines 
(below ("rater Lake in Cascades of sou therif Oregon). Decidedly prefers north exposures, 
doubtless on account of less heat and greater soil moisture there. lOxposed high slopes 
least favorable to best growth ; although often abundant there, it is usually stunted. • 
Commonly in limited pure stands and in mixture. At north, with Sitka spruce, western 
hemlock, and alpine fir. Southward, at high altitudes, with white-bark pine, alpine fir, 
Lyall larch, Kngelmann spruce, while grand fir. lodgepole and western white pines are 
also occasional associates at lower elevations. Large pure stands are uncdmiiion, but 
rather extensive forests with 85 per cent of hemlock are occasional. Pure patches are 
frequent on north slopes. In southern Alaska and British Columbia, with spruce, firs, 
poplars, and birches. At high altitudes in California, often in groups with patches 
of white-bark pine ; lower, commonly with California red fir and lodgepole and western 
white pines. 

Cm. VIATIC Conditions. — Endures severe alpine climate. Daily and seasonal ranges 
of temperature great, owing to Intense sunlight and rapid radiation of heat at night. 
Itarity of air, together with frequent high winds, cause rapid transpiration, which is 
modified somewhat by increased humidity due to low air temperature. Precipitation, 
large; chiefly snow, which often buries trees. Snow comes early and stays late; melting 
slowly, it supplies moisture tliroughout the short growing season. Rains are rather fre- 
quent in spring and fall, but summers are usually hot and dry, especially on south 
exposures. 

ToLKR.\NCB. — Very tolerant ; excepting western hemlock, surpassing all associates in 
shade endurance. Its dense shade, almost excluding light from ground, usually prevents 
growth of seedlings, even its own, which appear to require more light than the heavy 
shade of mother trees affords, but which thrive under lodgepole pine, fir, etc. • Seedlings 
and saplings bear long suppression, and rarely die under it. Trunks are not cleared 
readily, even in dense stands; dead branches usually persist or leave short stubs which 
form loose knots in timber. 

ItEruoDicTioN. — Prolific seeder, producing cones when about 20 years old ; seed is 
borne annually, but not every year is a good seed year. Seed has only moderate rate of 
germination, and its vitality is rather transient. With sufficient moisture, seed ger- 
minates on both humus and mineral soils, but apparently better on latter. Seedlings 
grow better in moderate shade and moist humous soil than in full light. 

PSEUDOTSUGA. FALSE HEMLOCKS. 

The generic name of the fal.^e hemlocks indicates a relationship to the hem- 
locks, which they resemble in the distinctly formed leaf 'stems and in the habit 
and character of their cones. The resin vesicles of hemlock seeds are, how- 
ever, absent from the seeds of Pseudotsugas. The latter have small resin- 
pockets, or " blisters," in the bark of yonng trunks and branches, in this respect 
being similar to the firs. Woodsmen and lumliermen know them as " varieties" 
of " fir " or " spruce," and even as " pines." Properly they should not be called 
firs, from which they differ greatly in the character of their wood, foliage, and 
cones. The superficial resemblance of the wood of these trees to pine is a 
popular reason for calling them pines, but it is a perversion of the name, for in 
all respects the pines are totally different trees. 

False hemlocks are evergreen trees with dense, soft, flat leaves. Their 
branches, growing in irregular circles, form with their many side-branches wide, 
fan-like, densely foliaged sprays. The rough, very thick-barked trunks are tall 
and massive, and taper slowly. They have broadly pyramidal crowns, which in 
young trees extend to the ground. The flat, bluntish leaves, attached by dis- 
tinct steins, are spirally and singly arranged on the branches. They appear often 
to grow mainly from two opposite sides and from the top of the branch ; but 
lower leaves bend upward toward each side of the branch by a twist in their 
stems. I.,eaves of a season's growth remain on the tree about five or eight 
years. In cross-section the leaves of our species show two resin-ducts on the 
under margin near the edges of the leaves. Flowers of two sexes are borne 
singly on braiublets. formed the previous year, on different jiarts of the same 
tree. The female flowers are bristly, scaly bodies, developing into cones with 



100 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

seed ; they are borne nearly or quite at the ends of twigs. The male flowers — 
scaly bodies bearing pollen only — grow from the bases of leaves farther back 
from the end of the twig. Most characteristic of the pendulous cones of these 
trees are their 3-pointed scale-like bracts, which protrude conspicuously from 
among the cone-scales (fig. 3(j). No other cones of native conifers, with per- 
sistent scales, have protruding bracts. The cones mature in one season, soon 
afterward falling from the trees. Two winged seeds are borne under each 
cone-scale. Their small size and large, light wings permit the wind to dis- 
tribute them easily. 

They are trees (mainly one species) of the greatest commercial importance, 
and furnish the finest and largest saw timber of any native trees, if not of any 
trees in the world. The slightly resinous, pine-like wood is most widely adapted 
for construction. Two native species of these trees are known. One is dis- 
tributed more or less from the Rocky Mountain States to the Pacific coast, 
while the other inhabits the mountains of southern California. 

Douglas Fir; Douglas Spruce. 

Pseiidotswga taxifoliaa (Poir.) Britt. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Excepting the great sequoias of California, Douglas fir is the most gigantic 
tree of the Pacific forests. Under the best conditio is for growth it ordinarily 
reaches 180 or 190 feet in height and from 34 to G fe >t in diameter. Trees over 
200 feet high and 8 or 10 feet in diameter are to be t )und, but they are exceed- 
ingly rare. Under less favorable conditions, such as prevail outside of the 
humid Pacific coast region, it commonly attains a height of from 75 to 110 
feet and a diameter of from 18 to 30 inches ; while in high, exposed situations 
it is greatly stunted, often under 5 feet in height. The typical crown form of 
young trees is a broad, sharp pyramid ; the lower branches are straight or 
drooping and the middle and higher ones trend upward, forming on the whole a 
rather open head. All of the branches have numerous long, hanging side 
branchlets, which are sometimes very long. In dense stands one-half or two- 
thirds of the lower branches are shaded out by the time the trees are 10 or 15 
inches in diameter. Under these conditions the crowns of middle-aged and old 
trees lose much of their pyramidal form, and become rounded or flattened. 
The massive trunks, clear of branches for 80 or 100 feet (in the Pacific region), 
are straight, and with only a slight taper. The ashy brown bark of young 
trees, often chalky in patches, is thin, smooth, and but little broken, except near 
the ground, until the trees are 12 to 14 inches in diameter. Later, and in old 
trees, the bark becomes from 5 to 10 inches thick at the base of the trunk, 
although higher up it remains much thinner. Sometimes very old trees have 
bark from 18 to 24 inches thick. It is dark brown on the outside and clear red- 
brown within. It is often very rough, with deep, wide furrows and great 
ridges, which are connected at intervals by narrower cross ridges. There is 
great variation in the character and markings of the bark in dry and humid 
regions, and also in exposed and protected situations. Trees in exposed, dry 

" Several authors maintain for this tree the name Pseudotsuga mucronata (Raf. ) 
Siidworth, which the writer has shown to he lawfully antedated by P. taxifolia (Poir.) 
Britt. For a full discussion of the basis of this decision, see Bull. 17, Div. For. p. 23. 

1808. 




15188—08. (To face page 



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Fig. 36. — Pseudo^siiga itij-ifoUa: u, seed. 
15188—08. (To face page 100.) 



, FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 101 

situations appear to have rougher and harder l>ark than those in the moist, 
deep forest. Trees of the higli, very dry interior mountain slopes, particularly 
young trees, may have soft, cork-like, gray-browu bark. (This may well be a 
result of the excessively dry atmosphere, for one or two firs of that region have 
similar bark). Otherwise these trees are not different from those with the 
ordinary bark. Mature foliage is usually deep yellow-green. In the drier parts 
of its range Douglas fir sometimes has blue-green foliage of varying shades, 
especially in Rocky Mountain forms. This color is particularly pronounced 
during the early maturity of the leaves. Foliage of a season's growth remains 
on the tree about eight years, when it is shed at irregular intervals. The leaves 
(fig. 3G) are flat, slightly grooved above and commonly blunt, or very occa- 
sionally pointed. Cones ripen early in August and by September they begin 
to open and shed their seed. A few weeks later the cones drop from the trees. 
The cones (fig. 36), which are cinnamon or reddish-brown, furnish easy and 
reliable means of identifying this tree. Their simplest distinction is the 3- 
pointed, trident-like thin bracts protruding from among the cone-scales. Cones 
vary from li to 4i inches in length, but they are commonly about 24 to 3 
inches. The seeds (fig. 36, a) are dull russet-brown, with areas of white. 
Seed-leaves, about three-fourths of an inch long, are 6 to 7. Wood varies 
widely in character and grain, which may be very coarse, medium, or fine. 
Coarse-grained wood is usually distinctly reddish-brown, the "red fir" of lum- 
bermen. Fine-grained wood is a clear yellowish brown, the "yellow fir'' and 
"Oregon pine" of lumbermen. The botanical characters of trees furnishing 
these dissimilar <iualities of wood are the same, and there is no foundation for 
the popular belief that these woods come from two different "varieties" or 
"species" of trees ; indeed the two grades of wood may sometimes be obtained 
from the same tree. Tor the first stage of from 50 to 100 or more years 
diameter growth is rapid, giving coarse-grained wood, while the later stages 
of growth are, as a rule, slower and give fine-grained wood. The invariable 
difference in color between these two grades of wood is often attributed to the 
character of the soil, but this explanation ignores the fact that both grades 
may come from the same tree. The true explanation is yet to be found. Grades 
intermediate between these are also common, especially in trees grown outside 
of the humid northwestern range, from which the bulk of "red" and "yellow" 
timber is derived. Both grades are exceedingly- important commercially, but 
the finer-grained, yellow wood is now being worked up for the finest grades of 
finishing lumber, for which it competes with high-class pine. 

Longevity. — Long-lived. Trees from 3 to 4 feet in diameter are from 150 
to 200 years old, while those from 4 to 8 feet in diameter are from 200 to 375 
years old. One tree fc^'t through showed an age of 435 years. The ages of 
rare trees larger than this are probably from 400 to 500 years. 

RANGE. 

Western North America from British Coliimbi.i southward to central California, to 
northwestern Texas, southern New Mexico. Arizona, and northern Mexico. 

British ("ohmbia. — From east side of Kocky Mountains westward to Pacific coast 
and northward to Tacla Lake (lat. 55° 10') and Skeena Kiver (lat. 54° 20') ; in south- 
ern part, from sea-level to ' 6,000 feet; farther north, at general elevation of country, 
but absent from valleys of southern part of central plateau, as also from higher parts 
of Rocky, Gold, and Selkirk Mountains. From Rocky Mountains eastward to ("algary 
and Porcupine Hills ; nortliward to head of Athabaska and Grand Fork Fraser rivers, 
but absent from Cariboo Range ; northward in Fraser River Valley to McLeods, Tacla, 
Babine. and Francois lakes ; absent from headwaters of Salmon River, but on coast 
range northward to Skeena River. Northward on Pacific coast only as far as north end 
of Vancouver Island, not on coast archipelago, and rare on west coast of Vancouver 
Island. 



102 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Washington.- — Abundant everywhere, except in Columbia River plains. West of 
Cascades, generally from sea level to 5,000 feet ; less frequent east of Cascades. Wash- 
ington National Forest (V.'estl up to 4,000 feet, or occasionally to 6.000 feet; Washing- 
ten Forest (East) at 1,100 to 0,000 feet. In Cascades, south of this reserve, up to 
5,400 feet. Mount Rainier National Forest, up to 5,600 feet ; on Mount Rainier and 
Mount Adams. Olympic Mountains, up to about 3,500 feet ; Blue Mountains, at 2,500 
to 4,000 feet ; on Kamiak Butte, head of Grande Coulee River, and in Nisqually River 
Valley. 

Oregon. — Throughout western part, except in a few arid valleys ; from sea level to 
6,000 feet. Cascade National Forest (North), sometimes up to 7,200 feet; eastward 
on Columbia River to Hood River ; east of Mount Hood to within about 6 miles of 
Wapinitia (west of Deschutes River) ; north side of Mount Hood up to 3,800 feet and 
to Government Camp on south side. Occurs from Mount Hood to latitude 45% here 
disappearing from east side of range. In southern Cascades, on Umpquas, Siskiyous, 
and west side of Cascades, up to 6,200 feet ; east side of Cascades, at 4.300 to 7.000 
feet from Klamath Gap northward to Klamath Marsh Terrace ; Mount Mazama at 
4,500 to over 6,000 feet. On north end of Upper Klamath Lake and lava flows east of 
this lake, at elevations above 6,000 feet, and southward to Swan Lake Point, reappearing 
on divide at head of Lost River. Unknown on Klamath-Deschutes Divide and else- 
where in Klamath Basin. On both slopes of coast ranges, but commoner on western. 

California. — In northern mountains. Sierras, and southward to San Joaquin River ; 
also in coast ranges to Santa Lucia Mountains. Throughout northwestern California 
eastward to Mount Shasta, and westward to the coast ; generally at 2.000 to 6,000 feet. 
Klamath National Forest, up to 4,000 feet. Eastward in Siskiyou County to east part 
of Siskiyou Mountains; Klamath River (few miles west of Hornbrook), near Klamath 
Hot Springs, ridge east of Shovel Creek, and eastward to near Picard (west of Klamath 
Lake), extreme eastern limit; farther south, eastward only to Goosenest Mountain (east 
of Shasta Valley and north of Mount Shasta), upper McCloud River (south of Mount 
Shasta) and southeastward to Fall Rivt^r (Shasta County), where east limits farther 
south are Mount Lassen, while western limits are Sacramento River Canyon to or below 
Gregory, McCloud River to its junction with Pitt River, and 3 miles east of Montgomery, 
at 4,000 to 4,200 feet. Lassen County: Southern part eastward to Susanville. Mount 
Shasta, bottom slopes, except at north, up to 5,500 feet. In Shasta, Plumas, Lassen 
Peak, and Diamond Mountain National forests, at 2,000 to 6,000 feet, on west slope of 
range. Northern Sierras, at 2,400 to 6,000 feet on west slope, or sometimes to 7.000 feet 
and down to 900 feet, as in Chico quadrangle area (including Butte County) ; not in 
Sierra Valley. Tehama County: East of Sacramento River from point 10 miles east of 
Paine Creek post-ofBce eastward. Plumas County: Eastward to Grizzly Mountains 
(west of Sierra Valley). Butte County: Westward to Megalia and to 4 miles north of 
Bidwell Bar at 1,300 feet. Sierra County: Eastward to mountains west of Sierra Val- 
ley, thence westward to Yuba Pass (5.800 feet) ; west of Yuba Pass, westward into 
Yuba County, where west limit is on east foothills of Sacramento Valley at Campton- 
ville and Oregon Hills, and in Nevada County at Nevada City. Grass Valley, and Colfax 
on Bear River. Placer County: Westward to junction of Middle and North Forks of 
American River ; eastward to beyond Blue Canyon and probably also above Emigrant Gap 
on main Sierra Divide, but not reported on east side of divide between Triickee and Lake 
Tahoe. Eldorado County: Westward to Placerville, Pleasant Valley, and canyon of 
North Fork Cosumnes River ; eastward to Coloma in canyon of South Fork of American 
River, and to Echo (Tahoe Road), at 5,500 feet. Stanislaus National Forest, at 2,000 to 
5,500 feet, and chiefly on and near Mutton Canyon, between Grizzly Flat and Indian 
Diggins, and on Mill Creek (tributary North Fork Mokelumne River). Amador County: 
Westward to point 3 miles east of Pine Grove and Sutter Creek Canyon (northeast of 
Volcano), and eastward to beyond Pioneer. Calaveras County: Only in central western 
part on branches of Mokelumne River westward nearly to Rich Gold, Esperanza Creek 
(near Railroad Flat) ; not detected between Murphys and Big Trees nor in Calaveras 
Big Tree groves, but it occurs on San Antonio Creek about 2 miles below Big Trees. 
Tuolumne County: Canyon of Middle Fork Stanislaus River from junction with Clark 
Fork at 5.500 feet eastward several miles ; between Big Oak Flat and Crockers, and 
thence eastward to Aspen Meadows, at 6,200 feet : Hetch Hetchy Valley and Tuolumne 
' Big Tree Grove at 5.700 feet. Mariposa County: Westward to near Bull Creek (10 
miles east of Coulterville and a few miles east of Wassama) ; eastward to Yosemite Valley 
and Merced River (head of Nevada Fall), at 6,000 feet. Glacier Point at 7,300 feet, and 
nearly to Chinquapin. Bridal Veil Creek, at 7,100 feet. Southward occurs on head of 
Stevenson Creek (tributary San Joaquin River) at elevations of 3,000 to 5,500 feet 
(southern limit in Sierras) at 900 to 5,000 feet, or occasionally to 6,000 feet. In Stony 
Creek National Forest, at 2,000 to 5.000 feet, but mainly on west side of range. Tehama 
County: Eastward along Paskenta Road to about 3,300 feet on east side of Coast Range. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 103 

Colusa County: Northwest corner on Snow Mountain. Lake County: East side of 
Coast Range to Long Valley, Upper Cache Creek, Clear Lake, and to point near Middleton. 
Common in Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, Marin, and Sonoma counties (coast ranges) ; 
abundant westward to eastern margin of redwood belt, and sparingly through it, some- 
times to the sea. Del Norte County: Westward to Cre.scent City. Humboldt County: 
Sparingly among the redwoods north of Humboldt Bay ; westward south of bay to Fern- 
dale and Hear Hiver valleys, Petrolia, Upper Mattole River, Briceland, and south slope of 
King Mountain. Mendocino County: Westward to Kenny, Westport, Mendocino Pine 
Barrens, mouth of Big River, and seaward gulches from Fort Bragg to (Jualala. Sonoma 
County: Westward in north part to east edge of lodgepole pine belt (on coast) to 
point 1 mile from beach at Fort Ross, near mouth of Russian River, nearly to Bodega 
Bay, Meeker, and Occidental. Marin County: Westward to southern part of Inverness 
Ridge (I'oint Reyes Peninsula), line of North Shore Railroad, and valleys of San Ger- 
onimo and Lagunitas. Xapa County: Mount St. Helena, up to 4, .3.50 feet, and south- 
ward on ridge east of Napa Valley at least to St. Helena itownt, and on ridge west side 
of Napa Valley to point south of and to a point little beyond Oakville. Mountains about 
San Francisco Bay; but not in Vaca Mountains (inner Coast Range). Oakland Hills, and 
Mount Hamilton, nor Monte Diablo ranges. Frequent in Santa Cruz and Santa Lucia 
Mountains, at ^.oOO to 3.000 feet, southward to Los Burros. Throughout Santa Cruz 
Mountains from hilKs south of San Francisco and southward around north part of Mon- 
terey Bay to within a few miles of Watsonville, reappearing southward in Santa Lucia 
Mountains. 

The detailed range of Douglas fir in Idaho, Montana, South Dakota, Colorado, 
Utah, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and Mexico will be dealt with in a later 
bulletin. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Except at high elevations and at north limit, prefers north to south exposures and 
sheltered slopes, canyons, benches, etc., to expo.sed situations. In north, and at high 
elevations, warmer south exposures are preferred, as heat, not moisture, becomes the con- 
trolling factor. Lower limit in drier regions determined by lack of moisture, and upper 
limit chiefly by lack of heat. At higher levels on east sides of ranges than on west sides, 
also higher on south slopes than on north exposures ; but it is more abundant on west 
Slopes than on east slopes, and likewise more frequent on north than on south exposures — 
except at north, where heat is the controlling factor. Adapted to a great variety of soils, 
including nearly all with sufficient moisture, from border of brackish coast water to soils 
where only drought-enduring western yellow pine grows. Prefers fresh, well-drained, 
porous, deep, loamy soils, avoiding saturated, poorly drained, heavy soils. Good soil and 
abundant atmospheric and soil moisture are necessary for best growth, but with abundant 
moisture, quantity and quality of soil are less important, and vice versa. Grows faster 
and larger on poor gravels and sand in the humid Puget Sound country than on best soils 
of Rocky Mountains with dry air and deficient precipitation ; likewise, not so large on best 
soils of drier California mountains, even though the climate is mild and heat and sunshine 
are abundant for tree growth. 

Forms large pure forests and often nearly pure stands, but chiefly associated with 
numerous species of different habits. In California Sierras chiefly with yellow pine, 
sugar pine, white flr, and incense cedar, as also in Cascades of southern Oregon ; while in 
California coast ranges it grows with redwood and tanbark oak. In Oregon and Wash- 
ington, mainly with western hemlock, western red cedar, lowland fir, western yellow pine, 
and on coast, with Sitka spruce, while in coast ranges and in Cascades it occurs with 
western white pine, western larch, and lodgepole pine. 

Clim.\tic Conditioxs. — Climate varies from moist one of Northwest to dry one in 
parts of interior and Southwest, and from the short growing season of high elevations 
to the long growing season of warm, humid coast region, and of the sunny Southwest. 
Winter varies from rainy .season, as in parts of Pacific coast region, and an occasional 
snow storm and short cold snap followed by summer's heat, as in the southern Rocky 
Mountains, to more severe winter of the Rockies northward to interior British Columbia ; 
in northern Idaho and Montana winters are long and temperature drops fr«x|uently 
as low as —30° or —40° F. Average annual precipitation and relative humidity, extremely 
variable. Precipitation varies from over 100 inches (Puget Sound) to less than 15 
inches (dry interior and Rockies), .\mount of preciiiitation diminishes from coast to 
Rockies and from British Columbia to New Mexico: it increases with elevation and is 
less on east than on west side of coast ranges. Cascades, Sierras, and Rockies. Relative 
humidity of air is high wher<> precipitation is great. To sum up, this tree grows best 
in greatest abundance where precipitation and relative humidity of the air are greatest. 



104 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Tolerance. — Moderately tolerant, becoming less so with age ; endures more shade than 
western yellow pine, sugar pine, western white pine, and lodgepole pine, hut less than 
western hemlock, western red cedar, white and alpine fir, incense cedar, Engelmann, blue, 
and Sitka spruces. Tolerance varies with locality and region, being greatest under con- 
ditions of best growth. Partial shade and shelter more necessary in early life where 
conditions of growth are less favorable. At moist north it thrives in the open from 
early youth, while in drier regions it prefers shade of weeds, brush, etc. Dense pure or 
mixed stands of the Northwest have clean trunks for about two-thirds of the length, 
while trees of open forests and in the Rocky Mountains are clean-trunked for only one- 
third their length, or, in scattered stands, carry branches almost to the ground. Trunks 
clean themselves slowly even in dense stands, which indicates tolerance of side shade ; 
while young trees in dense stands grow rapidly in height, showing their need of overhead 
light. 

Reproduction. — Generally a prolific seeder, producing seed every year, with specially 
good local seed years at intervals of three or four years. Power of reproduction and 
seed formation nearly as great as that of yellow pine throughout its range of distribution. 
Seed with moderately high rate of germination at best, but often low, and with persistent 
vitality. Large quantities of seed destroyed by insects and eaten by birds and squirrels. 
Seed matured at about same time throughout range. Warm, moist, pure mineral soil, 
or a mixture of the latter and humus, best for germination and development of seedlings ; 
reproduction rare on thick duff or vegetable matter, but abundant in humid regions after 
layer has been burned off or broken up by logging ; unburned, logged areas are commonly 
restocked by its northern associates, western hemlock and red cedar. In drier eastern 
range burning over ground is usually unfavorable to reproduction, lodgepole pine, aspen, 
and others restocking burned areas. Under most favorable conditions, reproduction is 
extremely dense, an acre being said to carry over 30.000 trees about 3 feet high and 11 
years old, while a stand of 26-year-old trees averaged 1,068 trees per acre, 45 feet high 
and 'Sh inches in diameter. Such reproduction is frequent in Oregon and Washington. 

' Bigcone Spruce. 

PseudotsiKja macrocarpa (Torr.) Mayr. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Bigcone spruce, which is a little-linown tree, is distinct in appearance and 
conspicuous among its usually lower growing associates. It has been long con- 
sidered a variety of the Douglas fir, owing mainly to the identical, but larger, 
form of its cones and its similar foliage. It is, however, distinct. It is generally 
rather stunted in appearance. The wide, pyramidal crown, extending to, or 
within a few feet of, the ground, is open and thin, owing to the fact that the 
branches grow from the trunk at very long intervals. Those of the lower part 
of the crown are exceedingly long, and horizontal, but somewhat drooping at 
their extremities, while the short top branches trend upward. Characteristic 
short side branchlets, sometimes erect, droop from all of the limbs. The trunk, 
clear of branches for only a few feet, tapers rapidly from a thick base, reaching 
a height of from 30 to GO or, occasionally, 75 feet, and a diameter of from 14 to 
20 inches. The bark is early roughened at the base of young trunks. It is black- 
ish or deep red-brown, and, in old trees, from 2 to 5 or more inches thick near 
the bottom of the trunk. Deep, wide furrows and ridges, irregularly connected, 
mark the bark characteristically. The thin-looking foliage is blue-green, with 
an ashy tinge. The somewhat curved leaves (fig. 37) grow on all sides of the 
branchlets, but by a strong twisting of their stems they appear to come out 
mainly from two opposite sides of the twigs. They are more or less pointed, 
but not prickly. Leaves of a season's growth remain on the branches from 4 to 
5 years— possibly longer. The cones (fig. 37), which are very distinctive, mature 
early in August, opening by the latter part of that month or early in September, 
and shedding their seeds. They vary from 3f to about 6 inches in length, and 
when open are rich dark brown. Some of the cones fall from the trees during 
the winter, but a good many remain for a year or longer on the branches. The 





15188—08. (To face 








V< 











Fig. 37. — Pseudotsuga macrocarpa: a, seed 



15188— OS. (T(. f!i(.'p page 104.) 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 105 

large seeds (figs. 37, a) are dark chocolate brown and shiny on the upper side, 
which contrasts strongly with the dull, very slightly reddish-brown under sur- 
face. Seed-leaves, usually 6, but often 7, pointed, and about an inch long. 
Wood, reddish-brown, fine-grained, rather tough and hard; suitable for coarse 
lumber, but not used tonimercially. An exceedingly important tree for increas- 
ing the protective cover on dry mountain slopes of its range where few other 
conifers are at home. 

Longevity. — Little is now known of the longevity of this tree. Probably 
long-lived. A tree 21 J inches in diameter showed an age of 109 yeax's. Doubt- 
less larger trees occasionally found would prove to be from 200 to 300 years old, 

RANGE. 

Southern California, from eastern Santa Barbara County and southwestern corner of 
Kern County to northern Lower California ; range includes Santa Inez, Zaca, San Rafael, 
Pine, San Emigdio, Sierra, Liebre, Sierra Madre, San Bernardino, San Jacinto, Santa 
Ana, Palomar, Cuyamaca, and San Pedro Martir mountains. Chiefly on north and east 
slopes and in canyons nearly throughout these ranges, at elevations of .3,000 to 5,000 feet, 
but often to 6.000 or 7,000 feet, and down to 1,.")00 feet In canyon bottoms. Western 
limits are Mission Canyon (above Santa Barbara) in Santa Ynez Mountains, where one 
tree occurs at 1.500 feet, and Zaca Peak, in San Rafael Mountains. Northern limits are 
San Emigdio Mountaius and south side of Tejon Canyon (west of Tehachipi Mountains). 
Most common in San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains. Not frequent in Santa 
Barbara National Forest, but most abundant in Matilija, Cuyama, Sespe, and I'iru creek 
basins. Locally noted as follows : Mount Medulce, Big Pine Mountain, Pine Mountain, 
Piedro Blanco Peak, near Pine Mountain Lodge, south side of Sierra Liebre Range, and 
on mountain back of Fort Tejon. General in San Gabriel National Forest and between 
about 3,000 and 5,000 feet ; locally noted on Mount Wilson, on Rubio Mountain, 
down to 2,L'00 feet, near .\lpine Tavern, between 5,100 and G.OOO feet, and Mount Lowe, 
at from 2,000 feet to summits. Common in San Bernardino National Forest, on both 
sides of range; on north side down to 1,500 feet, and sparingly in pine belt and on 
plateau up to (i.OOO or 7,<»00 feet, but up only to 3,000 feet on south side. Not detected 
in Santa Monica Mountains west of Los Angeles. Trabuco National Foi-est, at 2,000 
to 3.000 feet, in bottoms at heads of canyons in Santa Ana Mountains. San .Jacinto 
Mountains, northern and w'estern slopes and canyon bottoms, at 3,000 to 5,500 feet; 
less frequent up to 0,000 or 7,000 feet. Forms 5 per cent of forest in Palomar Mountains 
(southwest of San Jacinto Mountains), and 10 per cent of forest in Balkan Mountains — 
few miles southeast, near Julian — while farther south it is very rare in Cuyumaca Moun- 
tains. 

Lower California. — Sparingly represented at 5,000 to 7,000 feet on Mount San 
Pedro Martir. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Scattered in cool ravines, gulches, canyons, over north slopes ; approximately inter- 
mediate in position between chaparral belt and western yellow and Jeffrey pine forest. 
This occurrence is often very irregular, owing to unfavorable local conditions of soil and 
moisture, and destructive forest fires. Generally on dry to fresh sandy or gravelly loam 
soils, or on rocky, shallow ones, any of which are too dry for Jeffrey pine, western yel- 
low pine, sugar pine, white fir, and incense cedar, all common to the region. It avoids 
stream beds and other wet places preferred by incense cedar. 

Pure small groups and patches, or single trees interspersed through pine belt, chapar- 
ral, and oak growth. Probably once occurred in much larger, pure stands, which were 
doubtless reduced by frequent fires. In pine belt, associated with Coulter pine, western 
yellow pine, Jeffrey pine, sugar pine, incense cedar, and white fir ; below this, common 
with canyon and California live oak, and scattered through chaparral ; extends into latter 
to limit of moisture conditions, and into pine belt as far as severe climate there permits. 

Climatic Conditions. — Precipitation insulficient now to support good forest cover. 
Average annual precipitation (chiefly rain in winter at low levels, and snow at high 
elevations) from less than 10 inches to 30 inches; snow melts while falling, or soon 
after, in range of this spruce ; remains only above it. Relative humidity, likewise vari- 
able and correspondingly low. Precipitation greater at high levels than at low ones, and 
greater on west than on east side of coast ranges facing dry interior. Snow may come 
at upper limit as late as May and as early as Octolier. Fog common during rainy season 
(winter), depositing considerable moisture, comparatively speaking, on cool, forested 



106 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

slopes. Large part of precipitation and moisture from fogs never enters soil, but is 
quickly evaporated, only temporarily reducing general evaporation and transpiration. 
Summers long, hot, and dry ; occasional thunderstorms, hailstorms, or cloudbursts on 
higher mountains. Dew generally unknown. July to October, inclusive, is dry or 
" danger " season, when there is great risk of forest fires, which are there very destructive 
and hard to control unless they burn out or meet some barrier. Once destroyed, forest 
cover is hard to replace. 

Tolerance. — Intolerant of shade except In early seedling stage ; throughout later life 
requires full overhead light for best growth ; mature stands usually open, stems clear of 
branches for one-third or more of length, but occasionall,y limbed to ground in open and 
in chaparral. Seedlings come up and thrive in shade of live oaks and under seed trees, 
in open, moist, sheltered places. 

Reproduction. — Moderately abundant seeder, but cones are produced at rather long 
and infrequent intervals, though small amounts of seed are borne locally about every 
year. Seed of low germination, owing to large number usually imperfect ; vitality per- 
sistenti Much seed eaten by rodents and birds. Reproduction generally very scanty, due 
probably to poor seed, loss by animals, and destruction by repeated past fires. Mature 
trees are protected by thick bark, but young growth is easily killed by fire. Reproduc- 
tion commonly in leaf litter under shade and in vicinity of seed trees and under live 
oaks. Seedlings grow slowly at first, but, once well established, they increase rapidly 
in height, requiring more light. 

ABIES. FIRS. 

The firs are evergreen trees with peculiarly conical, often very spire-like, 
dense crowns of heavily foliaged branches, which by side branching form wide, 
flat sprays. The trunivs are tall, very straight, evenly and gradually tapered to 
one or two slender, straight leaders. Whorls of comparatively small branches 
grow from the trunks at regular distant intervals. Their sharply defined heads 
of dense, often very dark foliage and arrow-like stems distinguish them among 
all other trees. The trunk bark, before it is broken or furrowed by age, is 
marked by many blister-like resin pockets, formed within and just beneath the 
smooth surface. These are often an inch or more long, and so numerous as to 
be very conspicuous. This character, which no other native trees possess so 
markedly, may have given them their popular name of " balsams," because of 
the liquid resin obtained from the pockets for medicinal purposes. The leaves, 
spirally arranged on the branches, persist for from five to ten years (usually 
nine), after which those of a season's growth gradually disappear. Leaves on 
the lower branches of our native firs are mostly flat (in one species triangular), 
rounded, or blunt, not prickly at the end (in one species needle-pointed) ; they 
appear to grow more or less distinctly from two opposite sides, or from the top, 
of the branch. Those of the extreme upper branches, particularly on the stout 
leaders, are stouter, crowded and curved toward the upper side of the hori- 
zontal twigs, and often keenly pointed or somewhat sharp-pointed. It is exceed- 
ingly important to note the very dissimilar form, habit, and character of leaves 
from the two parts of the crown. Leaves from the middle branches of the 
crown are sometimes different in form from those of either the lower or upper 
branches. In cross section the leaves of firs show 2 resin ducts near the lower 
surface of the leaves and commonly close to the edges of the leaves, but in 
some of our firs these ducts are in the interior of the leaf's tissue, about the 
same distance from the upper as from the lower surface. Flowers of two sexes. 
male and female, are borne on branchlets of the previous year's growth in dif- 
ferent parts of the same tree. Female flowers, producing cones and seeds, are 
short, spherical, rounded or elongated scaly bodies standing erect and singly 
on branches of the uppermost part of the crown. Male flowers, pollen-bearing 
only, are elongated, cylindrical, scaly bodies hanging singly among the leaves 
from the lower side of branches below the female flowers. The cones, whose 
erect position is unique and distinctive of all firs, mature in one season. Dur- 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 107 

ing autumn their thin, closely-packed, overlapping scales gradually hecome 
loosened from their ce^itral spike-like axis and fall away with their winged 
seeds, two of which are borne under each scale; no fertile or perfect seeds are 
borne under scales at the ends of the cones. The pointed woody axes of the 
cones remain attached to their branches for several years. The breaking up of 
mature cones on the trees is not a character of any other group of our cone- 
bearers, the deciduous Taxodiums of south Atlantic forests excepted. Seeds of 
firs are easily wafted by the wind several hundred feet from the parent trees, 
but they are rarely carried more than 50 or 100 feet away. The seeds have 
peculiar resin cells which may be seen by cutting into the seed coat. The 
vitality of fir seeds does not endure beyond a single season, and as a rule the 
percentage of germination is low (50 per cent or under). Seed-leaves, from 
4 to 10, and flat. 

Commercially the firs are of great importance. Some of them form protec- 
tion forests on steep slopes at high elevations where few other conifers can 
live, while others supply excellent saw-timber of large size. They are moder- 
ately long-lived, and 350 years is probably the limit of their age, but nmch is 
yet to be learned concerning the longevity of our firs. 

Seven species inhabit the Pacific forests ; two of them extend far northward 
into Canada, while one of these and another species range through the Rocky 
Mountains as well. 

^ Alpine Fir; Balsam Fir. 

Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nuttall. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Alpine fir is one of the smallest of the Pacific firs and perhaps also one of the 
least known there, owing to the high altitude at which it grows. Among all of 
its as.sociates the long, narrowly conical crown, terminating in a conspicuous 
spire-like point, at once distinguishes this fir fi-om all species of its kind in 
the region. Its spear-like heads can be recognized at a long distance. Height, 
from GO to 90 feet and diameter from 14 to 24 inches, but in exposed 
high situations it may be under 3 or 4 feet in height, with very long lower 
branches on the ground. Rare old trees attain heights of from 100 to 1.30 or, 
very occasionally, 160 feet and a diameter of 3 to 4 feet. Larger trees are 
reported, but they are exceedingly rare. The bark is thin, at most about IJ 
inches thick, hard, flinty, and but little broken on fairly large trees, except occa- 
sional shallow, narrow cracks near the base of the trunk. The unbroken smooth 
parts are ashy gray — often chalky-white. Even in old trunks, always irregu- 
larly and shallowly seamed, the flat ridges are whitish, but pale-brownish on the 
broken edges and red-brown on the inside. Trees on several mountain peaks in 
Arizona, and occasionally elsewhere in the tree's range, have peculiarly thin, 
soft, corky a bark, similar in color to the hard bai'k. The narrow crown usually 
extends to the ground, even on old trees. The dense branches, which are char- 
acteristically tough, droop at the base of the crown; when dead, often curved 
or bent down upon the trunk. Its low branches make it particularly suscepti- 
ble to crown fires, which invariably kill it in large numbex's, as do severe ground 
fires, which easily injure its thin bark. In very close stands old trees are occa- 
sionally free from branches for from 20 to 40 feet or more. The foliage is deep 

"Abies ari::oni(a Merriam is founded partly on this character and partly on a form of 
cone-scale which Dr. Merriam found to differ materially from that of the ordinary type of 
A. hisiucdi/xi. The cones and foliage of the cork-barked trees can not be distinguished by 
the writer from those of hard-barked trees, 



108 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 



blue-green, that of the season with a silvery tinge. The t\Yigs, sometimes smooth, 
commonly have minute, rusty hairs for two to three years, and the buds are cov- 
ered with resin. The flat leaves (fig. 38). pointless and longer on lower crown 
branches and keenly or somewhat pointed and shorter on uppermost branches, 




are distinctively massed and pointing upward on the top sides of the branches, 
those below and on the sides of the branches being twisted so as to join those 
above. The dense crowding of the leaves on the upper sides of the branches 
is very characteristic. Mature cones, before swelling and beginning to break up 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



109 



(fig. 39). are from 21 to about 4 inches in length by about H to H inches in 
diameter. They are deep purple, becoming lighter bj the time the scalas fall. 
The ivory-brown seeds (fig. 30. a) have large, shiny, purplish or violet-tinged 
wings. Seed-leaves, one-third to one-half inch long, usually 4. 

Wood, fine-grained, light, soft, and from pale straw color to light yellowish 
brown. Little clear timber is obtainable because the trunks so often retain 
branches down to the ground. It is fairly straight-gi-ained and splits and works 




Fig. 39. — Abiis lasiocarpu: Very ripe cones; a, seed. 



easily. Its dead, weathered shafts, so frequent where fires have swept, remain 
in sound condition for many years. 

Longevity. — Probably not a long-lived tree. Much more study of its age is 
required. Trees from 12 to 20 inches in diameter are from 140 to 210 years 
old. The considerably larger trees which occur are not likely to be more than 
250 years old. 

15188—08 8 



110 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



Subalpine valleys, slopes, and ridges from southeastern Alaska, British Columbia, and 
western Alberta southward through Washington, Oregon, Idaho, western Montana, and 
Wyoming to southern Arizona and New Mexico. 

Alaska. — East slopes of coast range in southeastern part ; crosses divide to west 
slopes at Lynn Canal, where at sea-level, on west shore, it occurs in groups and extends 
to Chilkoot and White passes, reaching timber line at about 3,000 feet. Possibly extends 
farther south, at timber line, on west slope, and on sea coast, but not yet detected. Ap- 
pears farther north in Copper River Valley at Mentasta Pass and Copper Center (lat. 
62°, long. 145° 20'), northwestern limit. 

Pacific Canada. — Yukon Territory, British Columbia, and Alberta. Throughout south- 
ern British Columbia from east slopes of coast range and eastward to east side of Con- 
tinental Divide in Alberta, except in southern dry parts of interior plateau. Northward 
in Rockies to McLeod's Lake (lat. 55°), but farther northward on interior plateau, and over 
eastern slopes of coast range to Lake Bennett (lat. 60°) at Lewes River (Yukon Terri- 
tory) : reappears north of Yukon River on North Fork McQuestion River (tributary Stew- 
art River), in lat. 64° 30', long. 136°, northern limit. Occurs in northern interior plateau 
and coast ranges at about 4,000 feet; lower limits are in valleys of eastern coast ranges 
at Lake Bennett, descending to 2,150 feet ; occurs on Middle Lake. Lake Dease, and Lake 
Schiitliichroa, upper limits varying from about 3,000 feet at White Pass to 5,000 and 5,500 
feet on sheltered inland passes, such as Taku I'ass and mountains about Lake Dease and 
Telegraph Creek (upper tributary Stikine River, about lat. 58°). Not on west slopes of 
southern British Columbia coast range nor on Vancouver Island. On Gold and Selkirk 
ranges and on both sides of Continental Divide, being abundant in Bow River Pass, at 
5,000 to 7,000 feet elevation, and on east slopes extending eastward on line of Canadian 
Pacific Kailroad to Castle Mountain ; southward in Rockies, over high, cool valleys, to 
latitude 49° and up to timber line. Reported east of Continental Divide in Peace River 
region and also in that between Lesser Slave Lake and Athabaska River. 

Washixotox. — Both sides of Cascades, Olympic, northeastern, and Blue mountains, 
at elevations of 5,000 to 7,500 feet. Northern part of Washington National Forest, on 
west side Cascades, at elevations above 4.500 feet, but on east side, at 5,000 to 6,000 
feet, or sometimes up to 7,000 feet, as at Slate and Windy Passes, and down to 2.150 feet, 
as on Stehekin River. Locally noted as follows : Crater Pass, at 6,000 feet on west 
side Cascades, and at 5,700 feet on east side ; Twisp Pass Lake ; North Fork Bridge 
Creek ; Emerald Basin, above and south of Lake Chelan, at 5,700 feet ; North Fork of 
Entiat River, at 6.000 to 7,000 feet ; Entiat River, at 5,700 to 6,600 feet. Cascades in 
southern Washington National Forest, generally at 5,000 to 6,000 feet, but sometimes to 
7,100 and down to 2.300 feet, growing on both sides of range in Skykomish, Tolt, Sno- 
qualmie. Cedar, Green, White, Yakima, and Wenache river watersheds; Wenache Moun- 
tains, at 4.500 to 5,200 feet. Mount Rainier National Forest, generally at from 5,500 
feet to timber line, but sometimes down to 4,000 feet and up to 7,500 feet ; on both sides 
Cascades in White, Puyallup, Nisqually, Cowlitz, Cispus, Lewis, Wind, Little White Sal- 
mon, White Salmon, Klickitat, Atanum, Tieton, Natches, and Y'akima river basins. Locally 
noted in this region as follows : Mount Rainier, at 4,500 to 7,000 feet ; Eagle Mountain ; 
Cowlitz Pass, at 4,750 feet; head of Summit Creek (on Cowlitz River), at 3,650 feet; 
Cowlitz-American River Divide (near Dewey Lake), at 5.300 to 5,500 feet; Divide 3 
miles north of Cowlitz Pass, at 4.800 feet: Mount Adams, at 6.000 to 6,500 feet; Upper 
Klickitat River, at 4,200 feet; Little Klickitat-Tieton River divide, at 5,900 feet; Cispus- 
Klickitat River divide, at 5,200 feet ; Goat and Olympic mountains, at 5,000 to 6,.500 
feet (timber line). Colville National Forest, along higher ridges. Washington addition 
to Priest River National Forest, common above 4,500 feet ; Wenaha National Forest, on 
broader ridges in Blue Mountains, at 7,000 feet and at heads of streams. 

Oregon. — Both sides of Cascades, Siskiyous, and Blue Mountains ; generally at eleva- 
tions between 5,000 and 7,800 feet ; southward to north side of Siskiyous, but absent 
from coast ranges. Northern part of Cascades at from 5.S00 feet to timber line — some- 
times to 7,300 feet, and down to 3,400. Southern Cascades, at 5,800 to 7,800 feet ; 
southward on east side to point 10 miles south of Crater Lake, and on west side, to 
Umpqua River Divide and north side of Siskiyous, where it is rare. Not on mountains 
east of Cascades, except those in eastern, north and south parts of Blue Mountains 
National Forest, and in Wallowa National Forest. Locally noted as follows: Southwest 
side Mount Hood from near timber line down to a few hundred feet below Government 
Camp ; on north side from timber line down to 3,700 feet ; Mount Mazama on Wizard 
Island and rim of lake down to 6,000 feet in Anna Creek Canyon ; Hidaway Creek, 
Granite Creek (near Alamo) ; South Fork of Rock Creek, at 6,450 feet ; head and south 
wall of Rock Creek; about Greenhorn City (Greenhorn Mountains); at point S miles 
northwest of Alba: head of North Fork of John Day River: Powder River Mountains; 
mountains about Miuam River. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. Ill 

The detailed range of alpine fir in the Rocky Mountain region will be dealt 
with in a later bulletin. 

OCCURBENCE. 

In cool, moist, and, in part, subalpine situations ; commonly on slopes at timber line, 
and at its tower limits in protected valleys, at heads of streams, and about mountain 
lakes and meadows. Best growth on fairly deep, loose, moist soil ; will grow also in 
wet and on poorest and driest thin soils. Main occurrence limited by requirement of 
soil moisture to elevations where snowfall is great. Requires less soil moisture In 
general than Engelmann spruce, but grows in places too wet for the spruce, as well 
as on Douglas fir soils, whore spruce will not succeed. Does not thrive on heavy, 
clayey soils. Altitudinal occurrence in Alaska narrow, owing to low timber line; more 
abundant on east than on west slopes of Alaskan coast mountains. Throughout north 
coast ranges and the Uocky Mountains the vertical range is wide. Here on all slopes, 
but largest on high north aspects. At south, altitudinal extent is again narrow, because 
fa.vorable moisture occurs only at much higher elevations. 

In pure, small stands and in mixture. In Alaska, mainly with black hemlock ; at 
higher levels in Washington, with black hemlock, occasionally yellow cedar and white- 
bark pine, and lower, with noble and amabilis firs ; in Oregon, with black hemlock, 
Engelmann spruce, western white pine, lodgepole pine, and noble fir. 

Cli.matic Condition.s. — Endures rigorous climate, and therefore it goes farther north 
than any other coast fir. At far north, subject to blighting winter winds, weak insola- 
tion due to high latitude and extreme cloudiness, excessive precipitation, averaging over 
60 lynches of rain and from 2 to .5 feet of snow, and also to minimum temperature 
of about —40° F. At south, sunlight is more abundant, lower humidity and smaller 
precipitation — averaging about 25 inches and mainly snow. Maximum temperature, about 
00° F. 

ToLEKANCK. — Only slightly loss tolerant of shade than Engelmann spruce, and more 
so than other associated species (eXcept black hemlock) ; maintains long-suppressed 
reproduction under heavy shade, and with admission of light recovery and growth are 
rapid. 

Reproduction. — Moderately proliflc seeder. Seed with rather high rate of germina- 
tion, but of transient vitality. It begins to bear cones as early as the twentieth year, 
rroduces some seed locally every year, with heavy production at intervals of about three 
years. Over large areas, however, cones often fail to mature during some seasons. 
Reproduction usually abundant, both in open on exposed mineral soil, and on thin and 
heavy moist duff under light or heavy shade. Seedlings grow most thickly on north 
sides of groups or forests and under branches of mother trees ; small shaded openings 
among seed trees nearly always show reproduction. Occasionally at high elevations 
branches lying on ground take root (layer), from which, however, reproduction is 
probably rare. 

Grand Fir; White Fir. 

Abies grandis Lludley. 

DISTINGUISIIINO CHARACTERISTICS. 

Grand fir is commonly called "white" fir because of Its conspicuously whitish, 
smooth bark. Other firs of the same region are known as " white " firs of a 
"different variety," especially Abies concolor, to whicii the name "white fir" 
appears to belong more fitly than to any other. It is desirable, therefore, for 
the sake of a distinctive common name, to coin for Abies grandis the name of 
" grand fir," which is appropriate, since it is a very stately and grand tree when 
fully matured. It grows to a height, in such favorable situations as bottomlands, 
of from 150 to 200 and, exceptionally, '2~)0 to 275 feet, with a diameter of from 
8 to 4 feet. On the less favorable hill lands its greatest height is from 80 to 
125 feet, witli a diameter of from 18 to :!0 inches. Its trunks are remarkably 
straight and very gradually tapered. Standing alone or in an open forest, it 
carries its crown branches to within a few feet of the ground even when old, 
but in a close stand the crown covers only one-half or one-third of the stem. 
The crown is a narrow, rather open cone, pointed in young trees, but in old age 
is somewhat roundwl at the top, and often, from the strong drooping of the 
lower branches, appears wider in tlic middle. The rounded top results from 



112 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



cessation of height growth in the leader and an elongation of the older, shorter 
top side branches. All of the branches, except the topmost, have a distinct 
downward and Upward swing. The bark, peculiarly characteristic, is smooth 
and ash.v brown, with chalky areas on young trunks, while on older trees it is 
regularly and shallowly furrowed, the long flat ridges still i-etaining splashes 
of gray-white. In old trees the bark is more deeply but narrowly furrowed, the 
ridges being sharper and less conspicuously flecked with white. The general 




Fig. 40. — Abies grandis, lower branch. 



tone becomes pale red-brown with an ashen tinge. The bark is very hard, close, 
and horny ; rarely over If inches thick on old trunks, and scarcely an inch 
thick on trees from 18 to 20 inches in diameter. 

The deep yellow-green shiny foliage is somewhat thin in appearance because 
of the characteristic spreading, especially of lower leaves. The leaves of 
the lower crown branches are flat, grooved, blunt, and distinctly notched at 
their ends (fig. 40) ; they appear to grow and to stand out distinctly from two 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 



113 



opposite sides only of the branches. Many of the leaves are brought into this 
position by a twisting of their bases (fig. 41). Leaves of the lower crown are 
from H to about 21 inches long. Leaves of the uppermost branches are often 
notched, also, but are usually all more or less crowded together, pointing up- 
ward, on the top of the sprays, while the scattered leaves of the leader are 
sharp or keenly pointed. Leaves of the upper part of the crown are about 1 




Fi(!. 41.— -Abies ijrandis, middle ciown branch. 



inch or 1] inches long. All leaves are conspicuously white on their under sur- 
faces. Mature buds are covered with resin, and the twigs of the sea.son are 
pale russet brown and minutely hairy. The cones mature in early fall, and wrth 
their ch'ur. light yellow-green color and slender, cylindrical form are very 
characteristic (fig. 42). They are about 2i to 4i inches long and about 1 to 
li inches in diameter. The bracts adhering to the backs of the cone-scales are 



114 



FOEEST TREES OF THE PACTFTC SLOPE. 



squarish at their upper ends (truncated) and with a small point extending 
from the center. The pale yellowish brown seeds (fig. 42, a) have shiny, 
faintly yellowish wings. Seed leaves, very slender and pointed, usually 6, 
and about three-fourths of an inch long. Wood of this fir is little known com- 
mercially, but likely to become better known and of greater value. It is light, 
soft, but firm enough to be widely useful as lumber, moderately coarse-grained, 
and straight; varies in color from pale yellowish brown to pale brown. Its 
qualities deserve thorough investigation, which will probably show them to be 
superior to those of the softer fir woods. 





Fig. 42. — Abies grandis, very ripe coue : a, seed. 



Longevity. — Little is known of the age limits of grand fir, concerning which 
further studies are urgently needed. Probably only moderately long-lived. 
One tree, 34s inches in diameter, showed an age of 19G years. 

RANGE. 

Valleys and lower slopes from southern British Columbia to northern Idaho, western 
Montana, Oregon, and northern coast of California. 

British Columbia. — Mainland near coast northward to upper end of Vancouver 
Island ; locally uoted at Stanley Park near Vancouver. 

Washington. — Stream bottoms and lower slopes of Cascade and coast mountains, 
in northeastern part and in Blue Mountains at from sea level to 5,000 feet. Both sides 
of Cascades (in Washington National Forest), up to 5,000 feet. Noted on Nooksak River, 
near Ferndale, at 30 feet elevation ; East Sound at 50 feet ; at Skagit and Rainey passes ; 



FOBEST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 115 

on Sauk River near Monte Cristo : head of Early Winter Creek. Both sides of Cascades 
in southern Washington National Forest, in valleys of Skykomish, Tolt, Snoqualmio, 
Green, White. Yakima. Wenache, and Entiat rivers, up to an elevation of 5,400 feet. 
Noted in Wenache Mountains and ranpe between Columbia River and Yakima River, 
at 5,000 feet. Mount Rainier National Forest, both sides of range generally to 4,200 
feet, but sometimes to 5,:!00 feet. Noted in Upper Nisqually Valley ; Upper Klickitat 
River, at 4.200 feet ; mouth of Hellroaring Canyon, at o.SOO feet ; about Mount Adams 
and I'Jagle Mountain ; on Goose Prairie along Bumping River, at .3.520 feet ; on Dewey 
Lake (head of American River), at 5, .".00 feet. In Olympic Mountains from sea level 
to lower slopes. Locally noted at Tacoma, Port Ludlow, Lake Cushman, on shores of 
Puget Sound, and about Dryad, at .304 feet elevation. In Colvillc National Forest, 
Blue Mountains (Wenache National Forest), at 2.500 to 5,000 feet. 

Okeoox. — Stream bottoms and lower slopes of Cascade and coast ranges. Blue and 
Powder River mountains. In northern Cascade National Forest, on T)oth sides of range 
and generally up to 4,100 feet; lower slopes of Mount Hood. Farther south (R. 5 to 17 
S. ) it reaches 200 to 0.000 feet. In southern Cascades National Forest, extending south- 
ward, on west slopes of Cascades, to headwaters of Umpqua. River, and on east slopes 
to Mount Jefferson. Exact southern limit imperfectly known. In Coast Range south- 
ward into California. Locally noted in vicinity of Portland ; coast of Clatsop County ; 
from lower Clackamas River bottoms to point about G miles above " Hot Springs " In this 
canyon ; Blue Mountains, at 2.500 to 6,000 leet. 

California. — In fog belt of northern coast, extending inland JO to 30 miles, and 
southward to north of Fort Ross (Sonoma County). Locally noted in Del Norte County 
at Crescent City, and in bottoms of Smith River. Humboldt County: Inland to Hoopa 
Valley and ridge east of Hoopa Valley, at .3,700 to 5.500 feet ; lower Mad River ; 
Eureka; from Ilydesville inland nearly to Bridgeville and Little Van Dusen River (10 
miles cast of Bridgeville i ; Ferndale to Bear Valley; between Capetown and Petrolia 
and thence to Upper Mattole. Mendocino County: Along coast from Kenny to West- 
port and inland along Laytonville road to point 15 miles from Westport ; gulches close 
to coast from Fort Bragg to Gualala ; Mendocino inland, on road to Ukiah. nearly to 
Orris Hot Springs; Navarro River up to a point 12 miles from mouth; Elk Creek, near 
Greenwood (12 miles south of Navarro River), t^onoma County: Coast north of Fort 
Ross with Pinun muricata. 

The detailed range of this fir in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming will be 
described in a later bulletin. 

OCCURRENCE. 

A tree of moist situations. On alluvial stream bottoms and their border valleys, lower 
gentle mountain slopes, depressions, and gulches. Best and most abundant growth in 
coast region on stream bottoms at low levelsj small at high elevations. Its deep root 
system demands fairly deep, preferably moist, porous, well-drained soils. With favorable 
moisture and climatic conditions, it grows well on rather poor, thin soils, but better 
quality is necessary in soils deficient in moisture and subject to rapid evaporation. 

Rarely in pure stands ; usually in mixture. Most commonly with Douglas fir, and 
dominant over western red cedar, western hemlock. Pacific yew, and vine maple. At low 
levels in Oregon and Washington, with latter trees and sparingly also with amabilis and 
noble firs, broadleaf maple, red and Sitka alders, and black Cottonwood ; in low coast 
region with Sitka spruce, and in California with redwood. 

Climatic Conditions. — Climate of range favorable to tree growth. Summers com- 
paratively cool and humid ; winters ordinarily mild, and changes of temperature rather 
gradual; in Bitterroot Mountains ( Idaho i and northward, temperature falls occasionally 
to —30' F. Precipitation, well distributed, except in .July and August, which are usually 
rainless over greater part of range. Forest floor is then dry, and destructive fires often 
occur. Annual precipitation, from less than 20 inches to over 100 inches in different 
parts of range. 

Tolerance. — For a fir only moderately tolerant of shade, being less so than amabilis 
fir, western red cedar, western hemlock, and California yew, but more tolerant than 
noble fir, Douglas fir. western white pine, western larch, and yellow pine. Seedlings 
endure considerable shade, but in later life full overhead light is needed for l)est growth. 
Young growth under ordinary shade remains dwarfed and dies within a few years, unless 
overhead light is adniitted. With overhead light, but shaded from side, height growth is 
rapid, trunks are readily cleared of branches, and long, clean stems are formed. Shade 
endurance varies in general with age, moisture of soil and air. exposure, quality and 
quantity of soil, altitude, and latitude. With sufficient moisture, soil, and heat this fir 
thrives in full sunlight, and also endures considerable shade. On poor, dry soils in 
warm exposed places, shelter and some shade are beneficial to reduce soil evaporation 



116 FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

and transpiration ; therefore in regions with such conditions the tree confines itself 
mainly to cooler, sheltered sites. 

Reprodi'ction. — Moderately prolific seeder ; best in open stands. Seed of rather low 
rate of germination and with only transient vitality. Seeding habits not fully deter- 
mined. Cones produced mainly at irregular intervals (two to three years). Occasionally 
few cones borne by trees about 20 years old (in open), production increasing to old age. 
Under favorable conditions some seed germinates soon after it is shed and seedlings may 
become established before cold weather. Moderately humous and shaded soils most 
favorable to germination, but with sufficient moisture and light, seeds sprout and seed- 
lings thrive in humus and iu mineral soils. Seedlings come up both in open and in shade. 

White Fir. 

Abies concolor (Gord.) Parry. 

DISTIXGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

White fir, a massive tree, is fitly and widelj- called by this name from the ashy 
hue of its bark. All of its other common names refer to its silvery or whitish 
appearance. It grows to its largest size in the Pacific region, where it is fre- 
quently from 140 to ISO feet and, occasionally, over 200 feet high, with a 
diameter of from 40 to 60 inches, rare trees being from 5 to 6 feet through. In 
its Rocky Mountain range it is much smaller — from 80 to 100 feet high, or rarely 
more, and from 20 to 30 inches in diameter. The massive trunks are conspicu- 
ously rough, with great deep, wide furrows and ridges in the ash-gray bark, 
which is from 4 to 6^ inches thick, and very hard and horny. The smooth, 
unbroken bark of the upper stem, and of young trees, is grayish, with a brown- 
ish tinge. The dense crown of heavily foliaged, short branches is an irregular, 
round-topped cone, extending to the ground on trees in open stands, and in dense 
stands covering only a third or a half of the upper stem. The trunks are straight 
and taper very gradually. Young trees have beautifully symmetrical, sharp 
crowns down to the ground, the lower limbs standing out horizontally and those 
above slanting upward. On old trees the lower crown branches droop conspicu- 
ously, as do also those of the middle crown ; while branches above this remain 
upright. In old age the more rapid growth of upper side branches than of the 
leader forms a rounded top. Young foliage of the year is yellow-green, with a 
bluish cast, but later it turns to a pale yellow green, with a whitish tinge. The 
leaves are flat, straight, and full and plump on the upper side, 'blunt or 
pointed — usually not prickly, but .sometimes prickly on the lower crown 
branches of old trees. They stand out distinctly from two sides of the lower 
branches by a twist iu their base (fig. 43) ; but very commonly the lower 
branches of young trees have their leaves curved and standing erect, somewhat 
in two lines, from the upper sides of the twigs. Leaves of the upper crown, 
especially on the topmost branches, are strongly curved or sickle-shaped, and 
appear to grow from the upper sides of the branchlets (fig. 44). These leaves 
and those on leaders are sharp-pointed. Lower branch leaAes are usually 
longer (IJ to 3 inches long) than those of the upper branches, which are com- 
monly about 1 to IJ inches long. There is very great variation in the length 
form, and thickness of leaves of this fir in different parts of its wide 
range. The changes in form from horizontally flattened leaves to vertically 
flattened ones, or to those resembling a sickle-blade, are curious ; they are unex- 
plained, except perhaps by the fact that the latter form is best adapted to 
the dry climate in which it most often occurs. Some authors hold that Rocky 
Mountain trees bear longer leaves, and more commonly pointed ones, than do 
trees of the Pacific forests. The writer has seen trees in the latter region with 
quite as long leaves, while long blunt leaves are not infrequent on trees of the 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



n? 



eastern range. The long-maintained Abies loiciana Murray (cultivated in 
England, where it was first described), the Abies concolor lowiana of American 
authors, is a form of the white fir distinguished mainly by the length of its 




Fig. 43. — Abies concolor, lower branch. 



leaves. It is exceedingly difbcult. however, to longer maintain, even as a variety, 
a form based upon a character so clearly unstable. The cones (fig. 44) are 
mature early in September, when they are very pale olive green with an ashen 



118 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



tinge, or clear chrome-yellow green ; sometimes purple. They vary from about 
Si to4i (sometimes nearly 5) inches in length. The bracts attached to the backs 
of the cone-scales are rather narrow and oblong, broad and squarish at the free 
end, which has a small point extending from its center. The seeds (fig. 44, o) 
are a dingy yellow-brown with shiny, clear, rose-tinged wings. Seed-leaves, 6. 
Wood, light, soft, rather coarse-grained, whitish to light indistinct brown; 
straight-grained; works easily, is strong and hard enough to be useful for saw 
timber, for which it is used to some extent. Many large trees are affected with 
" punk rot " or are wind shaken. 

Longevity. — It grows rapidly in height and diameter for the first 50 to 100 
years, after which it grows slowly to an age of about 350 years. The limits of 
its age are not fully known, but very probably the largest trees are not over 350 
years old. A tree SO inches in diameter showed an age of 285 years, and one 60 
inches through was 307 yeai's old. 




Fig. 44. — Abies concolor: a, seed. 



Mountain slopes from southern Oregon through California into Lower California, and 
from Nevada, Utah, and southern Colorado through Arizona and New Mexico. 

Oregon. — West side of Cascades southward, from about Township 22 south (head- 
waters of Willamette River, where it is rare at approximately 2,000 feet, but reported 
north of this at Fish Lalje, tributary of McKenzie River), to headwaters of Umpqua 
and Rogue rivers ; farther south, occurring at 3,000 to 6,000 feet elevation. Northern 
limits on east side of Cascades not known, but occurs on Matoles Creek southeast of 
Mount Jefferson, at 4,000 to 7,500 feet (south of T. 12 S.). Reported from southeastern 
slopes of Mount Hood. On Mount Mazama (Crater Lake) down Anna Creek to 5,000 feet. 
Extends westward in Siskiyous to coast ranges ; eastward, north of Upper Klamath 
Lake, throughout forested upper Klamath River basin, at elevations above 5,000 feet, to 
mountains on east side of Warner Lake, at 7,700 feet. Noted on upper Deschutes River, 

on FauliDa Creeli, aear Pauliua Lalie ; Waruer Mouataius, witb aud above yellow pine. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 119 

extending down east slopes to 6,000 feet, and to 8,100 feet or over on highest pealis ; 
slso on west side in canyons; Kol£eep Mountains (east side Warner Lake) only in I)e 
Garno Canyon. Reported in Klue and I'owder River mountains, northeastern part of 
State. 

California. — Northern coast ranges and southward on Sierras to southern cross 
ranges. Northern California eastward to Warner Mountains and westward to Siskiyous 
(west of railroad) ; westward in coast ranges to Russian Creek (west of Scott Valley), 
Salmon Summit southwest of forks of Salmon River, at .3,800 to .5, 000 feet. Trinity Sum- 
mit near meeting point of Siskiyou, Humboldt, and Trinity counties, and valley of Mad 
River west of South Fork Mountain. Klamath National Forest, at ri.'AfO to 7.000 feet ; 
very common between Horse ("reek and Klamath River (T. 47 and 48 N., R. 8 to 10 
W.). Locally noted west of Scott Valley between Etna Mills and Sawyers Bar; on 
east slope of Marble Summit Divide, at 7,400 to ."5,500 feet, and westward on Russian 
Creek; mountains north of Mount Shasta between Shasta Valley and Butte Creek, 
including Goosenest Mountain; northeast slope of Glass Mountain (12 to 1.5 miles 
south), southwest of Tule Lake, and eastward into Modoc County at Happy Camp. 
Warner Mountains, both sides, above 6,000 feet ; head of Cedarville Canyon, from 6,000 
feet up ; head of South Deep Creek, Sugar Hill, and south side Fandango Valley (T. 
46 N., R. 14 and 15 E.), at 6,000 feet. Big Valley on Fast Creek, and Blue Lake. Trin- 
ity Mountains, at 4,500 to 6,000 feet, and sometimes down to ,'5,000 feet, occurring 
throughout Trinity National Forest and nearly to Trinity River north of Yolabuli ; noted 
on east slope of South Fork Mountain, at .S,500 feet to summit, and on west side down 
Into Mad River Valley, which it follows to below 3,000 feet ; Yola Bull Ridge; Van Dusen 
Canyon ; Canyon Creek canyon, from near Dedrick northward 12 or 1.3 miles to about 
e.500 feet above Twin Lakes ; Bully Choop Mountain and ridge. Stony Creek National 
Forest, at 4,500 to 6,500 feet southward on inner coast riinge to Clear Lake (southern 
limit in these ranges), and on Sanhedrin Range to Pine Mountain; locally noted on 
Sheetiron Mountain, Grindstone Creek, St. .Tohns and Hull mountains, and Black Buttes. 
Shasta National Forest, at 4.000 to 7,000 feet; here noted on Mount Shasta from base 
of Mount Eddy (3.400 feet)- to 5,700 feet (Wagon Camp), and on warm slopes to 6.700 
or 7,000 feet ; south of Mount Shasta, over greater part of Shasta County, and continu- 
ously from Mount Shasta to Lassens Peak ; in northern Shasta County, going east- 
ward to Soldier Mountain (near Dana), and ridge between Dana in Fall River Valley; 
also Big Valley in Lassen County, and from Fall River Valley westward in I'itt River 
region to point alJbut 3 miles east of Montgomery. Occurs in northwestern corner of 
Lassen County from about 5 miles west of Bieber, and on east side of Big Valley along 
Willow Creek 10 miles south of Adip and a little farther south near Hayden Hill ; in 
southern Lassen County, from Susanville westward into Shasta and Plumas counties. 
Tehama County, westward on Sierra foothills to about 10 miles east of Payne Creek 
post-office ; in northern Sierras, on both slopes, and on west slope at 3,500 to 7.500 or 
8,700 feet. Plumas County, in northwest corner of Sierra Valley (near Beckwith ) west- 
ward on Feather River to Oomberg, and thence generally distributed ; sparingly around 
American Valley and westward into Butte County. Here common in yellow pine belt from 
.3 to 4 miles north of Bidwell Bar on Feather River at about 1,300 feet elevation north- 
westward along North Fork of Feather River, and northeastward along Quincy Road to 
and beyond Quincy, in Plumas County. Yuba County: Oregon Hills, and eastward to 
Bullards Bar, Camptonville, and into Sierra County ; here common in western part 
from Camptonville to Downieville, especially from Mount House down Woodruff Canyon 
to canyon of North Yuba River; also along North Yuba to Sierra City and up North 
Fork of Yuba. Not in Yuba I'ass, but begins again on east side at 5.S((0 feet, continuing 
to west border of Sierra Valley near S.ittley post-ofhce. In southeastern Sierra County, 
on east slope of main Sierra Divide, and common from point several miles north of I'ros- 
ser Creek into Nevada County ; here abundant near Hobart Mill and Prosser Creek, and 
northw:nd into Sierra County : in Truckee Canyon, southward into Placer County, and 
westward to Donner Lake. General in yellow pine belt of Stanislaus National Forest at 
4,000 to 6,000 feet elevation, sometimes down to 3,800 feet and up to 7,500 feet. Placer 
County: About Lake Tahoe, northward into Nevada County, and southward into Eldo- 
rado County ; mountains eafjt of Glenbrook in Nevada ; along railroad from near Don- 
ner (summit) westward below 6.500 feet, and on upper South Fork of Yuba River; 
Summit Meadows westward to Emigrant Gap; farther west in Devils Canyon between 
Colfax and Forest Hill, and from Iowa Hill eastward, southward, and southwestward to 
Forest Hill; along railroad between Dutch Flat and Towle Station. Eldorado County: 
Tallac ; west and south sides of Lake Tahoe, into Glen Alpine Canyon, and southward 
beyond Grass Lake Valley; west slope Sierras (I'lacerville-Tahoe road), at 2.300 feet, 
to Echo, at 5.500 feet. Alpine County: Near Markleeville and westward to Silver Creek; 
west Carson River canyon. Amador County: North side Mokelumne River above Defender; 
Pioneer to 3 miles east of Pine Grove. Calaveras County: Bigtrees, Gardiners, and 



120 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 

thence throughout yellow pine forest northward and northeastward on road to Blood's, 
up to 6,600 feet or more ; west and southwest of Bigtrees to 4 or 5 miles east of Mur- 
phy's. Tuolumne Count!/: On road from Sonora to Sonora I'ass, and from Confidence 
eastward beyond Eureka Valley, reaching 8,000 feet on warm slopes (Big Oak Flat to 
Orockers) ; occurs from South Fork of Tuolumne River eastward to Crockers, Aspen 
Meadows, and Middle Fork of Tuolumne, at 6,800 feet ; Hetch-Hetchy Valley ; road from 
Crockers to Yosemite Valley, but not at highest elevations. Mono Counti/: Sonora Pass 
(east side) below 8,100 feet; Mono Pass in lower Bloody Canyon, Walker Lake; 3 
miles east of Mammoth, and west up slopes. Mariposa County: (Yosemite road from 
Raymond to Wawona) occurs above Wassama ; from Yosemite to Crockers as far as 
Cascade Creek, at 6,000 feet, and also on Tuolumne side of divide ; Yosemite Valley, 
especially west end, going eastward above Little Yosemite on warm slopes, to 8.200 feet ; 
on west slope of Sunrise Ridge to 8.000 feet ; above top of Yosemite Fall to 7,000 feet ; 
then northward to I'orcupine Flat and Tioga Road, and eastward to ridge west of Lake 
Tenaya, at 8,300 feet. Fresno Counti/: Horse Corral Meadows ; Kings River canyon 
eastward to .Junction Meadow in Bubbs Creek canyon. Tulare County: North Fork of 
Kaweah River canyon at Beai'paw Meadow, Buck Creek canyon, head basin and canyon 
of East P^ork Kaweah, Farewell Gap ; Kern River canyon up to 7,700 feet, and Kern 
Lakes, 1.500 feet up canyon sides; South Fork of Tule River in eastern part of Tule 
Indian Reservation. Kern County: Throughout (Jreenhorn Mountains and head of Poso 
Creek above 5,000 feet, on Piute Mountain, between head of Caliente Creek an/d Kern 
Valley, summit of Mount Breckenridge, and possibly on other mountains south of South 
Fork of Kern River and Walker Pass ; south slopes of Tehachapi Mountain below 7,000 
feet, and down Antelope Canyon. In eastern part of Santa Barbara National Forest 
(southern cross ranges) ; noted on San Rafael Range ; Mount Piiios, at 4,900 to 8.000 
feet ; Pine and Frazier mountains. San Gabriel Mountains, on Strawberry Peak. Pine 
Plats, Prairie Forks, and San Antonio, at 5.000 to 10,000 feet. North slopes of San 
Bernardino Mountains, at 4,800 to 10.000 feet, occasionally down to 4,000 feet and up 
to 11.500 feet ; occurs also between Skyland and Fredalba, westward to Sugar Pine Flat, 
and eastward to Baldwin Lake — possibly farther ; Crafts Peak ; Ilolcomb Valley, only 
on north slopes nest desert, and down to Jeffrey Pine belt. San Jacinto Mountains, at 
6,000 to 9.500 feet, or sometimes between 4,200 and 9.700 feet ; noted in basin between 
Fullers Ridge and north spurs of Mount San Jacinto, on south walls of Round anM Tah- 
quitz valleys, in Strawberry Valley to near summit of Mount San Jacinto. Abundant on 
I'alomar or Smith Mountain and Balkan Mountains ; also on Cuyamaca Mountains above 
5,500 feet. 

LowEK C.\LiFORNi.\. — Mouut San Pedro Martir, at 8,000 to 11,000 feet. 

The detailed range of white fir in the Rocky Mountain region will be described 
in a later bulletin. 

OCCLIRBENCE. 

A tree of moderate altitudes and generally on north slopes. Less particular as regards 
aspect in North than in South. In southern Oregon, less abundant and at higher levels 
en east than on west slopes. In northern California, best and in greatest density on 
north and east exposures, and on heads of streams ; southern California, rather confined 
to north slopes away from stream beds. Thrives on almost all moderately moist soils, 
except heavy clays. Best on fairly deep, rich, moist loam ; frequent on dry, nearly pure, 
coarse, disintegrated granite, and even among bowlders. Requires less air and soil 
moisture than other firs, though its best growth is in cool, moist situations. 

Never in pure stands over large areas, but in Oregon and northern California often 
forms three-fourths of stand. In southern Cascades, scattered among yellow and sugar 
pines, Douglas fir, incense cedar, and sometimes with lodgepole pine ; groups covering 
less than an acre of this and Douglas flr in nearly equal proportions are frequent 
throughout this forest. In California commonly with yellow, Jeffrey, and sugar pines, 
incense cedar, and less often with Douglas fir, in lower range ; at higher levels with 
lodgepole pine, Jeffrey pine, and California red fir, usually forming a transition type 
between the former and last two types ; stand toward upper limit of yellow and sugar 
pine, often of great density. A frequent associate also of the bigtree. together with 
sugar pine. At high levels in southern California, with sugar, Coulter, and lodgepole 
pines, and incense cedar. 

Climatic Condition's. — Climate moderately humid with extreme temperatures of 
— 38° F. in Colorado and 98° F. in southern California, a precipitation of from 19 
inches in Colorado to 40 inches in Oregon, an average precipitation throughout its range 
of about 25 inches, and heavy winter snows melting late in spring. 

Tolerance. — Very tolerant throughout life. With favorable soil and moisture con- 
ditions, usually more shade enduring than any associated species, except Engelmann 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 121 

spruce and alpine fir. Owing to great tolerance, it has a close branching habit, and 
the trunks clean poorly. Young growth survives long suppression under heavy shade 
(with slow progress) and recovers readily when overhead light is admitted. 

Reprodiction. — Fairly prolific seeder. Good seed years occur at irregular intervals 
(two to three years or more), but some seed is produced every year. Seed of only mod- 
erately high rate of germination, often under 40 per cent, and with only transient 
vitality. Seed production begins mainly at fairly advanced age; in dense stands pole- 
wood trees seed when leaders have reached full light. Seed production continues for 
many years, but is more abundant during rapid height growth than at maturity. Char- 
acter of seed bed apparently of little importance, germination taking place on heavy 
litter and humus, as well as in mineral soil ; but fairly abundant soil moisture is essen- 
tial for establishing seedlings. Indifference to kind of seed bed renders it aggressive, for 
reproduction occurs over denuded lands as well as under its own shade. 

Bristlecone Fir. 

Abies venusta (Dougl.) Koch. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Bristlecone fir, which is rare and little known, is unique in all of its charac- 
ters, the most striking of which is, perhaps, its dense Indian-club-shaped crown, 
which very often extends to the ground, and ends in a long, exceedingly narrow, 
sharj) i)oint. The sharp spires and deep lustrous green foliage are so distinctive 
that the tree can be recognized among its associates several miles away. It is 
ordinarily from (JO to 100 feet high, or occasionally somewhat taller, and from 20 
to 80 inches in diameter. The trunk, rarely clear of !>rancbes for more than a 
few feet, tapers rapidly to the slender, erect leader. All of the branches, which 
grow from the trunk in irregular circles, droop conspicuously, while their ex- 
tremely long, whip-like side branchlets hang like tasseled cords among the 
branches. The bark of young trees is thin, smooth, and a leaden gray. On older 
trees it is comparatively thin, at most seven-eighths inch thick, and is irregu- 
larly broken by shallow vertical seams into flat plates, which are hard and firm. 
The bark of old trunks is light russet brown on the outside and clear red-brown 
within. The dense bright foliage is deep yellow-green. The long flat leaves (flg. 
45), white-lined underneath, with their keen points are very characteristic. By 
a twist in their stems, leaves of lower branches (which are less densely leaved 
than ujiper ones) appear to grow from two opposite sides of the branches, while 
leaves from the middle and upper crown branches are rather densely arranged, 
mainly on the tops of the branches. The thinly scattered leaves of leaders (fig. 
4()) stand out straight, in strong contrast to the much less spreading habit of 
the other leaves. Leaves vary in length from about IJ to 2 inches. Lower 
branch leaves are usually longer than those from the upper crown branches. 
The large consi)icuously jminted winter leaf buds are bright light chestnut-color, 
and without resin. The cones (fig. 47), which ripen late in August and break 
up in September, are one of the remarkably distinct features of this fir. par- 
ticularly in the long needle-like points of their scale-bracts, which protrude from 
among the cone-scales. Cones are from 2| to ^i inches long, and have at ma- 
turity a faint purplish brown color. Seeds are deep chestnut-brown with shiny, 
light, purplish tinged, brown wings (fig. 47, c). Seed leaves, 7. Wood of 
this fir is heavier than that of any other of our firs. It is light yellowish brown, 
moderately soft, but very firm, and usually coarse-grained. It is least like any 
of the soft, light fir woods. There is nothing to commend it for commercial uses, 
for which at present it is barred on account of the exceedingly small number 
of trees in existence. The tree is, howevers of the greatest importance in form- 
ing much needed protective cover for the scantily wooded slopes iuul dry canyons 
which it naturally inhabits. For this reason, and on account of Its extreme 



122 



FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



rarity, as well as because it is the most curious fir tree in the world, it deserves 
every protection and encouragement. 

Longevity. — Very little is known now of its longevity ; it is believed, however, 
to be only moderately long-lived. A tree 22f inches jn diameter showed an age 
of 123 years. Further records are required. 




Fig. 45. — Abies vcnusta: a, lower branch ; b, leaf twice natural size. Lower crown foliage. 



Central California coast region ; mainly in Monterey County. Scattered in patches 
of several or a few hundred trees in heads of canyons on both slopes of seaward part 
of Santa Lucia Mountains (Monterey National Forest), and at elevations of 2,200 to 
3.000 feet ; probably once extended higher up on slopes and possibly covered summits 
of range. Extends from T'ncle Sam Mountain southward to Mount Mars (corresponds 
to Point Sur and Punta Gorda on coast) in watersheds of Sur, Carmelo, Arroyo Seco, 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



123 



San Antonio, and Nacimiento rivers (T. 18 S., B. 3 E. ; T. 19 S., R. 2-3 E. ; southeast 
end of T. 21 S., R. 4 E. ; north part of T. 23 S., R. 5 E. ; T. 24 S., R. 5-6 E.). 
Locally noted in Siir Canyon above Sequoia semper virens ; east slope of I'ine Canyon 
(tributary Carmelo Kiver), and a few trees also along top of cliff on north side; upper 
part of Arroyo Seco Canyon above and on Willow Creek ; north and east slopes near 
Cone Peak, at 3,500 to 4,000 feet ; head of Nacimiento River, canyon north of San 
Miguel (tributary Nacimiento River), and in San Miguel Canyon just south of trail 




Fig. 46. — Abies reniista, leader. 

from Kings City to Los Burros Mines ; 200 trees on north slope of Bear Basin on east 
side of range south of Los Burros Mines and near Punta Gorda. 

OCCURRENCE. 



In cool, often narrow, moist canyon bottoms and their lower slopes, usually on north 
jind west exposures ; also in narrow gulches and at heads of ravines. Largest trees 



124 



FOKEST TKEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



on west slopes, in deep ravines opening toward the sea ; smaller or stunted higiier 
up in more exposed places. Porous, rocky, gravelly, and sandy soils ; where best growth 
occurs, soil is moist, even in summer, from contiguous stream bed. 

Probably capable of forming, under favorable conditions, pure or nearly pure stands. 
As now known — doubtless greatly thinned and checked by ^res — only small groups and 
straggling lines occur, associated more or less with canyon live oak. broadleaf maple, 
white alder, California laurel, madrofia, and somewhat less often or remotely with 
tanbark oak, Douglas fir, and Coulter pine. 




Fig. 47. — Abies rcnusta: o, cone : b, cone scale; Cj seed. 



Climatic conditions. — Temperature in its habitat seldom goes to zero or above 
100° F. On exposed contiguous slopes, crests of ridges, where possibly this tree once 
grew, seasonal range of temperature is somewhat greater. Moisture laden west winds 
maintain fairly high degree of atmospheric humidity during most of the year. Annual 
precipitation, almost entirely rain, varies between 20 and 50 inches. Snowfall of the 
region, light even at high altitudes. 

Tolerance. — Very little is known of its shade endurance. Appears to endure consid- 
erable shade throughout life, particularly in early growth. Bears dense side shade, as 
shown by retention by old trees of vigorous lower branches in deep shade ; full overhead 
light is doubtless required for best growth. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 125 

Reproduction. — A moderately prolific seeder, but apparently cones are produced only 
at rather-long intervals (3 to 5 or more years) ; as yet, however, little exact knowledge 
is available of its seeding habit and reproduction. Seed of comparatively low germi- 
nation and of transient vitality. Exposed, moist, mineral soil appears to be most 
favorable seed bed, since most of young growth and seedlings occur on such ground. 
Reproduction exceedingly meager, probably, in part at least, on account of long intervals 
of seed production and low germination, the destruction of seed by rodents, and the 
falling of most of the seed in narrow canyon bottoms from which it is probably washed 
by flood waters. 

Amabilis Fir. 

Abies amabilis (Loud.) Forbes. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Amabilis fir is known by woodsmen as " white "' fir or " silver " fir, from the 
white, smooth bark. Woodsmen distinguished it from the grand fir {Abies 
grandis), also called white fir, as "another variety." To avoid the confusion 
resulting from applying the same name to two or more distinct species, it is 
desirable to take the name of " amabilis fir," meaning lovely or beautiful fir. 
The name is deserved, since the tree is one of the handsomest of its kind. A 
most striking characteristic is its smooth, ashy-gray, unbroken bark, conspicu- 
ously marked with large chalky-white areas. Only the old large trees (over 2 
or 3 feet in diametet) are seamed at all. and then mainly at the base of the 
trunk. It is a straight tree, clear of branches for from 50 to 100 feet in close, 
dense stands. Its height in favorable situations is from 150 to 180 feet, some- 
times 200 feet, and its diameter from 3 to 5 feet, or rarely G feet. In less 
favorable sites the height is from 75 to 100 feet and from 18 to 30 inches in 
diameter. Trees in the open, even when old, carry a wide, conical crown of 
dense, heavily foliaged branches down to the ground, the top of the cone being 
abruptly rounded. Forest-grown trees have a shorter crown of similar form. 
All of the branches, except the uppermost, droop strongly, those at the bottom 
of the crown most, and with a long curve downward and out from the trunk. 
The dense, deep, lustrous-green foliage is a marked feature. The leaves of 
lower crown branches (fig. 48) are flat and sharply grooved on the upper side, 
white-lined below, and usually with a notch at the end, but sometimes bluntly 
pointed. They are about 1? inches long, and, by a twist in the bases of those on 
the Iow(>r sides of the branches, they ajipear massed on the top sides. Branches 
of the uppermost i)art of the crown have shorter and stouter leaves, about three- 
fourths of an inch long, which are sharp-pointed and stand erect in dense 
masses on the tops of the sprays (fig. 49). The scattered leaves of the leader 
are very keenly pointed. The spherical resin-covered buds of this fir are char- 
acteristic, while twigs of the season are minutely hairy and pale yellowish 
brown. The dark purple cones (fig. 40), ripe in Septemb(>r, are about 4 to 5i 
inches in length by 21 to 2i inches in thickness. The bracts adhering to the 
backs of cone scales are rounded at their free ends, gradually narrowing into a 
long, thin point. The seeds (fig. 49, a), which fall from the trees in October, 
are dull yellowish brown, with shiny light brownish wings. Seed leaves bluntly 
pointed and three-fourths to seven-eighths of an inch long. Wood soft, light but 
considerably heavier than that of the white or grand firs. It is fine-grained and 
light yellowish brown. Rarely cut for lumber, but one of the best of the 
soft firs. 

Longevity. — Age limits undetermined. It appears to grow slowly through- 
out life aTid to be only moderately long-lived. Trees from 10 to 24 inches in 
diameter are from 175 to 230 years old. 

15188—08 9 



126 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



Southern Alaska and coast mountains and Cascades of British Columbia, Washington, 
and Oregon. 




Fig. 48. — Abies amabilis, lower branch 

Alaska. — Extreme southeastern Alaska on sea side of Coast Range from sea level 
to 1,000 feet, on steep hillsides northward, on mainland, to entrance of Boca de Quadra 
Inlet and to Sandfly Bay, on Portland Canal. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



127 



British Columbia. — Sea side of Coast Range, probably from Alaska southward, but 
recorded only from Queen Charlotte Islands and a point opposite north end of Vancouver 
Island southward, at 4,000 to 5,000 foot, on Dean or Salmon River, mountains of Fraser 
River Valley (below Yale) ; also in Vancouver Island, on Mount Monk, Mount llenson, 
and Mount Arrowsmith, and on southwest side, from sea lovel to about :^,()()0 foot. 

- Washingto.v. — Both sides of Cascades, generally at 1,000 to G,000 feet; in Olympics. 
at 1,200 to 4,500 foot, and down nearly to soa lovel on tho west side, but not in lowlands 
about Pu^'ot Sound. Locally noted- in Olympics on headwaters of Queniult River. 
Washington National Forest, west section, at 500 to 6,500 foot ; east section, only along 
Stehekiu Itivor, Bridge, Early Winter, and Rattlesnake creeks, at 1,S00 to 6,500 feet; 
southern section, at 900 to 6,.300 in Skykomish, Tolt, Snoqualmie, Cedar, Green, 
White, Yakima, and Wenache river valleys. Mount Rainier National Forest, both sides of 




Pig. 49. — Abies amabilis, upper branch: a, seed. 

Cascades, at 800 to 5,500 foot ; Mount Rainier, at 2,500 to 5,000 feet ; Eagle Mountain, 
between 5,000 and 6,000 feet ; Mount .Vdams. 

Okkco.v. — Both sides of Cascades and northern coast range. In Cascades, at 2,000 
to 5,400 foot and niainly on west side, but at higher elevations on east side; south- 
ward to extreme southern headwaters of Willamette River and Old Bailey Mountain 
(west side of Crater Lake). North side of Mount Hood, at 3.700 feet to timber line; 
southwest side, from a little below Government Camp to timber line. Coast Range 
southward to Saddle Mountain (25 miles south of Columbia River). 



OCCURBENCE. 



On well-diained, lower slopes of canyons, benches, and flats. Shows some preference 
generally for north exposures, but in Olympics and Cascades more abundant and at lower 



128 FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 

levels on west than on east slope. Grows in well-drained, shallow, gravelly sand to 
moist, sandy loam, or in porous rocky soils ; best on sandy loam ; good drainage necessary, 
as is also abundant, freely flowing soil moisture. 

In pure, limited stands and small groups (Vancouver Island, Olympics, high levels 
in Cascades), but more commonly in mixture. In British Columbia, above Douglas fir 
with western and black hemlocks, and western white and white-bark pines ; in Wash- 
ington and Oregon, at low altitudes with western hemlock, noljle and lowland firs, west- 
ern red cedar, and Douglas fir; moderately high up^ sparingly with lodgepole and western 
white pines and yellow cedar ; near upper limit, with black hemlock, alpine fir, Engel- 
mann spruce, and white-bark pine. 

Climatic Conditions. — Climate equable, with abundant precipitation, moderate 
humidity, long growing season, and small seasonal and daily variation in temperature. 
Annual precipitation averages about 45 inches ; 2 feet of snow, which soon disappears. 
Temperature rarely below zero or above 90° P. 

Tolerance. — Moderately tolerant of shade, in this ranking close to noble and lowland 
firs and Engeimann spruce. Endures more shade than Douglas fir, western white pine, 
and western larch, but less than Pacific yew, western red cedar, yellow cedar, and west- 
ern hemlock. Long suppressed young growth under dense shade eventually dies if 
overhead light is not admitted. 

Repkodlction. — Prolific seeder. Some seed borne locally nearly every year, but heavy 
seeding occurs at rather irregular intervals of 2 to 3 years. Seed of rather low rate 
of germination, and vitality very transient. Considerable seed eaten by squirrels. 
Reproduction fairly abundant. Moist duff and moss-covered humous soil with moderate 
light favors best germination and growth of seedlings. 

Noble Fir. 

Abies nobilis Lindley. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

The woodsman's and lumberman's name for this tree is "larch," or some- 
times "red fir." Why either, especially "larch," should be used it is difficult 
to understand. There is little, except possibly the thin foliage of this fir, to 
suggest likeness to any of the true larches or tamaracks, and little also about 
the tree to deserve the name "red fir." It is said that "larch." first applied 
in Oregon some twenty-five years ago, was used in order to avoid the prejudice 
against its admirable timber, which would have been aroused if the lumber had 
been offered as "fir." Perpetuation of such a misnomer is confusing, even for 
so good a reason. It prevents lay people from acquiring a useful and correct 
knowledge of the natural relationships of these important forest trees. It is 
hoped therefore that " larch " will be replaced by the name " noble fir," which 
serves to popularize the tree's technical name. 

In the deep forests which this fir inhabits it is, when at its best, one of 
the most magnificently tall and symmetrically formed trees of its kind. The 
remarkably straight, evenly and only slightly tapering trunks are often clear 
of branches for 100 feet or more. Large trees are from 140 to 200 feet in height, 
or exceptionally somewhat taller, and from 30 to 60 inches in diameter ; trees 
6 to 7 feet in diameter occur, but they are rare. The crown of such closely 
grown forest trees is an open, short, narrow, round-topped cone; the short, 
stiff-looking branches stand out straight from the stem in distant whorls or 
groups, while the closely-leafed branchlets appear like stiff fingers against the 
sky. The heavy lower branches sometimes droop. Young trees 10 or 12 inches 
thick often bear their characteristically open, sharply conical crown down to 
the ground. The short branches stand out stiffly, almost straight, from the 
smooth grayish-brown trunks. Bark of old trees is rather thin — about IJ to If 
inches thick — and very characteristically divided by narrow seams into flat, 
narrow ridges. These are broken into long, irregular plates, which are soft 
and flake off easily, revealing a clear, dark reddish-brown beneath the ashy- 



FOREST TREES OP THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



129 



brown surface. The foliage varies from a pale to a deep bluish-greeu, 
generally with a silvery tinge. The leaves, straight to curved, are plainly 
channeled on their upper surfaces, and arranged so that they appear to grow all 
in a crowded mass from the top sides of the branches (fig. ,50). Those of the 




lower branches are flat and commonly with a notch at the end. while those 
of the iipiierniost branches (fig. 50) are conspicuously 4-ang]ed, very densely 
massed, and usually sharp-pointed ; those of the leaders are flattish and needle 
pointed. Lower branch leaves ai'e longer (about 1 inch to IJ inches) than 



130 



FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



the upper branch leaves, which are five-eighths to three-fourths of an inch 
long The short, curved, densely massed, stiff leaves of this tree are particu- 
larly distinctive, and wholly unlike in these features those of any other Ameri- 





FiG. 51.— Abies nobilis, slightly reduced; original 7i inches long: a, seed. 

can fir Leaf buds are rounded, oblong, and resin coated. The large bract- 
covered cones (fig. 51) are most distinctive. None of our other firs have cones 
like these. Thev are about 4i to 6 inches long by 2i to nearly 3 inches in thick- 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 131 

ness. They ripen early in September and begin to break up and fall from the 
trees in October. The protruding, pointed bracts, which cover the cone scales 
as if they were shingled, give the mature cones a light yellow-green color, 
which later turns to light yellow-brown. The seeds (fig. 51, a), dull red-brown, 
have shiny pale brown wings. Seed-leaves, 6 to 7, of uniform thickness through- 
out, with a short abrupt point 

Wood, rather heavy, being one of the three Pacific firs with the heaviest wood 
of any of our species. It is moderately hard, firm, of medium fine grain, very 
light brown, irregularly marked with reddish-brown areas, which add much to 
the beauty of the wood. It works easily and well, deserving much wider 
recognition than it now enjoys for high-grade lumber. In quality it is entirely 
different from and superior to any of the light, very soft fir woods. The 
magnificent, clean form of its trunks gives the finest of saw timber. 

Longevity. — Much is still to be learned concerning its longevity. From what 
is now known it is doubtless long-lived, probably excelling all of our other firs 
in this respect. Trees from 20 to .30 inches in diameter are from 290 to 3G5 
years old. Very large trees have been observed, apparently perfectly thrifty, 
which would unquestionably show an age of from 600 to 700 years, if not more. 

RANGE. 

Coast ranges and Cascades of Washington and Oregon. Range still imperfectly known. 

Washington. — Northward to Mount Baker on both sides of Cascades, Olympic, and 
Const mountains. Not detected on \'ancoiiver Island. Northern part of Washington 
National Forest, at about 3,000 to .o,000 feet ; locally noted in Horseshoe Basin. Mount 
Amos, pass between Index and Montecristo. Both sides of Cascades in southern part 
of Washington National Forest, at 2,U00 to 4.800 feet in Cedar, Green, White, Yakima, 
Weuache, and Entiat river watersheds. Mount Rainier National Forest, at 3,000 to 
5,000 feet — sometimes down to 1.800 feet and up to 5,200 feet ; aljundant on Mount 
Rainier, at 4,000 to 5,00(1 feet ; noted near Ashford, at 3,500 feet. Not detected on 
Mount Adams. North side of Olympic Mountains on Soleduc River, at about 3,000 feet, 
and general at higlier elevations. 

Oregon. — Both sides of range in Cascade National Forest (North) ; west side, at 
1,400 to 6,000 feet ; east side, southward only to latitude 45°. Locally noted on south- 
west side of Mount Hood at point 3 miles below Government Camp and upward, on north 
side at 4,500 feet ; at elevations between 5,000 and 6,000 feet between North Fork 
of Clackamas River and Roaring Fork ; this is the fir abundant on " Larch Mountain " 
in Clackamas watershed : Crater I>ake on Wizard Island and from 4.600 feet on rim of 
lake to top ; Browder Ridge (northernmost headwaters of McKenzie River, Lane County) ; 
north side of Siskiyous in Asliland National Forest. Reported extending soutliward in 
Coast Mountains nearly to Siskiyous. 

OCCrRRENCE. 

Presenc? throughout range determined chiefly by abundant soil moisture, uniform, mild 
climate, and abundance of species competing with it. On gentle mountain slopes (of any 
a.specti, depressions, benches, low ridges, and rolling plateaus. Vertical range increases 
from north to south and from coast eastward within a more or less fixed zone of heat and 
moisture. Latitude of range more restricted on east side of Cascades than on west, 
owing to lack of moisture and a severer climate. Thrives on moist', thin, rockj' soils in 
cool situations, but best on deep, rich soils. Not so fastidious regarding quality of soil 
if abundant moisture is present. 

Very rarely in pure stands of even small extent ; usually with Douglas fir, western 
hemlock, western white pine, or less commonly with yellow cedar, amabilis and alpine 
firs, lodgepole pine, and black hemlock. With Douglas fir and western white pine, often 
growing over western hemlock, western red cedar, and other tolerant species. 

Clim.\tic Conditions. — Not fully determined. In general, climate of range is mild, 
and mainly without extreme daily or seasonal temperatures. Precipitation, heavy ; con- 
siderable snow, which does not remain late. 

ToLER.\NCE. — Rather intolerant of shade for a fir, particularly in middle and late life, 
when rapid height growth forces crown above slower species and maintains it in full light. 

Reprodiction. — Moderately prolific seeder. Some seed borne locally nearly every year, 
but good seed years occur at rather long, infrcfiuent intervals. Trees from 50 to 60 



132 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

years old often bear cones, but seed is produced mainly by older and mature trees. Seed 
production appears to increase with age and to be maintained to great age. Seed of low 
germination (40 to 50 per cent), and of very transient vitality; mucli of it destroyed by 
an insect and eaten by squirrels. Seed germinates freely and seedlings grow well on any 
ninist humus or mineral soil in the open or in moderate shade; seedlings do not thrive 
in shade of mother trees. Openings made near seed trees are readily restocked. 

Bed Fir. 
Ahies magniflca Murray. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

The common ntiiiie of red fir is appropriately chosen in reference to the deep 
red-brown bark which it almost invariably has throughout its range. It is a 
stately tree when fully grown, commonly from 125 to 175 feet high, very excep- 
tionally 200 feet or more, and from 30 to 50 inches in diameter ; trees from GO 
to 80 inches in diameter are rather rare. Much larger trees are said to have 
been found, but the writer has never seen them. At high elevations, much 
exposed to heavy winds, it is very often from 40 to 80 feet high and from 20 to 
30 niches in diameter, or smaller. In close stands the straight, slightly tapering 
trunks are clear of branches for GO or 80 feet or more. On high exposed slopes, 
smaller trees are often conspicuously bent down the slope at their base, as a 
result of heavy snows wliich yearly bend the seedlings to the ground. Their 
struggle to become upright with each year's growth never wholly rids them of 
the mark of early vicissitudes. The crown of old forest grown trees is a shox't, 
very narrow, rovmd-topped cone, sometimes almost cylindrical. The short 
branches droop except at the top of the crown, where they trend upward. It 
has ' an open head, due to the distances between the regular whorls of 
branches. Only in the densest stands are medium-sized trees clear of branches 
for half or more of their length. In the high, fairly dense slope forests many 
trees bear straggling branches nearly to the ground. Here, too, the brittle tops 
are often broken off by wind, when the lost member is replaced by the upward 
growth of one or two side branches, which soon assume the form and place of 
leaders. Broken and repaired crowns of this type are familiar sights on wind- 
swept slopes inhabited by this fir. Young trees (30 to 50 years old and as many 
feet high) have narrow, cylindrical, sharp-pointed crowns, touching the ground. 
All of the regular groups of branches, except the topmost, sweep down and 
upward at their ends in graceful curves, presenting a form which is unsur- 
passed in beauty and symmetry by any other of our conifers. The bark, smooth 
and conspicuously chalky white on yoimg trees and on the upper stem and 
branches of old trees, is from 2 to 3 inches thick on large trees; its hard, rough, 
deep furrows and narrow, rounded ridges are very distinctive. The latter are 
irregularly divided by diagonal furrows, which give a peculiar diagonal and 
vertical or zig-zag trend to the ridges. No other tree in the habitat of this fir 
has bark in any way similar. 

The dense foliage is dark blue-green, with a whitish tinge ; new leaves of the 
season are much lighter green and conspicuously whitened. The leaves are 4- 
angled with nearly equal sides, the angle en the upper sides of the leaves being 
I'ounded. Leaves of the lower branches (fig. 52) are flatter than those from 
other parts of the crown. They are bent from the lower side of the branches 
so that they appear to grow from the top of the branch, mainly in two dense 
upright lines ; all are more or less curved. Lower leaves, from three-fourths 
inch to about li inches long, are blunt and wider at their ends than at their 
bases. Leaves of the upper crown branches (fig. 53), five-eighths inch to about 
li inches long, are most strongly 4-sided, stouter than those below, conspicu- 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



133 



ously curved and very densely crowded toward and on the top of the branches ; 
they are more or less distinctly pointed, those of the leader somewhat sharply 
so, and incurved to the stem. The leaf buds are sharp-pointed and light choco- 
late brown — not resinous. The cones (fig. 53) are mature by the middle or 




wMm 



' W' 



.'^„^>*r:i 



Fig. 52. — Ahies maf/niflca. lower branch. 

end of August, and during September they break up and liberate the seeds. At 
maturity they are deep purple, often tinged with brown, varying in length 
usually from about 5 to 7 inches, or occasionally 8 to 9 inches long, by about 
2t to 3^ inches in diameter. The large-winged seeds (fig. 53, «)are dark brown, 



134 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



with shiny, purplish rose-colored wings. Seed-leaves are 9 to 13, usually 12, 
about five-eighths of an inch long and bluntly pointed. Wood, one of the three 
heavy fir woods, is about a jwund heavier per cubic foot (dry) than that of 




Ahies rnagnifica: 



noble fir. It is soft but firm, rather brittle, straight, and usually fine-grained. 
Considerably more durable in an unprotected state than wood of any of the 
other native firs. It is yellowish brown, with a reddish tinge. The commercial 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 135 

value of this wood, in its better grades, is j-et to be determined. Firmness and 
good worJiing qualities must render it useful for a number of the purposes to 
which pine is put, while its clean trunks would yield saw timber of the best 
form. 

Longevity. — It appears to be rather long-lived, but much fuller investigations 
are required to establish age limits. Trees from 20 to 30 inches in diameter 
are from 225 to 870 years old. Verj' large trees would certainly show much 
greater ages. The differences to be brought out in the longevity of this fir as it 
grows on high exposed slopes and as it exists in heavier forests of lower and 
more protected locations are likely to be most interesting and profitable contri- 
butions. 

The so-called Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica shastcnsis Lemmon, fig. 54) is 
a form of the ordinary red fir discovered and described in 1890" by Prof. J. G. 
Lemmon. In everj- way, except in the form and protrusion of its cone-scale 
bracts, and in the usually shorter full form of the cones, this tree is identical 
in appearance with the type species. Moreover, the habits of the two trees 
are the same ; in fact, may be standing side by side. The exact range and 
occurrence of this tree has not been fully worked out. Following its first de- 
tection on Mount Shasta, California, it was found on the coast and cross ranges 
of northern California, and also on the Cascade Mountains, Oregon. Later it 
was observed by the writer on the divides of Kaweah River watersheds and 
elsewhere, far south of Shasta, in the southern Sierras-'. The distinction of these 
trees, possibly so far as is now known only by the cones, is of no importance 
from the forester's standpoint. 

RANGE. 

HiRh mountain slopes and ridges from southern Oregon and northern California south- 
ward over west side of Sierras. 

GuEGOX. — Southern Cascades northward to mountain south of Davis Lake (lat. 43° 
35') ; west slope, at 5,200 to 8,800 feet ; east slope (here extending 2 to G miles down 
from summit), at 6,000 to 8,800 feet. On Umpqua-Iiogue RiNer Divide and Siskiyous 
from Siskiyou Peak westward, but , absent from coast ranges, Klamath Gap, and ridges 
of upper Klamath Hiver Basin. 

California. — Northern part and southward in coast ranges to Lake County ; also 
throughout Sierras, and chiefly on west side. In northern part of State eastward to 
mountains north of Mount Shasta between Shasta Valley and Butte Creek ; here it 
occurs on Mount Pomeroy, at 7,000 to 7,500 feet, on summit of Goosenest Mountain, 
ridge east of Butte Creek, Glass Mountain, at point 14 miles south of Tule Lake at 6,700 
to 7.500 feet, and probably into Modoc County. Mount Shasta National Forest, generally 
at 5,000 to 8,000 feet. Locally noted on Scott Mountains ; Mount Eddy ; Mount Shasta, 
at 5,500 to 7,500 feet — sometimes to 8,900 feet. Westward in Siskiyou County to Marble 
Mountain ridge (west of Scott Valley), where it occurs on east slope at 5,000 to 5,700 
feet on Salmon Summit west of North Fork of Salmon, Trinity Summit .on boundary 
between Siskiyou and Humboldt counties — here on west side above 4,800 feet. Klamath 
N.'itional Forest, above O.OOO feet. Highest summits in Trinity National Forest, between 
5,000 and 8,000 feet ; sometimes down to 4.000 feet, and common on Canyon Creek near 
lakes and on higher parts of Yola Buli Ridge. Throughout Stony Creek National Forest 
(Coast Range) on Sanhedrin range southward to I'ine Mountain, at about 5,0()(» to 
7,000 feet ; abundant on St. Johns, Iron, and Hull mountains and lieadwaters of Grind- 
stone Creek, Black Buttes, and Snow Mountain, at 7,000 feet. Lassen Peak, 
riumas, and Diamond Mountain National forests have scattered bodies above 6,000 
feet ; south side of Lassen's Peak, above 5,500 feet. Northern Sierras, commonly on 
west slope at 4,800 to 7.000. feet ; eastward to Grizzly Mountains and on east slope to 
Smithneck Creek and Sardine Valley. Locally noted in Plumas County at Bucks Valley; 
Grizzly Mountains and soutiuvard to Penman I'eak ; Spanish Creek Ridge; South side 
Frenchman's Hill and westward to VS'alker Plain. Sierra County, Yuba Pass and east- 
ward down to 5,800 feet (west of Sierra Valley) to Sardine Valley and Smithneck Can- 

" U is suspected that this tree was distinguished by Carri^re as early as 1867, but It 
is impossible to be sure now that bis description refers to this tree. 



136 



FOREST TREES OP THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 



yon, and westward to Bassett Road House at 5.200 feet ; Crystal Peak (east of Truckee 
River). Nevada and Placer counties: Both sides of Sierra range in Donner Lake region 
from Donner Lake (east slope) to Cisco (west slope) ; Mount Pluto, south of Truckee 
River : shores of Lake Tahoe down to 6.200 feet ; high areas west of Summit City and 
westward nearly to Snow Point, and southward on divide between South and Middle 
forks of Yuba River to North Fork of American River, following divide between North 



^-^. 




Fig. 54.-^Abies magnifica shastensis: a, seed. 



and middle forks of American River nearly to Red Point. Reported in Washoe Moun- 
tains near Reno, Nev. Eldorado County: From Tallac southward to Grass Lake 
Valley, chiefly above 7,000 feet, and from summit (7,500 feet, southwest of Tallac) 
down 10 miles to Echo (5,500 feet). Central Sierras (Stanislaus National Forest), 
at 6,000 to 8,500 feet. Calaveras County, North Fork of Stanislaus River to west 
of Bloods. Tuolumne County: From between Cold Spring and Eureka Valley, at 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 137 

6,200 feet, eastward to summit ; Tuolumne Meadows, up to 9,000 feet ; Lambert 
Dome ; White Mountain ; Mount Conness ; near Lookout Knob ; ridge between Ding- 
ley and Delaney creeks; near Lake Tenaya and Cathedral Lakes; Tioga Road from 6,800 
feet (in Long Gulch, .3 miles east of Aspen Meadows) to Tuolumne County. Southern 
Sierras southward to headwaters of Kings, Kaweah, Tule, and North Fork of Kern 
rivers. Mariposa County: North and northeast of Yosemlte Valley, at 9,000 feet and up; 
Cathedral Lakes and southward nearly to Little Yosemite ; north rim of Yosemile Val- 
ley (near top of Yosemite Falls) down to 7,000 feet, and thence northward to Tioga 
Uoad which it follows eastward front I'orcupine Flat (8.100 feet) to ridges west of Lake 
Tenaya tributaries; Belknap Mountain (head of East and Middle Tule rivers) ; Freeman 
Creek (tributary of Kern River); head of East Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River; 
throughout divide between lower Kern River and Deer Creek and White River (affluents 
of Tulare Lake) above G.OOO feet, reaching southern limits at about Fish Creek (tribu- 
tary South Fork Kern River), latitude .'{6° 10', and head of Poso Creek (tributary 
lularc Lake and in sec. 11 to 14, T. 26 S., R. 31 E., lat. 35= 40'). 

' The range of Abicn magnlflca ahantensix is imperfectly known. At i)reseut 
tills tree Is known to Inhabit the rani?e given for the species from Mount Shasta 
northward, while it occurs with the species in Scott Mountains, on Mount Eddy, 
and in Trinity and Stony Creek National forests. South of this it is found at 
several points in Fresno, Tulare, and Kern counties. Locally noted in this 
region by the writer at Alta Meadow (near southeastern border of Sequoia 
National I'ark). Further careful observations of fruiting trees are expected 
to yield a wider and more connected occurrence of this form. 

OCCUBRENCE.*' 

Tree of high elevations, often well up to timber line. Lower, protected, gentle moun- 
tain slopes about meadows, to steep, exposed, windswept ones near high divides and 
crests ; also in cool, sheltered ravines, gulches, and high rolling mountain plateaus. 
Prefers north and east exposures to drier and warmer south exposures ; in such regions 
confined mostly to available moist, cool sites. Usually, and of largest size, on moist, 
porous, sandy or gravelly loam soils ; but grows in very rocky, poor situations with 
little soil ; poverty of soil and moisture produces small or stunted trees. 

In large pure and nearly i)ure stands below timber line and above white fir belt; often 
in pure small stands at timber line. At upper limit, generally with black hemlock, 
lodgepole pine, and western white pine. In northern California and southern Oregon, 
with yellow pine, sugar pine, and Douglas fir at lower levels ; in Sierras at lower limit, 
commonly with white fir, which it replaces often abruptly at white fir's upper limit. 
Toward upper limit, where it mingles with western white pine, lodgepole pine, and black 
hemlock, the latter grows mainly in gulches and ravines, lodgepole pine on borders of 
meadows, lakes, and moraines, and western white pine (generally scattered), while inter- 
spersed among all are frequent groups and small areas of dense pure, or nearly pure, 
stands of this fir. 

Climatic Conditions. — Climate of region with comparatively short, intensive growing 
season, and long cold period of rest and precipitation. Average annual precipitation, 
about 30 to TyO inches ; considerable snow, which in some parts of Sierras is over 20 feet 
deep and covers ground from November to .June. In many parts of its range snowfall is 
much less, or melts before becoming very deep. Winter temperature, rarely falls to 
zero; summer fem]ierature. not excessive (probably not over 80° F.) during day, with 
cool and generally humid nights. Frost liable to occur at any time (hiring growing sea- 
son at higher levels in range : usually, however, not until late in August. 

ToLER.\N(i;. — Only very moderately tolerant of shade at any period; much less tolerant 
than white fir. incense cedar, and Douglas fir; very similar to noble fir in light require- 
ment. Rarely to any extent in intermediate or subordinate positions ; nearly always in 
stands of equal age, which favor overhead light. Endures but little side shade, as shown 
by long, clean trunks universal in close stands and common in rather open stands. Tol- 
erance appears to vary with soil, moisture, and climatic conditions ; more tolerant under 
best conditions for growth. 

Reproduction. — Prolific seeder ; good seed years occur about every two or three years, 
while some seed is borne in many localities every year. Seed production usually greatest 
in open stands, and by moderately old trees. Seed of fairly high germination, but of 
only transient vitality, (lermination abundant on moist mineral soil in open or in light 
shade : less frequent or wanting on drier, thick duff. Seedlings grow rapidly in cool, 
moist, sandy soil, soon restocking high slopes and openings cleared by fire or storm. 

« Includes Ahiea magniflca shastensis. 



138 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

SEftUOIA. REDWOODS. 

The trees composing the Sequoia group are of ancient origin. Remains of at 
least two sequoias, from which our species descended, have been found in the 
Cretaceous and Tertiary periods, during which time they lived in the Arctic 
Zone. Our representatives of the genus are now singularly isolated and are 
found almost entirely in the coast mountains and Sierras of California, far from 
their nearest relative on this continent — the bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) 
of the Southern States. They are the tallest and most massive of our forest 
trees. Indeed, one of them is easily the largest conifer in the world, widely and 
justly honored as the most, remarkable of trees. Unlike many of our other 
cone-bearers, their distinguishing features remain unvarying. 

On account of the restricted range of the Sierra species especially, much con- 
cern has been expressed regarding the probable extinction of these trees. Great 
and seemingly needless destruction has been wi'ought by fire and ax in these for- 
ests of incomparable grandeur. While it would be a calamity to permit the 
total destruction for commercial purposes of trees which number their age by 
thousands of years, fear need not be felt that these trees are in danger of actual 
extermination for want of natural reproduction. ^Mth protection against fires 
they perpetuate themselves indefinitely, notwithstanding the popular belief that 
at least the Sierra secjuoia is not reijroducing itself. Some of these magnificent 
forests should be preserved untouched as monuments of American respect and 
love for nature's noblest legacy. The scientific and educational value of pre- 
serving them is unquestioned. The destruction, for whatever end, of all of the 
great trees which it has taken thousands of years to produce could never be 
justified in later years. 

Sequoias are evergreen trees. The leaves are narrow and lance-shaped, 
pointed, and arranged alternately opposite and spreading in two lines from 
opposite sides of the branches (fig. 57), or they are scale-like, sharp-pointed, 
and closely overlapping each other on the branches (fig. 56). I^eaves of this 
type are longer, the points spreading on young shoots (fig. 55) and young trees, 
forming sprays somewhat similar to those of cedars. The leaves of each sea- 
son's growth remain on the branches for three or four years. Flowers of two 
sexes, male and female, ai'e borne each on different branches of the same tree. 
Both are minute or small, rather inconspicuous, scaly bodies at the ends of 
branchlets formed the previous ^-ear, and opening very late in winter or in early 
spring. The cones are egg-shaped bodies composed of closely packed, woody, 
persistent, thick scales, and are from about an inch to 3J inches long (figs. 56, 
57). They ripen in one and two seasons, remaining on the trees after opening 
date in autumn) and shedding their seeds. Five to seven seeds, minute, brown, 
stiff, wing-margined flat bodies, are borne closely packed beneath each scale. The 
seeds can not be wafted more than a short distance by the wind. Squirrels 
cut down and bury thousands of the seed-laden cones, from which, under favor- 
able conditions of light — an opening in the forest — many seedlings spring up. 
Seed-leaves, 4 to 6. The bark of old trees is enormously thick, red-brown, soft, 
and separable in very thin flakes. 

The puriilish, red-brown wood of the sequoias is light, very soft, straight- 
grained, and, except that formed during the first one or two centuries, fine- 
grained, often exceedingly so. It is remarkably durable under all kinds of 
exposure, lasting for very many years without apparent sign of decay. Its 
great durability and straight grain and the ease with which it can be split and 
otherwise worked have long made it desirable for many commercial purposes. 
Its huge, long, clear tnanks yield saw-timber so large that it often requires to 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 139 

be split into quarter or half logs befoi'e it can be milled. Felling one of these 
monster trees requires several days' labor of two or three expert men, and when 
the tree goes down its weight is so enormous that not infrequently it is so com- 
pletely demolished that not a foot of saw-timber is available. This is true 
mainly of the Sierra seciuoia, the wood of which, in very old trees, is somewhat 
more ])rittle than that of the coast sequoia. 

The longevity of the.se trees is still unsettled. Claims are made that the 
Sierra species attains an age of from 4,000 to 5,000 years. Many of the largest 
trees have been wholly or partly destroyed, making it difficult to obtain con- 
vincing records. It is safe to assert, however, that some of the largest trees 
are at least 4,000 years old, while most of the average large trees now standing, 
like many that have been cut, are about 2.(mX) to 2,500 years old. Their height 
is from 275 to 3.50 feet, or in very rare instances calculated to be nearly 4(K) feet, 
with diameters of from 10 to IS feet, or unusually of from 25 to 27 feet. 

Two distinct species are known. One is confined practically to the <'oast 
mountains and the other to the Sierras of California. The coast species extends 
a few miles into Oregon. 

Bigtree. 

Sequoia icushhititonlinKt (Winsl.) Sudworth. 

1)ISTIN<;UISHIN(; CHARACTERISTICS. 

What tlie technical name of tiiis sequoia should be. is still a matter of disa- 
gretMiient among authors. ,Sc(]Uoia ireUinytonia Seeman (1855) was revived 
in IS!)*; by an eminent American tree botanist and again perpetuated in 1905. 
Ten years ago « the writer proposed an older name, .S'. icaslniif/toniuiia (Winsl., 
1854), later di.scussing fully the basis of his vlecisiou.'^ The argument given 
then has not since been overthrown, nor does it seem likely to be, if the evidence 
brought then is justly weighed. The unsupported as.sertion has, however, been 
made that Dr. C. F. Winslow's Taxodium tvashiugtonianum, upon which 
Sequoia icashiiigtoniana is based, was not technically published. But a careful 
examination of Doctor Winslow's statement (loc. cit.) should certainly be con- 
vincing, fortunately, that Sequoia tceUiiujtonia is not entitleil to stand for this 
grandest of all American forest trees. 

Barring actual .-Jpecific diffei'ences which abundantly distinguish the bigtree 
from the redwood, it seems in general appearance to be only a more niassive 
and grander edition of the latter species. Its huge trunk, greatly buttressed 
at the .base and very deeply and widely furrowed, bears much the same, but 
lighter, cinnamon-red bark. Much larger ridges and deeper furrows mark these 
trunks than do those of the redwood. The bark is excessively thick at the 
l)ase of old trunks, often from 12 to IS inches or more. It is soft, almost 
spongy, and composed of fine fibers, which are constantly breaking away 
through various agencies — weather, wind, and, not the least, the incessant 
climbing of red s(juirrels. Except where if has been consumed l)y fire, tin; 
accumulation of ages of this wearing may be seen about the trunks, where it 
has fallen in the form of masses of fine red-brown bark. Outer, unbroken, 
filmy scales oi the bark are a purplish or leaden gray. Young trees from 10 
to 20 inches in diameter, probably through the protection of their limbs, retain 
this outer film of bai'k and are therefore of a much grayer tone, which is the 
color also f)f the smooth, unbroken bark of still younger trees. The bark of the 
branches of old trees is the same color and exceedingly thin. 



"See Bulletin 14. Div. For., V. S. Dept. Agr.. 61, 1807. 
"See Bulletin 17, Div. For., U. S. Dept. Agr., 28, 1898. 



140 FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Dimensions. — The height and diameter of these trees is popularly much over- 
estimated. Ordinary large trees ai-e about 250 or 280 feet high, while excep- 
tionally large ones are from 300 to 330 feet, with diameters of from 12 to 17 
feet, or occasionally 20 to 27 feet through, measured 8 to 10 feet above the 
greatly swelled bases. Doubtless, exaggeration of actual dimensions is due to 
inaccurately measuring some of the largest trees so as to include the immense 
basal buttresses, which are properly "no part of the trunk's thickness. 

In youth the conspicuously conical trunks are densely clothed to the ground 
with short, slender branches which curve and point upward sharply, forming" 
a broad, sharp-pointed pyramid. In this form it is extremely handsome and 
graceful. It usually retains its long crown for from 200 to 300 3ears, except in 
very crowded stands ; afterwards the lower limbs gradually thin out and become 
drooping, with a greater weight of dense foliage, as do also the middle crown 
branches ; only the uppermost ones trending upward. Later, and toward ma- 
turity, the great trunks are clear of branches, except for a straggling branch 
here and there, for from 80 to 12.5 feet or more. The crown has then lost all 
semblance to its youthful form, and is a short, narrow, round-topped dome, 
irregular in outline and somewhat open. The once straight leader has died 
and lost its top, or the side branches have overtaken it and together round off 
the crown. All of the branches have become enormously large, crooked, and 
bent, some drooping and others horizontal, and aU bearing dense masses of deep 
blue-green foliage. The leaves (fig. 56), sharp pointed, longer, and more spread- 
ing at their points on stouter main stems (fig. 55), overlap each other, covering 
the slender, drooping sprays. The smaller twigs have shorter leaves, and the 
larger have longer leaves.' Longer, more spreading, but similarly arranged, 
keenly pointed leaves are borne by seedlings from one to several years old. 
The cones (fig. 56) are matured by the end of the second summer, when they are 
dark bluish to olive green. They open slowly during early autumn, the thick 
stiff cone scales parting only little, but sufficiently to liberate the thin, pale 
brown, winged seed (fig. 56, a). About 4 to 6 seeds are borne under each cone 
scale. Purplish grains of rosin-like sul>stance fall from among the dried-out 
cone scales, and impart a deep purple to water, as do also the cones themselves. 
This substance contains 70 per cent of tannin, and is in this and other respects 
the same as that frequently found exuded in hard masses in the Inirned hollows 
of the trunks of these trees. Upon drying, after which most of the cones fall, 
the cones are dull yellowish-brown, the inner portions of the scales, red-brown. 
The minute narrowly winged seeds are not borne far from the parent tree. 
Thousands of ripe cones are cut down, just before they open, by indefatigable 
little pine squirrels. These are buried for winter food, many at the base of the 
parent. When fire and storm or the ax lay the parent low, some of these seeds 
spring up and replace it. Seed leaves, 5, five-eighths inch long, slender, and 
pointed ; scattered, shorter but similar, leaves succeed these, topped the follow- 
ing year by sharp scale-like leaves one-fourth of an ineli long. Succeeding 
growth has the longer sharp form of adult leaves. 

Wood of the bigtree is brilliant rose-purple red when first cut, later becom- 
ing more and more dull purplish red-brown. It is very light (redwood is 
much heavier), brittle, variable in grain from coarse (the growth of the first 
400 or 500 years or more) to very fine-grained (the later growth). It contains, 
as does the bark, a large amount of tannin, which doubtless has much to do 
with its remarkable durability in an unprotected state. Prostrate trunks lie 
for centuries on the ground with no sign of decay, except in the perishable 
sapwood. The wood is widely useful for commercial purposes, passing in the 
market as " redwood ; " though lighter and more brittle than the coast redwood, 
it is said to be not less valuable for lumber. As already stated (p. 139), so small 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 



141 



a percentage of saw timber is actually obtained (25 to 30 per cent) in lumbering 
this tree that it seems wantonly wasteful to lumber it. 




Pig. 55. — Sequoia washingtoniana. 

Longevity.— Estimates and ring counts have placed the age of this tree at 
fron. 4.(XJ0 to 5,000 years. It is doubtful whether the largest of the trees now 
15188— OS 10 



142 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE.- 



Standing are over 4,000 years, while very many trees from 12 to 18 feet in 
diameter show ages from 1,800 to 2,500 years, or in rare eases nearly 3,000. 
Further studies of the longevity of this tree are required. There are abundant 
opportunities in the heavily lumbered southern forests. 

RANGE. 

Central California.— Scattered areas on west side of Sierras from southern Placer 




County to Tulare County; generally at elevations of from 5,000 to 8,300 feet; area 
covering, about 50 square miles. The principal groves and forests are as follows ; but 
straggling trees often connect larger areas, especially those south of Kings River or 
Converse Basin forest. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 143 

(1) Xorth Grove: Near southern boundary of Placer County on tributary of Middle 
Fork of American River and Forest Ilil) Divide, about 10 miles east of (town) Michigan 
Bluflf and just inside of Tahoe National Forest ; 6 trees, at 5,100 feet ; private 
ownership ( ?). 

(2) Calaveras Grove: First discovered (1854) in Calaveras County, on divide at head 
of Moran and San Antonio creeks, just north of North Fork of Stanislaus River and west 
of Stanislaus National Forest, at Big Trees post-office ; elevation, about 4,600 feet ; 50 
acres, with about, 102 trees; private ownership. 

(3) Houth Calaveras or Stanislaus Grove: Tuolumne County, 6 miles southeast of last 
grove and southeast of North Fork of Stanislaus River on divide between Beaver Creek 
(north) and Griswold Creek (south — both tributaries North Fork of Stanislaus River), 
at about 5,000 feet; about 1,000 acres, and about 1,380 trees; private ownership. 

(4) Tuolumne or Crane Flat Grove: Near south boundary of Tuolumne County in 
Yosemite National Park and IJ miles ncjrthwest of Crane Flat Station on Yosemite trail 
from Coulterville, between Tuolumne and Merced rivers: about 40 trees; also single tree 
southwest between this grove and Merced River — exact location unknown. 

(5) Merced Grove: Headwaters of Merced River near north line of Mariposa County 
and a few miles southwest of Tuolumne Grove ; less than 100 trees ; private ownership ( ?). 

(6) Mariposa Grove: Mariposa County, between Rig Creek and South Fork of Merced 
River (Yosemite National Park), 16 miles directly south of Lower Hotel in Y'osemite 
Valley, and in two bodies at 5,400 to 7,000 feet ; northeastern one, with 365 trees, and 
southwestern one, with about 180 trees, one of which is the celebrated " Grizzly Giant ;" 
Government ownership. 

(7) Fresno Grove: Near north line of Madera County at head of Redwood Creek 
(branch Fresno River, in .sees. 17 and 18, T. S., R. 22 E.), about 14 miles southeast of 
Clarks ; 2 miles long by 1 to 2 wide, originally with about 2,000 ( ?) trees, many of which 
have been cut ; private ownership. 

(8) Dinky Grove: Fresno County, on branch of Dinky Creek (tributary North Fork 
Kings River, sec. 35, T. 10 S.,R. 26 E.), at 6,800 to 7,300 feet; 50 acres with about 170 
trees; in Sierra National Forest. 

(9) Converse Basin Forest: Originally one of largest south of Kings River; between 
latter stream and Mill Creek (T. 13 S., R. 27 and 28 E.), 6 miles north of Millwood; 
about 10 Sfiuare miles ; private ownership and almost entirely lumbered. 

(10) General Grant Grove: In General Grant National Park; about 262 trees, and 
originally part of Converse Basin forest, partly Government and partly private owner- 
ship. 

(11) Redwood Mountain Forest: A few mile south of General Grant grove on Red- 
wood Creek (branch North Fork of Kaweah River), covering about 6 square miles, con- 
taining several thousands of trees and In parts constituting pure dense stands : con^der- 
able part lumbered ; private ownership ; a little-known forest. 

Sequoia National I'ark contains following four groves, and one large forest. 

(12) Dovst Creek Groves (northmost ones in Park), comprising two small groves on 
Dorst Creek (tributary North Fork Kaweah River, in northwest part of T. 15 S., R. 
29 E.), with about 766 trees; Government ownership. 

(13) Sivanee River Gvove: Small patch on Swanee River (branch Marble Fork Kaweah 
river), in southeast part of same township; contains about 191 trees; Government 
ownership. 

(14) Giant Forest: On Marble Fork of Kaweah River near its mouth (T. 15 and 16 S., 
R. 30 E.) ; covers about 10 square miles, at 6,500 to 8,000 feet, and contains about 5,000 
trees ; the largest continuous forest intact of this species ; its largest tree is " General 
Sherman ;" Government and private ownership. 

(15 1 Redwood Meadow Groves: Two separate patches about 5 miles east of Giant 
Forest, on Middle Fork of Kaweah River just outside of Sequoia National Park boundary 
and near Granite and Cliff creeks (branches of latl(>r ri\er) : larger grove covers about 
50 acres around and below Redwood Meadow, with about 200 trees ; smaller grove, 
one-fourth mile below Meadow, covers a few acres with about 80 trees ; a single tree 
also stands 1 mile north of Meadow. Private ownership. 

(16) East Fork Forests: Two separate bodies on both sides of East Fork of Kaweah 
River at Redwood Creek, 3 miles west of Mineral King; northern one 3 miles long and 
half a mile wide, at 6,500 to" 8,000 feet ; large part lumbered ; southern grove one-half 
mile wide by about one-half mile long; Government and private ownership. 

(17) A number of small groves, a few miles west of latter forests, are on tributaries 
of East Fork and main Kaweah River; they bear names of streams on which they stand 
and comprise groves on Squirrel Creek, Mule Creek, Squirrel and Lake creeks. Salt Creek, 
and in Coffee Pot Canyon (just west of Sctiuoia National Park) ; jirlvate ownership. 

(18) South Fovk Forest: On south Fork of Kaweah River just within west border of 
Sequoia National Park (In T. 18 S., R. 30 E.) and covers about one-fourth of a square 
mile. 



144 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

(19) Xorth Tule River Forest: Covers entire basin of this stream from second west- 
side tributary canyon to uppermost east-side one (in north part of T. 19 S., R. 30 B.), 
comprising about 6 square miles with north edge just within Sequoia National Parlt ; 
elevation, 5,400 to 8,000 feet ; large part lumbered and privately owned. 

(20) Middle Tule River Forest: One mile south of North Tule Forest on east head 
basin of Bear Creek, extending over high divide, also between this basin and Middle 
Tule River Canyon, and over east slope of latter stream (in T. 19 and 20 S.. R. 30 and 
31 E.) ; covers an area of about 6 miles long by 5 miles wide, at 6,000 to 8,000 feet; 
large part lumbered ; a part of this forest, but separated from it, is the Silver Creek 
Grove of 200 to 250 trees, on south slope of Sliver Creek (tributary Middle Tule River) ; 
private ownership. 

(21) Alder Creek Forest: One-half mile southeast of Middle Tule Forest, on Alder 
Creek (tributary Middle Tule River), 3 miles long by about one-half to 1 mile wide, 
extending from head of Ross Creek northward along summit of divide between Hassie 
Creek and Middle Tule Canyon to head of (south i Alder Creek, down slope to within 
about one half to 1 mile of Middle Tule River; elevation, 5,700 to 7,000 feet; private 
ownership. 

(22) East Tule Forest: About 2 miles wide by 3 miles long, covering head basin of 
East Fork of Tule River (at junction between T. 20 and 21 S., R. 31 and 32 E.), at 
5,550 to 7.500 feet elevation ; main body begins 2 miles above Nelson's ranch, but 
scattered trees occur along canyon bottom to within three-fourths mile of latter ranch ; 
also detached grove of 250 to 300 trees to southwest on divide between Bear and Marble 
creeks ; private ownership. 

(23) Freeman Greek Forest: On head basin of Freeman Creek (tributary East Fork 
of Tule River) about 3 miles long by one-half mile wide, separated by narrow divide 
from East Tule Forest ; private ownership. 

(24) South Tule Forest: Composed of two parts; one, in East Tule watershed, is 
connected with one in South Tule basin for about IJ miles on divide and also at heads 
of Coy and Slate creeks ; East Tule part extends from head of Coy Creek westward 
to Deadmans Creek ; the largest area, to west of Coy and Slate creeks, is about 3J 
miles long, and extends from top of divide down between East and South Tule and 
northward down north slope of East Tule for about 1 mile : general elevation, 6,000 to 
7,600 feet ; South Tule part extends from northeast corner of Tule River Indian Reserva- 
tion northeastward 4 or 5 miles, with a width of 2 to 2J miles ; elevation, 5,600 to 7,500 
feet ; private ownership. 

(25) Dry Meadow Grove. — Small patch east of Tule Indian Reservation, on head of 
Dry Meadow Creek (tributary Kern River, approximately in S. 20, T. 22 S., R. 31 E.). 
Government ownership. 

(26) Deer Creek Orove. — About 30 large trees at head of South Fork of Deer Creek 
(tributary White River), few miles east* of Deer River Hot Springs (S. 2, T. 24 S., R. 
31 E.). 

OCCURRENCE. 

Between larger north groves there are breaks of from 40 to 60 miles. From the Kings 
River forest southward, groups are less widely separated ; a broad belt, broken only by 
deep canyons, extends for 70 miles to its southern limit in the Tule River basins. Gaps 
between north groves correspond with glacier beds which flowed from main high crest 
of Sierras during the glacial epoch. Existing growth is on higher lands from which 
ice melted long before it did in the intervening canyons. Prefers slopes, low ridges, 
depressions, and draws near or on headwaters of streams, where soil moisture is present. 
Indifferent to exposure, growing on slopes of every aspect. Prefers conditions of dense 
forest, occurring only rarely and of much smaller size in exposed situations. Depth 
and quality of soil and abundant moisture are most favorable to best growth. Usually 
in deep, porous, sandy, or gravelly soils moistened by contiguous streams or slope run- 
off ; also grows well on moist, rocky, shallow soils, but less commonly on dry gravelly 
or rocky soils. With moisture, the condition of soil apparently has little or no effect on 
growth. 

Occasionally in pure stands, but usually in mixture. Mostly with sugar pine and 
white fir (with Douglas fir at north) ; western yellow pipe is often mingled on drier 
borders of these forests and groves, as it is also at lower elevations, where also Incense 
cedar is a very common associate. From a pure stand, big trees may form the prin- 
cipal part of the forest (as in larger areas), or they may (as in smaller groves) make 
up only a small percentage of stands. At higher levels white fir is often the only 
associate. 

Climatic Conditions. — The habitat of bigtree is cooler and drier than that of red- 
wood. At Summit, situated some distance north of its range, at an elevation of 7,000 
feet, the temperature occasionally falls to —12° F. and never exceeds 100°. Throughout 



FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 145 

Its range the precipitation varies wltti increase in altitude and for dry and wet years 
from al>out 18 to over 60 inches. At high altitudes the snowfall is often very heavy. 
At Summit, an annual snowfall of nearly 700 inches, equivalent to 70 inches of rain, 
has been reported. The winters are long but mild, and the flowering and pollination of 
l)igtree take place as early as February or March, although spring does not commence 
until considerably later. The climate varies little with latitude, because as bigtree ex- 
tends southward it grows at increasingly higher elevations. 

Tolerance. — Tolerant of but little shade at any stage ; for vigorous growth, abundant 
overhead liglit required from the start. Endures more shade during early youth than 
in old age, when crowns are always in full light. Under dense shade young plants grow 
very slowly, and have sparse foliage, flat crowns, and a gnarly habit, showing need of 
light. Such trees, however, often survive for a number of years, recovering slowly with 
light. General absence of reproduction in all but openings in forest and In open ground 
adjacent to seed trees shows clearly that light is a most important factor in early life. 
Kndures considerable side shade ; close stands of trees, 20 to 30 years old, often retain- 
ing branches to ground, while in full light they are kept many more years. 

REruoDicTiD.N. — An abundant seeder at short intervals, with specially heavy seed 
years ; some seed usually borne annually in parts of range. Seed of moderately high 
rate germination, with persistent vitality. Open-grown trees may bear seed sparingly 
when 18 or 20 years old. Seed production in forest, much later ; mainly when from 
150 to 200 years old. Seeds are scattered in late fall and early winter. Lightness of 
seed permits restocking of open ground for several hundred yards from mother trees. 
Germination mainly and best on exposed mineral soil ; seedlings rare or wanting on heavy 
litter, which they can not penetrate. Reproduction generally best on burned areas, where 
fire has cleared off litter, and exposed mineral soil, or even after light ground fire has 
left a layer of ashes or charcoal. Heavy stocking, which occurs only under such condi- 
tions, often amounts to 2,500 seedlings per square rod. Dense snowbrush common on 
burns does not prevent growth of bigtree seedlings. Usually seeded before the brush 
comes in, seedlings grow slowly through it. Thrifty sapling stands are frequent over 
this brush. Seedlings grow rapidly in clearings, under full light, sometimes reaching 
G feet in as many years, the greater part of which is attained during the third and fourth 
years. Such open-grown seedlings begin to branch vigorously from the first year, and 
assume the characteristic pointed form of rapid growth. 

Redwood. 

Sequoia sempervirenfi (Lamb. )' Endlicher. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

The dark cinnamon-brown, grayish tinged trunks of redwoods are more or less 
buttressed at their bases and. as a result, are often marked with corresponding 
rounded ridges and broad hollows. The trunk is full and round higher up, and 
has a gradual taper throughout. Average large trees are from 190 to 280, some- 
times 300, feet high, and from 8 to 12 feet or occasionally 12 or 15 feet in diam- 
eter. Exceptionally large trees are 325 or 350 feet high and 18 or 20 feet in 
diameter at a height of from 8 to 12 feet above the greatly swelled base. Old 
trunks are clear of branches for 50 or GO feet in open stands and for 80 or 100 
or more feet in dense forests. The crowns of young trees from 10 to 15 inches 
in diameter are narrowly conical, and extend nearly or quite to the ground. The 
slender, short lower crown branches droop with a downward curve, while above 
tlie middle the branches gradually trend more and more upward. On larger 
trees in close stands the lower limbs are shaded out, leaving a very short, round- 
topped or .sometimes a flat-topped crown. The few branches on such trees, now 
long and thick, stand out rigidly from the trunk, drooping slightly — at the top 
not at all — forming a verj' open head. Bark of old trunks is from 8 to 10 or 
even 12 inches thick at the base of the trees, and it is very deeply and widely 
furrowed and ridged. The leaves (fig. .57) are flat, sharp-pointed, stiff, of 
unequal lengths (one-third inch to about 1 inch) on the same twig. On side 
twigs of lower branches and on young saplings the leaves stand out iu two 



146 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

lines on opposite sides of the twigs, while on the main stem of these branches 
they vary in length down to short scale-like forms and occur in several lines, 
sometimes closely pressed to the branch. A conspicuous feature of these leaves 
is their habit of clinging to the branches for one or two years after they are 
dead, when they are pale dull brown. These leaves occur irregularly on 
branches, though they are most common on the top branches of mature trees, 
particularly in exposed sites. The foliage is a bright, deep yellow-green ; that 
of each season's growth i*emains on the tree about three or four years. Cones 
(fig. 57), which mature In one year, are ripe early in September. They open 
and shed their seed slowly, and remain on the trees several months afterwards. 
The seeds (fig. 57, &), about 4 or 5 of which are borne under each cone scale, 
are pale russet-brown. Seed leaves, usually 5; very slender, pointed, and about 
seven-eighths of an inch long. Seedlings produce similar scattered spreading 
leaves for several years before assuming the adult foliage. Wood (about the 
weight of white pine), several pounds heavier per cubic foot than tiat of the 
bigtree. It is very soft, moderately fine-grained, but variable fi-om fine to 
coarse, exceedingly brittle, and a purplish, clear red-brown in color. It is of 
the first commercial importance on account of its great durability without pro- 
tection, the ease with which it is worked, and the- large sizes of clear lumber 
obtainable. 

Longevity. — Very long-lived, but greatest age undetermined. On account of 
the extensive lumbering in the past, followed by fire, age records of very large 
trees have not been obtained. Probably not as long-lived as the bigtree. A tree 
20 feet in diameter and 350 feet high showed an age of 1.000 years. Another 
tree 21 feet in diameter was 1,373 ° years old. 

RANGE. 

From southwestern corner of Oregon southward, from 10 to 30 miles Inland, through 
California coast region to Salmon Creek Canyon (12 miles south of Punta Gorda) in 
Monterey County. Generally from near sea-level to about 2,500 feet elevation, and 
mainly on seaward side of coast mountains within the fog belt. 

Okegon. — Thi-ee groves in southern Curry County ; two, aggregating 2,000 acres, on 
northwestern side of Chetco River, and 12 miles from its mouth, a third grove, farther 
south, on Winchuck River only a few miles from sea and very near California line. 

California. — Northmost large forest is on Smith River (Del Norte County) and its 
tributary Rowdy Creek, from which a nearly unbroken belt extends southward. Klamath 
National Forest only on Goose Creek (T. 14 N., R. 2 E.). At north end of Del Norte 
County belt is only 5 to 6 miles wide, between which and the sea there is a belt 3 miles 
wide, mainly of Sitka spruce and Douglas flr. But south of Crescent City, redwood 
comes within a mile of coast and the belt widens to 6 or 7 miles, continuing thus to 
Klamath River Valley, up which it goes for 20 miles ; immediately south of this valley 
the belt becomes 10 to 12 miles wide and so continues until reaching Humboldt Bay, 
where it narrows to a width of about 7 miles, extending east to 3 miles east of Korbel, 
and recedes from the coast 2 or 3 miles. Southward from Humboldt Bay it continues 
receding from coast, until, at Eel River, the belt, here about 15 miles wide, is 15 miles 
or more from the sea. In southern Humboldt County (T. 3 S., R. 3 E., Humboldt meri- 
dian) the belt ends in a tapering point about 7 miles southwest of Eel River. For 
about 15 miles redwood is absent, but at north boundary of Mendocino County the belt 
begins again, close to sea, and continues about 8 miles wide to a point opposite Westport, 
where it extends eastward 10 miles from that town, and at a point 15 miles north of 
Mendocino widens to about 20 miles, reaching inland to Deep Creek (opposite Willitsi on 
east slope of coast mountains. It continues thus, with gaps on the divide, until Sonoma 
County is reached, here contracting to 10 or 12 miles in width, on Russian River extend- 
ing east to Forestville, and, much broken, finally ceases about opposite Santa Rosa. 
Through Marin County redwood appears only in groves and in ravines, but extends 
eastward to Napa Valley and over Howell Mountain (toward Pope Valley), here reaching 
its most eastern limit, more than 30 miles from the sea. In Mount Diablo range, only on 

" See Forest Service Bull. 38, p. 12. 



J 





Fig. 57. — Sequoia scmiicrvi. 
15188—08. (To face pajre 14ti. ) 




Fio. 57. — Sequoia nemjn 
ir.iMK— (),s. (To fju-e im^e l-l(>.) 



Iifanch with npL-n cones; b, seed. 



FOKEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 147 

Redwood Peak in Oakland Hills; but south of San Francisco, on seaward coast range, 
covers crest and west slope, mixed with Douglas fir and other trees, extending southward 
through Santa Cruz Mountains. Ceases for a few miles around Monterey Bay, but in 
Santa Lucia Mountains (Monterey County) occurs in canyons chiefly on seaward side of 
range at altitudes from sea-level to 3,000 feet (the largest trees growing in Little Sur 
River Basin, near Pico Blanco), extending south to Salmon Creek Canyon (12 miles 
south of Punta Gorda, lat. 35° 50'), the southern limit. 

OCCUBRENCE. 

Best stands and all pure stands on protected flats and ben<5hes along larger streams, 
sheltered, moist coastal plains, river deltas, moderate west slopes and valleys opening 
toward sea. At higher, more exposed levels, where it is drier, and on steeper slopes 
growth is smaller and gradually gives way in mixture to less exacting species. In north, 
often on east slopes, but in south restricted to west side of coast range. Very exacting 
in requirements as to soil moisture ; prefers deep to shallow soils, and grows better in 
fresh, well-drained soils than in wet ones. Sandstone prevails in range, and soil is 
clayey to sandy (greasy when wet), yellowish, and capable of holding much water. 
Sandy to clayey loam soil, even on steep slopes, usually of fair depth and of good compo- 
sition. Boggy soils near mouths of streams are not suitable, such localities being mainly 
given over to an irregular forest of Sitka spruce, grand fir. Port Orford cedar, and 
hardwoods. 

Relatively small part (less than 50 square miles) of redwood forest is pure growth. 
This is dense, and with little undergrowth except moss and small herbaceous plants. 
Greater part (about 1,S00 sijuare miles) a mixture of redwood (50 to 75 per cent), 
Douglas fir (most abundant associate everywhere except or damp places), tanbark oak, 
grand fir, western red cedar, western hemlock, and madrona ; Douglas fir and tanbark oak 
characteristic on upper slopes and hemlock on lower. Steep slope and uneven height 
of diBCerent species make this an open forest, and except where fires are frequent there is 
a dense undergrowth of huckleberry, salal, Oregon grape, thimbleberry, and ferns." On 
rich river flats scattered Sitka spruce, Port Orford cedar, western hemlock, and grand 
fir are occasionally mingled. I'acific yew, California torreya, California laurel, cascara 
buckthorn, red alder, knobcone pine, and Gowen cypress are also more or less associated, 
but hold only occasional sites against the climatically more favored redwood. 

Climatic Conditions.- — Closely confined to humid region subject to frequent and heavy 
sea fogs ; trees outside this influence are scattered and small. Fogs conserve moisture 
In soil and in trees by checking evaporation and transpiration from trees. In the red- 
wood forest, therefore, soil and air are typically moist. Temperature, rarely below 15° 
or above 100° ; annual average from 50° to 60° F. Annual precipitation, between 20 
and 60 inches, mainly as winter rains. Snow lies on tops only of highest ridges. 

Tolerance. — Moderately tolerant of shade except in early youth ; even then shade 
is not required, most rapid growth being in full light. Has marked characteristics of 
Intolerant trees ; a thin open crown, rapid loss of side branches, and the eager bending 
of crowns toward openings in crown cover ; seedlings not able to come up in shaded 
places. Yet, despite this, forms the densest of forests. Stump sprouts often exist under 
the densest shade for one hundred years, growing very slowly in diameter during this 
time, but recovering completely and growing rapidly when released from suppression. 
This tolerance of sprouts is, however, peculiar to trees on moist bottoms, which endure 
so much shade that other species are usually driven out. On drier hills, with more light, 
redwood generally gives way to the less tolerant Douglas fir and other drought-enduring 
trees. 

Reprodcction. — Fairly prolific seeder. Very small percentage (15 to 25 per cent) of 
seed perfect ; hence exceedingly low rate of germination ; vitality moderately persistent. 
Sparsely reproduced by seed, but very abundantly by sprouts from old or young stumps, 
root collar, and (suckers) roots." Sprouts grow very rapidly, are long-lived, and pro- 
duce large trees of good form. Seedlings grow more slowly than sprouts and require 
more light. 



» Redwood forests yield 10,000 to 75,000 board feet per acre, or very exceptionally 
400,000 feet, while over a million feet have been cut per acre. 

" Redwood is about the only conifer whose reproduction by sprouts Is of commercial 
importance. The Sierra bigtree sprouts vigorously from tall broken stubs (not from 
stumps or roots) and thus repairs its broken crown. A number of pines produce ephem- 
eral stump sprouts, while some of the junipers produce persistent collar sprouts after 
cutting and fire. 



148 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

LIBOCEDRUS. 

Trees of this group are characterized by their conical trnnlis, their thick 
bark, and the very strong but pleasant odor of their light, soft, straight- 
grained, durable wood. The small scale-like, pointed leaves (of adults) are 
evergreen ; those of each season's growth remain on the tree four or five years. 
They overlap each other closely ; much flattened on short side branchlets, but 
rounded on the larger main stems. The branchlets are arranged iu one plane, 
forming a fiat spray. Seedling leaves are scale-like, sharp-pointed, and spread- 
ing. All of the leaves are characteristically arranged in pairs, each pair placed 
on the branch at right angles to the preceding pair. The leaves are also distin- 
guished by their long bases, which extend down the branch. Male and female 
flowers at the end of branchlets formed the preceding year are borne either on 
different twigs of the same branch (native Libocedrus) or on different trees. 
The small cones, which mature in one season and hang down from the branches, 
are composed of 3 pairs of scales (practically of only 2) — one very short pair 
and one, the largest pair, forming mo.st of the cone's body and inclosing 1 or 2 
winged seeds on each of its scales ; the third pair is formed into a central flat, 
thick, woody wall, upon each face of which the seed-bearing scales clasp. The 
seeds are shed in early autumn, their light wings adapting them well for wide 
dissemination. After shedding their seeds the cones remain on the trees at least 
until the succeeding summer. All of the trees of this group are rather large, 
important forest trees, and their durable woods are commercially valuable. They 
are nearly all long-lived. One species only, confined to our Pacific region, inhab- 
its the United States. Two very important species grow in western South 
America. The group is further interesting from the fact that in geologic times 
species related to those now living e.xisted in Greenland and portions of Europe. 

Incense Cedar. 
Libocedrns deciirrens Torrey. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

The striking characteristics of old incense cedar trees are their rapidly 
tapering trunks with widely buttressed bases and cinnamon-brown, deeply fur- 
rowed, and ridged bark. The bark is from 2 to 3 or more inches thick at the 
base of the trunks ; higher up it is scarcely more than an inch thick. Young 
trees have thin, smooth, slightly scaly, clear, reddish cinnamon colored bark. 
Height, from 75 to 90 or sometimes 100 or 110 feet (very rarely more), and 
from 30 to 50 inches in diameter ; exceptionally large trees are from 5 to 6 
feet in diameter. The crowns of large trees are very open and irregular, con- 
sisting of a few scattered branches on the upper third of the stem, and 
several large, leader-like top branches, all with dense tufts of light yellow- 
green foliage. Young trees, up to about 12 inches in diameter, carry a narrow, 
open, columnar, pointed crown, reaching to the ground. At the bottom of the 
crown the branches are slender and curve down and up at their ends; higher 
up they gradually swing upward more and more toward the narrow pointed top. 
Short, flat, drooping sprays of foliage terminate the branches. A notable fea- 
ture of the branches is that they shed numerous short side twigs, which die in 
about their second year, as the main divisions of the branch enlarge. (This is 
the case also with other cedars, particularly Thujas.) The scale-like leaves 
(fig. 58) have been sufhciently defined under the characteristics of the genus, 
as have also the cones (fig. 58). The flowers, male and female, are borne on the 
ends of separate twigs of the same branch and open in midwinter. The cones 



FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



149 



are ripe by the middle of August and usually shed their seeds (fig. 58, c), which 
are yellowish-brown, early in September. When dry and open the cones are 




Fig. 5S. — Lihocedrus decun-ens: a, male flowers; h, fruiting branch; c, seed. 



reddish-brown. Most of them fall during the winter, but some always adhere to 
the branches until spring. The seeds, furnished with large, light wings, which 



150 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

adapt them admirably for wide distribution by the wiud, contain glands with 
clear red, pungently odorous resin. Seed leaves, 2 ; sharp-pointed, and about 
IJ inches long and almost one-eighth of an inch wide. Wood, fine and very 
straight grained, pale or dull yellow brown, sometimes tinged with red. It is 
soft, light (about the weight of white pine), and very durable under all kinds of 
exposure. Its durability renders it extremely valuable for use in the water or 
in the ground. Large trunks, and to a much less degree small or medium sized 
ones also, are often riddled as if by the galleries of an insect. These injuries are 
supposed to result from the attacks of several little-known fungi. They do not 
impair the durability of the wood, however, and trunks not excessively perfo- 
rated are frequently used for telephone poles, especially within the range of 
the tree, where it is the only lasting wood obtainable. 

Longevity. — Much is yet to be learned concerning the age limits of this tree. 
So far as is now known it is a long-lived tree, but records of very large trunks 
have not been made. Trees from 2-4 to 36 inches in diameter are from 360 to 
546 years old. Larger trees would probably be from 650 to 700 years old or even 
older. 

RANGE. 

Mountains of southern Oregon, Sierras and coast ranges of California, western edge 
of Nevada, and northern Lower California. 

Oregon. — Both sides of Cascades, rmpqua-Rogue River Divide, Siskiyous, possibly 
also in coast ranges, and eastward over ranges of Upper Klamath Basin to west slope 
of mountains east of Goose Lake ; on west side of Cascades, generally at 2,500 to 
.5,000 feet, and on east side, at 5,000 to 6,600 feet. Northern occurrence interrupted, 
its limit on west side of Cascades being at head of Breitenbush River (T. 9 S., R. 7 E.), 
and on east side, the foothills southeast of Mount Hood near Gate Creek (T. 4 and 5 S., 
R. 10 and 11 E., lat. 45° 15'). Noted near Fort Klamath, sparingly thence northward 
toward Crater Lake, here common at about 4,600 feet ; on Warm Springs Indian Reser- 
vation and about 5 miles west of Wapinitia and westward to near Camas Prairie. 

California. — Throughout northern part from west border of fog belt eastward to 
Warner Mountains and southward, nearly continuously, to Lassen Peak and Delta 
(Sacramento River) ; not present in upper Pitt River Basin, Shasta Valley, Scott and 
Hoopa river valleys, nor summits of Salmon and Trinity mountains. Modoc County: 
Common in Warner Mountains east of Goose Lake, and less plentiful west of Goose 
Lake ; western Modoc County, on Turret Mountain, descending northwestward to near 
Happy Camp; Glass and Big Valley mountains (west of Big Valley in extreme south- 
west corner of county). 8iskii/ou Coiintj/: Goosenest Mountain (north of Mount 
Shasta) ; north of Shasta Valley in Shovel Creek Mountains and near Beswick (or 
Klamath Hot Springs) ; also in mountains a few miles west of Hornbrook, ranging thence 
northward over Siskiyous, and westward and southwestward over Scott Mountains, 
from north part of which it descends east slope to within 5 miles of Yreka ; throughout 
Mount Shasta up to 5,500 feet, and westward across Sisson Valley to Mount Eddy and 
Scott Mountains and southward into Shasta County ; west of Scott Valley in Mill Creek 
Gulch on road from Etna Mills to Marble Mountain Divide ; west side of Marble Moun- 
tain Divide in Russian Creek Basin ; east slope of Salmon Summit up to about 4,000 
feet, and sparingly in basin between Salmon and Trinity summits on hot slopes up to 
5,500 feet. Humboldt County: Common on west slope of Trinity Summit ridge east 
of Hoopa Valley between 4,000 and 5,000 feet ; west of Hoopa Valley, scattered in 
Supply Creek Canyon, west of which it has not been found and probably does not occur ; 
farther south occurs along east edge of coast forest between Bridgeville and the Little 
Van Dusen. Mendocino County: Common on west slope of high ridge east of Round 
Valley about 20 miles east of Covelo, at 3,600 to 6,000 feet, and sparingly about 
Laytonville. Trinity County: From Weaverville southward nearly to Trinity River, 
and in Hayfork Mountains south of Trinity ; southeast of Hayfork Post-Offlce on both 
sides of boundary between Trinity and Shasta counties ; Canyon Creek from near 
Dedrick northward about 10 miles to near Alpine lakes ; from Junction southward to 
Hayfork and to Post creeks and South Fork of Trinity River ; South Fork Mountain 
and westward into Upper Mad River Valley (near and a little below Anada Post-Offlce) ; 
also on Upper Van Dusen River. Olenn and Lake counties: Throughout Stony Creek 
National Forest at 3,500 to 5,000 feet — sometimes down to 2,000 feet ; noted on Cobb 
Mountain and Mount St. Helena, ranging thence to edge of Middletown Valley (alt. 
about 1,200 feet — southern limit in north coast ranges). Shasta County: Eastward 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 151 

to Fall River region, where it occurs near Dana and in Big Valley Mountains between 
Fall River Valley and Big Valley, thence southward to north slopes of Lassen Peak ; 
south of Pitt River, westward to Montgomery ; Sacramento River Canyon southward 
to near Gregory, and on McCloud River to near Baird. Throughout west side of Sierras, 
at 3,500 to 6,000 feet in northern part, but to 7.500 feet on Long Valley drainage, 
and at 3,500 to 7,000 feet in southern part of Sierras ; reaches east side at 7,000 feet 
only on Washoe Mountains near Carson, Nev. Lassen I'eak, Plumas, and Diamond 
Mountains National Forests, generally at 2,000 to 6,500 feet. Laasen County: North- 
western corner In Big Valley Mountains, beginning 5 or 6 miles west of Bieber ; east 
of Big Valley on Willow Creek about 10 miles south of Adin, and thence to FTayden Hill ; 
westward frf)m a little west of Susanville into north Plumas County and southeastern 
Shasta County. Plumus County: Nearly throughout north part ■ common from Susan- 
ville westward by Mo\intain Meadows, Big Meadows, Drakes Hot Springs, and Morgan, 
and about (ireenville and Indian valleys; Sierra Valley to Quincy and westward into 
Butte and Tehama counties. Tehama County: From east boundary westward down to 
about 3,400 feet altitude a little east of I-yonsville, and a few miles farther north stops 
about 10 miles east of Paine Creek Post-Office ; western Tehama County, west of Paskenta 
at 3,700 feet, and thence westward. Butte County: From east boundary westward to 
Magalia, and farther south (Quincy-Oroville road) to within 4 or 5 miles of Bidwell 
Bar. Yuba County: Common in Oregon Hills, and down west side to ridge between 
Oregon Hills and Oregon House Flat, which appears to be its western limit ; from Ore- 
gon Ilills eastward on North Fork of Yuba River and adjacent slopes to Camptonville 
and on into Sierra County. Surra County: C(jmmon in WoodnitT Canyon north of 
Mountain House, and (on North Fork Yuba) to and beyond Downieville and Sierra 
City, thence up Yuba Pass road to about 6,000 feet ; slope of Yuba Pass just east of 
summit, and down to near west border of Sierra Valley ; south of Sierra Valley, from 
Sierraville southward nearly to Nevada County. Kevada and Placer counties: West 
slope of Sierras from Cisco to Emigrant (Jap and Blue Canyon (in both counties », down 
to Colfax and to Bear River and to near Grass Valley; south of Colfax, on cold slopes 
of North Fork American River, and from Iowa Hill eastward to Forks House ; Forest 
Hill and Devils ("anyon (l)etween Forest Hill and Colfax) ; south of Colfax a few 
trees as low as Weimer. Stanislaus National Forest, generally at 2,000 to 7,000 feet, 
but mostly at 3,500 to 5,500 feet. Eldorado County: Common at south end of Lake 
Tahoe ; gulches near Placerville eastward on coldi-r slopes ; canyon of South Fork Web- 
ber Creek between Newtown and Pleasant Valley ; south of Pleasant Valley, in canyon 
of North Fork Cosumnes River ; common on road from Placerville to Lake Tahoe from 
about 2,300 feet up to Echo at 5.500 feet. Alpine County, noted near Hot Sjtrings 
(about 4 miles west of Markleeville). Amador County: Noted about Oleta (about 
1,800 feet) and southeastward to Deadmans Creek, Dry Creek, and Sutter Creek can- 
yons near Volcano ; common from FMne (Jrove eastward to and beyond I'ioneer ; continues 
southwestward from Pine (Jrove on ridge on south side of Middle P^ork of .lackson 
Creek to within 4 miles of .lackson, where it stops at about 1,500 feet. Calaveras 
County: Common about West I'oint and northward to main canyon of Mokelumne 
River ; southwest of West Point, on road to Mokelumne Hill, in canyon of South Fork 
Mokelumne River, and at point 2 miles east of Rich Gold ; .southeast of West Point, 
in canyons of Middle and South Forks of Mokelumne River and at Railroad Flat, 
thence to Mountain Ranch (Eldorado) ; west of latter, follows San Andreas road to 
about 1,500 feet, where it stops 6 miles east of this town ; Mokelumne I'ass road In 
extreme eastern part of county about 10 miles below Bloods at about 6.600 feet, and 
westward to and beyond Bigtrees, here abundant among sequoias and sugar pines. 
From hen- (on road) southwestward to within a few miles of Murphy. Tuolumne 
County: Sonora Pass road between Tuolumne and Soulsbyville, at Black Oak station 
west of Tuolumne, and eastward and northeastward past Cold Spring and Eureka val- 
leys, reaching 8.000 feet on west side of Sonora Pass ; north slope of ridge immediately 
north of Big Oak F'lat, and on cool slopes in higher parts of Deer Creek canyon ; on 
road from Big Oak Flat to Crockers from crossing of South Fork of Tuolumne River 
to Crockers; common from Crockers eastward and northward to Hetch Hetchy Valley, 
here abundant in upper part ; follows Tioga road to Aspen Meadow (about 6.200 feet) ; 
common from Crockers southward for several miles on Yosemite road. Maripona County: 
Yosemlte Valley and up above Little Yosemite to about 7.000 feet ; north side of valley near 
Yosemite Falls, about 1,500 feet above valley : on west follows road to Crockers to a little 
above 5.800 feet ; south side of Yosemite Valley common on road to Wawona, and from 
Chinquapin on slope toward Glacier Point to about 7.100 feet ; from Wawona on Raymond 
stage road down to 3,000 or 3,100 feet, to within 3 or 4 miles of Wassama (Ahw.ihnee) ; 
Coulterville-Yosemite road, begins on summit of plateau 4 or 5 miles east of Coulterville, 
at 3,000 to 3,200 feet, and goes eastward in pine forest to beyond Bower Cave and Bull 
Creek and Into Yosemite Valley ; Chowchilla Canyon and neighboring gulches down to 



152 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

3,000 feet, and on cool slopes to 2,500 feet. Madera County: East of Fresno Flat on road 
to China Creek, beyond Fresno Flat, headwaters of Fresno Creek near California Saw- 
mill at 5,500 feet. Fresno County: Pine Ridge and eastward into mountains; south- 
ward on Pine Ridge occurs on upper waters of Sycamore and Big creeks ; eastward in 
bottom of Kings River Canyon into Bubbs Creek canyon ; south of Kings River between 
Mill Creek and Eshom valleys, and east of latter on Redwood Mountain at about 7,000 
feet. Tulare County: Sequoia National Park and east of park on warm slopes into 
Buck Canyon and canyon of Middle Fork Kaweah River ro 7,500 feet ; Kern River 
Canyon, in vicinity of Kern Lakes ; East Fork of Kaweah River to about 7,200 feet. 
Southern Sierras, generally at 3,000 to 7,000 feet southward to Greenhorn and Piute 
mountains ; not in Breckenridge nor Tehachapi ranges, except near mouth of Tejon 
Canyon. Not known in coast ranges of central California. Monterey County: Santa 
Lucia Mountains on north slopes ; on north side of Santa Lucia Peak near summit ; west 
of this, in Arroyo Seco Canyon about a mile above its mouth ; north slopes of Cone Peak 
at 3,500 to 4,000 feet ; also farther north on Big Pine Ridge on north slope of Bear 
Basin. San Benito County: Mount San Carlos (4,980 feet near New Idria) and neigh- 
boring peaks ; Santa Barbara National Forest, San Rafael Mountains, Mount Medulce, 
and from near summit of P'ine Mountain to Piru Creek, at 5.000 to 7,200 feet, or lower. 
San Gabriel National Forest, on north slopes of Mount Wilson, at 5,200 to 5,800 feet, 
and in Santa Anita Canyon, at 3,300 feet ; Mount Islip, at 5.500 feet ; Waterman Moun- 
tain, at 6,500 feet, and at point 6 miles east of Pasadena, at 4,000 feet. Highest val- 
leys and summits of San Bernardino Mountains, as Bear Valley and Santa Ana River, 
at 5,000 to 7,000 feet, or sometimes to 9,500 feet. High summits of San ^cinto Moun- 
tains and at 3,000 to 8,000 feet in larger valleys and along streams. Santa Ana 
Mountains in Orange County. Ranges between San Jacinto Mountains and Mexican 
line, such as Palomar, Balkan, and Cuyamaca mountains, where noted on Cuyamaca Peak 
at 6,550 feet, and on Mexican boundary at Campbell's Ranch at 5.000 feet. 

Lower Californi.\. — Southward on Hanson Laguna Range and Mount San Pedro 
Martir, at 7,500 feet and over. 

OCCURRENCE. 

In general, commoner on west than on east mountain slopes ; but somewhat higher on 
east slopes, chiefly because of more moisture. Most abundant and largest on west slope 
of Sierras, especially where sugar pine, bigtrees, and yellow pine thrive best. As latitude 
increases it appears to seek lower elevations. In drier parts of range (southern Cali- 
fornia) confined chiefly to borders of streams, canyons, gulches, and cool north slopes, 
while at north limit it occurs mainly on warm south slopes. Adapted to a variety of 
soils, but usually prefers cool, moist soils (humid situations), occurring in rather dry 
soils (warm, open exposures) probably only because it is capable of enduring them. With 
deficient soil moisture, fairly deep, porous soils are essential, while with sufficient mois- 
ture the quantity and quality of soil is less important. Abundant moisture and good 
porous soil produce largest growth. 

Seldom or never occurs pure, except in very small stands. Usually in mixture and more 
or less subordinate, scattered singly, in groups, or patches, and, under best conditions 
for growth, forming 50 per cent of stand, with yellow and sugar pine ; also with white fir in 
lower part of latter's vertical range. In southern California, chiefly with western yellow 
and Jeffrey pines, and sparingly with white fir and big cone spruce, and along streams at 
lower elevations (at south) with red and white alder, hroadleaf maple, and black cotton- 
wood. In Oregon Cascades, with yellow pine, Douglas fir, white fir, western white pine, and 
sugar pine. In Sierras, with sugar pine, western yellow pine, Jeffrey pine, white fir, 
and bigtrees ; at lower levels with Kellogg oak, red alder, hroadleaf maple, and canyon 
live oak. 

Climatic Conditions. — Climate variable. Insufficient precipitation and excessive heat 
(southern California) most unfavorable; conditions more favorable in Cascades and 
Sierras. Precipitation, snow in winter at high elevations, and at lower elevations rain. 
Average annual precipitation from less than 15 to over 50 inches. Relative humidity, 
variable. Fogs (chiefly from ocean) common, especially on west slope of Sierras; their 
influence on general climate and tree growth is considerable. Height of the dry season 
includes July, August, and September, with October in south, when destructive forest 
fires are likely to occur. 

Tolerance. — Moderately tolerant, enduring more shade than sugar pine, yellow pine, 
Jeffrey pine, Douglas fir, or western white pine, and in mature stands usually intermediate 
or subordinate on account of slower growth and greater tolerance; often dominant in 
open stands and openings, or as an advance growth, at lower timber line, pushing into 
oak and brusli. Adapted to both shade and full light. Tolerance varies with age, mois- 
ture, soil, and climate ; tolerates shade well in youth, but requires more light in later life. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 153 

Endures most shade with favorable moisture, soil, and climatic conditions. Growth and 
size is checked ordinarily in proportion to intensity of shade endured. 

Reproduction. — Prolific seeder under favorable conditions, every 2 to 3 years or more ; 
some seed borne locally every year. Bulk of seed from thrifty, mature trees in full sun- 
light. In exposed places, even small scrubby trees bear seed. Seed has fairly high rate 
of germination, and persistent vitality. Moist vegetable mold best seed-bed, but germi- 
pation and growth of seedlings good on moist mineral soil. Partial shade favorable to 
early seedling stages. Reproduction good under old trees and in open, but especially 
good in openings and under 'binned stands, where the dense thickets frequently exclude 
other more valuable trees. In cool, moist places, however, white fir often enters such 
thickets and predominates. Frequently the firnt of conifers in chaparral and oak growth' 
at lower edge of timber belt, proving its great adaptation to different degrees of light, 
moisture, and soil, and its general hardihood in seedling stages. • 

THUJA. ARBORVITiES. 

The arborvitaes are commonly known as cedars. They are medium to very 
large sized evergreen trees. The foliage consists of minute, overlapping, scale- 
like leaves, arranged as in Libocedrns. and conspicuously flat, on short side 
brancldets. and the branchlets are arranged in one plane, forming a flat spray. 
Seedling leaves are narrowly lance-shaped and sharp-pointed, and spread widely 
from the stem. The very light wood has an exceedingly characteristic aromatic 
odor. Male and female flowers are borne on the same tree, usually on different 
twigs. They are minute and inconspicuous, especially the female flowers. As 
a rule, they open in early spring. The small solitary cones (figs. 59 and (jO) 
mature in one season, shedding their miinite, very narrowly winged seeds in 
early autunm. The cones, strongly bent back upon the branchlets, are light 
russet-brown, and composed of about 8 thin scales, arranged in pairs, each pair 
alternating at right angles with the preceding one, as in the arrangement of 
the leaves. The two or three middle pairs, which are larger than the others, 
bear 2 seeds luider each scale. The thin, gauzy seed-wings (on two sides of the 
seed, and alw.-iys lighter colored than the body of the seeds) are very buoyant, 
so that tliey may he carried by the wind for a considerable distance from the 
parent trees. Minute resin-cells in the seed-coats give the seed a strong aro- 
matic odor. 

Wood exceedingly valuable for timber. Particularly famed for its durability 
under all kinds of exposure, and especially useful in groimd and water construc- 
tion where great strength is not required. 

Two species are indigenous to the I'nited States and Canada. One, a small 
or medium-sized tree, inhabits the northeastern States and adjacent Canadian 
Provinces, while the other, a very large tree, grows in the northwestern States, 
where it extends far northward in the coast region. 

Western Red Cedar; Red Cedar. 

Thuja plica t a Don. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

The lumbermen's and woodsmen's name for this tree is " red cedar," or 
simply "cedar." The former name, while fairly applicable to the dull, slightly 
reddish brown wood, is unfortunate in view of the fact that two or three 
widely known eastern junipers with really red wood are most persistently called 
" red cedar," and probably always will be, for they were known nearly a cen- 
tury before this western cedar was discoveretl. 

The most prominent characteristic of western red cedar is its decidedly 
conical trunk form. Very old trees are enormously " swell-butted " and are con- 
.spicuously in-folded or fluted at the base and for from 10 to 20 feet above it. 



154 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Where the ridges are formed growth appears to be made at the expense of the 
intervening wood, and the fluted trunlv is the result. This character is less pro- 
nounced on smaller trees. Height, from 150 to 175 feet, or very exceptionally 
190 or 200 feet, with a diameter of from 3i to 8 feet, or, in very old trees, rarely 
10 or even 16 feet. The enormous girth of such trees is at the base; their 
diameter decreases rapidly, so that at 20 feet from the ground they may be no 
more than 9 or 10 feet in diameter. From 50 to 100 feet of clear trunk is 
common. Young trees are straight, with an open, narrow, conical crown reach- 
ing almost to the ground and tapering to a sharp top ; the slender whip-like 
leader often nods in a graceful- curve. Except when densely crowded, trees 
retain all their branches until they are 18 or 20 inches in diameter and from 50 
to 80 feet high ; in the open they become much older without losing their lower 
branches. On young trees the slender limbs all curve upward, but later they 
become very long, the lower ones drooping and those higher swinging down in 
a long, graceful curve, with an upward sweep at the ends. The flat, lace-like, 
yellow-green side sprays hang from the branches like lines of fringe. Old trees 
in dense stands have only a short, blunt, or round-topped, conical head. A 
notable feature in this tree is the frequent occurrence of two leaders which 
combine in forming a dense crown. The bark, even on old trunks, is thin, from 
five-eighths to seven-eighths of an inch thick, and owing to this the tree is in 
great danger from fire, from which it rarely escapes without fatal injury. In 
color the bark is a clear, reddish, cinnamon-brown, often weathered outwardly 
to a grayish brown. It is distinctly but shallowly seamed, with narrow 
ridges which in old trunks are rounded and on younger trees flat. The ridges 
run irregularly and continuously, with rare breaks, but are connected at short 
intervals by thinner diagonal ridges and fibers. The bark has a more or less 
stringy, fibrous appearance, and may be sei)arated into long, thin strips on 
younger trees, and into shorter scales on old trunks. The inner bark is very 
tough and strong. Indians peel strips of it 20 or 30 feet long from young trees 
for basket making. 

Densely crowded large trees are clear of branches for from 40 to SO feet, 
but they often have scattered branches below the crown. The boles are fairly 
straight, but large trees are frequently bowed or slightly bent, and are rarely 
full and round. 

The small scale-like leaves (figs. 59, 60), sufliciently characterized under the 
genus, remain on the tree about 3 years. As the main stems of a branch grow, 
its short, flat, side branchlets die and fall during their second year, in this habit 
resembling the similar sprays of Libocedrns. The leathery brown cones (fig. 
60) mature by the end of August, and have about 6 seed-bearing scales, each 
of which bears from 2 to 3 seeds. After shedding their light double-winged 
seeds (fig. 60, b), the cones remain on the trees until the following spring or 
summer. Seed-leaves, 2 ; opposite, lance-shaped, and exceedingly small — about 
one-fourth of an inch long. Those which afterwards grow. 2 to 3 at short inter- 
vals, on the slender seedling are similar, but longer, widely spread, and bent 
downward. Short, scaly leaves similar in arrangement to those on adult stems, 
but longer and sharp-pointed, appear on the seedling at the end of its first or 
second year, and a year or two later the leaves become like those of adult trees. 

Wood very light, strongly aromatic; dull, slightly reddish brown, but losing 
the reddish tinge with exposure. Its grain ranges from medium coarse to fine. 
It is very brittle and soft. Great durability under all sorts of exposure is its 
most important commercial quality. Large logs have lain half-buried in wet 
ground over fifty years with but little sign of decay in the heartwood. On 
account of its durability and the large clear cuts obtainable it is extensively 
used for shingles. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



155 



Longevity.— Very little is known of the age attained by this tree. It may, 
however, he regarded as very long-lived. Some of the largest trees are unques- 
tionably from 7U0 to 80(> years old. Trees from 24 to 40 inches in diameter are 
from 200 to 510 years old. 




Fig. 59. — Thuja plicata. 

RANGE. 

Southeastern coast of Alaska and southward to northern California: eastward, through 
southeastern British Columbia, through northern Washington to northern Idaho aud 
Montana, and to Cascades of Washington and Oregon. 



156 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



Alaska. — Southeastern end, on sea side of Coast Range, from sea level to 3,000 feet, 
northward in small numbers, to Wrangell. on mainland, and to Sitka on Alexander 
Archipelago ; farther northward, sparingly represented on Douglas Island (opposite 
Juneau) and on Portage Bay, head of Lynn Canal (lat. 59° 20'), the northern limit. 
Locally noted as follows : South end of Mitkof Island (opposite Wrangell) ; entrance to 




Pig. 60. — Thuja plicata: a, branch with open cones; h, seed. 



Steamer Bay (Etolin Island) ; Yes Bay (Cleveland Peninsula) ; Ketchikan Valley (Re- 
villagigedo Island) ; Klowak (Prince of Wales Island) ; Kaigan (Bella Bella Island). 

British Columbia. — Sea slopes of Coast Range and islands from sea level to about 
2.400 feet ; not in interior plateau, but on slopes of southern Gold and Selkirk mountains, 
and on west side of Continental Divide, Coast Range region of heavy rainfall, mostly on 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 157 

sea slopes ; Salmon River, inland 45 miles from head of Dean Inlet, at 2,400 feet, and 
also on east slope of Coast Range in lower Iltasyouco Valley (tributary Salmon River) ; 
on Homathco River inland fiS miles to 2,720 feet elevation ; lower Fraser River Valley 
inland to Uztlihoos River (branch Anderson River), 6 miles east of Hoston Bar; also on 
Coquihalla River at point south of summit between this stream and Coldwater River; 
farther south, sparingly on Skaist River (east branch of Skagit), and on the Similka- 
meen at point about 13 miles below Vermilion Forks. Valleys of Cold Range westward 
to within 8 miles of head of Okanogan Lake, northeastern part of Shuswap Like, down 
north branch of Thompson River Valley to point about 20 miles below Clearwater River ; 
northward to Quesnelle River, Fort (Jeorge (on upper Eraser), and to headwaters of 
I'arsnip River. Not in Columbia-Kootenai Valley, but in valleys of Selkirk Mountains 
and on west slopes of Rockies ; eastern limit. Kicking Horse Lake, at 6,000 feet. 

Washinoton. — Throughout western part from sea level to about 4,000 feet in Olympic 
coast ranges, and west slope of Cascades ; and more rarely, on east slope Cascades and 
northern ranges eastward to Idaho at elevations from about 1,500 to 4,500 feet. Abun- 
dant on Pacific coast and on east coast of Puget Sound, but rare in valley south of 
Sound, and on west coast of Puget Sound, except at northeastern corner of Olympic 
Peninsula. Washington National Forest, on west slope of Cascades sea level to 4,500 
feet ; east slope, at 1,000 to 4.700 feet, and only on Stohekin River, Bridge and Early 
Winter creeks, Twisp, Methow, Entiat, Wenache, and Yakima rivers. Locally noted as fol- 
lows : Mountain View (Whatcom County) one-eighth mile from Puget Sound; Orient, at 
1,188 feet (Sauk River) ; Skagit Pass, Big Lake (Skagit County) ; Cascade Creek at point 
11 miles above Mount Marble; North Fork of Skagit River; Stilaguamish River, below 
Silverton ; South Fork, below Robe ; Monte Cristo, at 2,763 feet ; Buck Creek, near 
Mineral Park; Eagle Gorge (King County) ; vicinity of Seattle; about Lake Chelan and 
Steliekin (head of Lake Chelan), at 1,108 feet; Peshastin, at 1,045 feet; Wenache River. 
Mount Rainier National Forest, up to 5,100 feet ; on oast side of range, only on two small 
head streams of Natches River, and on one of Klickitat River. Locally noted at Orting 
in Nisqually Valley, on Mount Adam.s, and in Falcon Valley (south of Mount Adams) ; 
Port Ludlow, at 1,800 feet ; Soleduc River above Wineton, at !)00 feet ; Hot Springs. 
Both sides of Coast Range, but more abundant on west side. Locally noted in Queniult 
Indian Reservation, at Olympia, Black Walnut, and Elma (Chehalis County), Dryad 
(Lewis County). Mountains of eastern Washington southward to Kamiak Butte (9 
miles north of Pullman). Locally noted in Washington addition to Priest River Na- 
tional Forest; Pierre division of Colville National Forest; about Colville (Stevens 
County), at 1,917 feet. Not in Blue Mountains. 

Oreoon. — Both sides of Coast Range, I)ut mainly on west side of Cascades ; not in 
Willamette River Valley. Coast Range, sea level to 3,.500 feet, and southward into 
California. West side of Cascades at 1,600 to 5,000 feet, southward to head of North 
Fork of IJmpqua River ; and Crater Lake ; east side, only on east and south slopes of 
Mount Hood and for a few miles south to latitude 45°. Locally noted on north side of 
Mount Hood from bridge across Hood River (1,700 feet) to Columbia River, and on 
south and southwest sides from Camas Prairie and Government camp west to Salmon 
post-office ; Portland ; Astoria ; on North Fork of Middle Fork of Willamette River ; Crater 
liake to summit of rim, at 7,500 feet. 

California. — Sea side of coast ranges southward to Mendocino County; inland through 
fog belt, on south slopes of Siskiyous to northwest corner of Klamath National Forest; 
on Klamath River for 20 miles, and on Eel River to Dyerville. Locally noted on outer 
peninsula at Humboldt Bay ; lower Mad River 17 miles north of Eureka ; south of Fern- 
dale on road to Bear Valley (Humboldt Coiinty), Crescent City. 

The detailed ran^e of western red cedar in Idaho and Montana will be de- 
scribed in a later bulletin. 

OCCUBBENCE. 

Confined to region of abundant precipitation and humidity, chiefly to wet or constantly 
moist situations. Occasionally on moderately dry slopes and warm exposiires, where, 
however, it is stunted. On moist flats, benches, gentle slopes, river bottoms, in and about 
swamps and wet, springy places, and in cool, moist gulches and ravines, .\hundant 
moisture more important than quantity or quality of soil, which, however, are important 
for best growth. Of gigantic size on deep, rich, moist bottoms in vicinity of the coast, 
particularly in Washington, on Vancouver Island, and in British Columbia, while at high 
elevations it is shrubby. 

Not in pure stands over extensive areas; usually in mixture and dominant or subor- 
dinate. Small pure patches and groups, too dense for intolerant rivals, are characteris- 
tic. Generally with redwood, Sitka spruce, western hemlock, Douglas fir, lowland fir, 
western white pine, western larch, lodgepole , pine, Engelmann spruce, yew, vine and 

15188—08 11 



158 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

broadleaf maples, black Cottonwood, western birch, red and Sitka alders, and occasionally 
with .yellow cedar ; hemlock a common associate. 

Climatic Conditions. — Climate, humid, mild, and uniform throughout commercial 
range and within constant influence of ocean fogs ; but at high altitudes it endures (as a 
shrub) a severe climate with short summers, long winters, and low temperatures (some- 
times —35° F.). 

Tolerance. — Very tolerant ; tolerance varies with age, altitude, latitude, soil, moisture, 
and climatic conditions. Grows well in dense shade during earlier life, and even reaches 
maturity and old age in shade, but growth is retarded in proportion to density of shade, 
for although the shade is tolerated to high degree it is not required. Tolerance greatest 
under best conditions for growth and toward south and lower limits. Here the tree 
maintains a dense crown-cover throughout life and commonly forms an understory, 
mainly with western hemlock, alone or with redwood, Douglas fir, grand fir, western 
white pine, and other species. 

Reproduction. — Prolific seeder, with specially heavy seed years. Seed has high rate 
of germination, but only transient vitality. Seed usually germinates the autumn it is 
shed, and seedlings establish themselves before winter. Germination abundant, and best 
on moist duff, litter, moss, decayed logs, stumps, etc., both in -open and in densest shade. 
ITnder dense shade seedlings hold their ground with remarkable power. Does not repro- 
duce itself readily where fires have destroyed ground cover and forest cover to such an 
extent that soil moisture is materially reduced. 

CUPRESSUS. CYPRESSES. 

The trees of the cypress group, to which belongs the cypress tree (Cupressus 
sempervirens Linn.) of the Egyptians and Romans, are closely related to the 
species of Chamu'cyparis. They differ from the latter group essentially, how- 
ever, in having quadrangular branchlets instead of flat ones and in having them 
arranged not in one plane, but irregularly disposed. The overlapping minute, 
scale-like leaves of both groups are arranged in alternately opposite pairs, but 
those of Cupressus are minutely toothed on their margins, while in Chamsecypa- 
ris the margins are entire or smooth. I^eaves of each season's growth remain 
on the trees from three to four years. Flowers are similarly arranged in both 
groups (see Chama^cyparis). The cones of Cupressus mature at the end of the 
second season, instead of in one season, as in Chamjiecyparis, and bear about 
15 to 20 seeds under each fertile cone scale, instead of only 4 or 5 seeds to one 
scale, as in Chamfecyparis. The seeds of Cupressus (native species) have 
narrow, hard wings, in place of broad, gatizy wings, as in Chamrecyparls. 
Seed leaves in Cupressus are 3 and only 2 in Cham:ecyparis. Wood of the 
cypresses, which is strongly aromatic, is remarkably durable, but on account of 
the usually small size and poor timber form of our native species the wood is 
of little or no commercial value. The cypresses are, however, of considerable 
importance to the forester in assisting to form protective cover on wind-swept, 
sandy coasts or dry, arid slopes and little-wooded canyons. 

Four species inhabit the Pacific region, all confinied to California. Trees of 
this group are of ancient origin. Representatives once inhabited Greenland 
and western Europe, where, however, they are now extinct. 

Monterey Cypress. 

Cupressus macrocarpa Hartweg. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Monterey cypress owes its common name to its confined habitat near the Bay 
of Monterey, California. It has a form in youth entirely different from its 
mature habit. When young the trunk is sharply conical, and its crown of 
rigidly straight, slender branches trending upward is a wide, sharp-pointed 
pyramid which extends down to the ground. Such trees are from 40 to 50 feet 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 159 

high and 18 or 20 inches or more in diameter. Later, the height growth, rarely 
more than 60 feet, ceases, and if the trees have room the hranches develop into 
long, massive limhs, finally reaching up to the height of the leader and spread- 
ing out into a very wide, tlat-topped or umbrella-shaped crown. The trunks 
are then short, and the lai'ge limbs often near to the ground. The crown of 
crowded old trees is similar, but nmch less broad. Exposed to the sea winds, 
some trunks and their enormously developed limbs sprawl on the ground, and 
are grotesquely bent and gnarled. The violent swaying of brancl^es in the wind 
produces, in some trees, most curious enlargements at the bases of the hranches 
(obviously serving as braces) remotely resembling the palmated divisions in 
the iiorns of a moose. Bark of matui'e trunks is about seven-eightlis of an inch 
thick. Outwardly it is weathered to an ashy white, but breaking it exposes a 
deep red-brown beneath, the same color as that of the protected bark of limbs 
and young trees. Old bark is firm, and narrowly seamed, with a network of 
narrow, vertical ridges and smaller diagonal ones. The bark is too thin to 
protect the tree from severe fires. The foliage is dai'k yellow-green. The 
minute leaves (fig. 61) are closely attached to the branchlets, their sharp points 
sometimes standing out slightly from the twigs. Leaves of a season's growth 
persist about three years, usually dying the second year. They are commonly 
marked on the back with a minute pit and two shallow grooves. The cones 
(fig. 61) mature by August of the second season, when they are ashy brown. 
They oi)en slowly, shedding their russet-brown seeds during autumn, after which 
they may remain on the trees for several or many seasons. From 18 to 20 angled 
seeds (fig. 61, o) are borne under each perfect cone-scale. They are rather 
heavy, and usually fall near the parent tree. Seed-leaves, 3 ; about three- 
eighths of an inch long, narrow and pointed. Similar seedling leaves, about 4 of 
which stand out from the slender stem at regular intervals, succeed these. 
During th(» second season the spreading leaves are followed by shorter, pointed, 
less spreading leaves, from one-eighth to three-sixteenths of an inch long. Later 
branchlets (second and third seasons) begin to have adult foliage. 

Wood, very fine-grained, rather heavy (very much heavier than any of the 
other native cypress woods), and clear yellow-brown, with streaks of rose-red 
and dull yellow. It has a faint, aromatic, " cedar-like " odor. Great dura- 
bility without protection is a marked feature of this wood. The poor timber 
form of the tree and its very limited available supply prevent the wood from 
becoming commerciallj' important. It is most important, however, as one of 
the rare forest trees capable of forming a cover on the wind-swept coast, even 
down to the water's edge. In dry situations elsewhere it is most worthy of use 
for protective planting. Its vigorous, rather rapid height growth in early life 
makes it exceedingly useful for windbreaks. The full extent to which it can 
be used in forest planting for cover has not been determined. 

Longevity. — Little is known of the longevity of this tree. It is believed to 
be long-lived. Trees from 14 to 19 inches in diameter are from 60 to 85 years 
old. Some of the larger trees are doubtless over 200 years old. 

RANGE. 

Central California coast, for a few miles on peninsula between Monterey Bay and Car- 
inel Ray from i'oint Cypress nearly to Carrael River, and on Point Lobos south of Car- 
mel Bay ; mostly in a belt a few hundred feet wide along immediate coast, but also 
scattered farther inland on ridge of peninsula. Extensively cultivated elsewhere in Cali- 
fornia for windbreaks. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Rocky sea cliffs, on clay loam soil with dry leaf littei- when shaded and with grass 
and other herbs in openings. Soils always fresh and porous in shade, but baked, cracked. 



160 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



and much less moist in the open. Forms a transition zone between sea beach and Mon- 
terey pine belt. 

Mainly in pure, more or less dense stand, but mingled on east with Monterey pine and 
occasional Gowen cypress. 




Fig. 61. — Ciiprcssus macrocurpa: a, seed. 



Climatic Coxditioxs. — Climate mild : equable temperature, never at freezing point 
and rarely above 90° F. Annual rainfall about 17 inches. Strong, moist sea winds keep 
air humid during greater part of year, while cloudy or foggy days are frequent. Demands 
humid air for best growth ; grows well in fresh soils away from immediate influence of 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 161 

sea, but apparently much shorter lived outside its habitat. Capable of enduring wider 
variation .in temperature than that of its natural range. If planted in dry soils, for 
instance, where temperature falls below freezing, it grows well and matures young wood 
before frost, which commonly kills back immature growth in damp, low situations. 

Tolerance. — Decidedly tolerant of shade, but thrives in full light. Natural growth 
Includes both widely distant, gnarled, twisted trees and extremely dense stands. In 
dense stands shade of crown cover is heavy, yet young growth persists under it for many 
years. 

Reproduction. — Prolific annual seeder. Seed has moderately high rate of germination 
and persistent vitalitj'. L'sually germinates first season, under dense stands in compact, 
partly decomposed leaf litter. Seedlings grow very rapidly ; in cultivation, often 8 feet 
in as many years. Grows from cuttings made from leading twigs of year, but trees thus 
raised are less vigorous, branch more, and are shorter lived than those grown from seed. 

Gowen Cypress. 

Cupre.s.stt-s iimeniiuia Gordon. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Gowen cypress, usually a small tree, is mainly known simply as " cypress," 
but this name is confusing; tbe coined name, Gowen cypress, is preferable. 
Karl T. Hartweg discovered it in 1S46, and later introduced it into England, 
where it received its technical name in honor of James R. Gowen. En^ish 
writers call it " Mr. Gowen's California cypress." 

It is a small, much branched, shrubby tree, about 10 to 20 feet high, and 
frequently much stunted and bearing cones when under 3 feet in height. Under 
conditions very favorable for growth, however, it is from 30 to 40 feet high, or 
a little more, and from 15 to 20 inches in diameter. Young trees are straight, 
with sharply conical stems and slender, straight branches which trend upward. 
When the trees are older, the lower branches stand out straight. A wide, irregu- 
lar, open jjyramidal crown is formed down to the gi'ound. The crown is espe- 
cially open in older trees on account of the irregular lengthening of the main 
branches, which become very stout. There is rarely more than a few feet of 
clear trunk. The bark, about one-half inch thick on old trees, is firm, and is 
cut by narrow seams into a network of narrow ridges connected by thinner 
diagonal ones. On the outside the bark is weathered to a dull reddish brown, 
but the interior shows a clear red-brown. The minute, closely pressed, pointed 
leaves (fig. ti2) have a faintly marked pit (sometimes wanting) on the back, 
and are a dark grass-green. Those of a season's growth persist from three to 
four years, but die at the end of their second or third year. The cones (fig. 62), 
one-half to seven-eighths of an inch in diameter, mature at the close of the 
second season, shed their shiny, pale brown seeds (fig. 62, a) late in September 
or in October, but remain on the trees for a number of years thereafter. Mature 
cones are shiny and either light brown, tinged with red, or purplish brown. 
Nineteen or twent.v angled seeds are produced under each i)erfect cone-scale. 
The seeds are not buoyant enough to be carried more than a few rods from the 
mother tree, even by -strong winds. Seed leaves. 3, occasionally 4 ; about three- 
sixteenths of an inch long, narrow and pointed. Seedling leaves are similar, 
but slightlj' longer, and stand out from the slender stem at regular intervals in 
groups of 3 or 4. During the first or second season narrow scale-like leaves 
(about three-sixteenths of an inch long) appear on the tiny branches of seed- 
lings. They stand slightly away from the stem, and those which succeed them, 
in the third and fourth years, become more and more like adult leaves in form 
and arrangement. 

Wood, pale yellowish lirown, fine grained, rather heavy, and faintly aromatic. 
It appears to be durable when exposed to the weather. The wood is of no 



162 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



commercial value, but the tree is very important in forming a cover for barren, 
sandy, and rocky slopes too much exposed for most other trees. Its low growth 
subjects it to destructive fires, but it persistently reconquers areas on which its 
ranks have been severely thinned. 




Fig. 62. — Cupressiis yoroiiaua: a, seed. 

Longevity.— Little is known of its age, but it is believed to be fairly long- 
lived. Trees from 8 to 14 inches in diameter are from 55 to 97 years old. The 
age of larger trunks is probably 150 or 200 years, or even more. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 163 



California coast region in an interrupted belt from Mendocino County to San Diego 
County; sea-level to nearly 3,000 feet. Extends from Ukiah and plains of Mendocino 
County to mountains at southern boundary of the State. Ascends canyons in central 
California coast mountains to nearly 3,000 feet. Sonoma County: Noted in western part 
of Green Valley on road between Sebastopol and Camp Meeker (about 3 miles east of 
Meeker) ; Dutch Bill Gulch, a little below Camp Meeker, on road from Meeker to Monte 
Rio. Lake County: East side of Mount St. Helena, on road from Toll House to Middle- 
town, extending from an altitude of about 1,500 feet down to valley level for about 5 
miles south of Middletown ; few miles northwest of Middletown on gulch slope north of 
road to Cobb Valley. Marin County: West end crest of Mount Tamalpais. Alameda 
County: Cedar Mountain. Monterey County: Small grove on north side of Huckleberry 
Hill (Monterey Peninsula, near Monterey), at 300 to 3.50 feet (probably type locality of 
species). Sandy barrens and rocky slopes of Santa Lucia Mountains, at 1.000 to 3,000 
feet, only near I^os Burros, and extending over summit. San Luis Obispo National Forest, 
from Cerro Alto southeastward, as well as in main canyons trending eastward, at 1,100 
to 2,500 feet elevation. Ban Diego County: In .Tamul Valley between El Nido and Dul- 
zura, near Mexican border (southern limit). 

OCCURBENCE. 

On sandy barrens or rocky slopes, canyons, and gulches, commonly in very dry soils of 
poorest kind. On summits and low mountain slopes of central California coast region, 
a shrulr on dry, shallow soil overlying granitic or limestone rock ; largest near mountain 
streams. 

Occurs scattered, as individuals, or in groves, and often in broken forest over extensive 
tracts ; nowhere abundant. Associates on slopes with Coulter pine, and near streams 
with Douglas fir and western yellow pine. 

Clim.vtic Conditions. — Climate mild ; temperature, between 12° an 112° F., and annual 
rainfall from 53 inches in north to 5 inches at south. Proximity to sea insures frequent 
fogs and high humidity during most of year. 

ToLEKANt'E. — Tolerates considerable shade, often growing in rather dense stands. 

Reproduction. — Prolific seeder, bearing cones abundantly when only 2 or 3 feet high. 
Seed has moderately high rate of germination and persistent vitality. Reproduction 
abundant near seed trees, where seedlings are often established in great numbers. 

Dwarf Cypress. 

Cupressus pygmaea (Lemm.) Sargent. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Dwarf cypress, a small and unimportant species, was, until a dozen years ago, 
considered only a dwarfed form of Gowen cypress, which it resembles so closely, 
except in size and habit, that the casual or lay observer can not readily distin- 
guish it. Stunteil on extremely poor soil, it is bushy and bears cones when under 
:, feet in height. In situations more favorable for growth it is from 10 to 27) 
feet high — very rarely 80 feet — aud from 6 to 12 inches in diameter. The 
trunk is conical, and the crown narrowly conical, with slender branches trend- 
ing upward. The shallowly seamed bark of large trunks is thin, clear red- 
brown, and differs from that of the Gowen cypress in having its flat ridges 
divided into long, shreddy scales. In general appearance the scale-like leaves 
(fig. 03) resemble those of the Gowen cypress, but they differ from them dis- 
tinctly in being entirely without the glandular pits on the back, which are 
always found on some of the leaves of the other species. The cones (fig. (}.'?) 
mature by autumn of the second season and remain on the branches for a long 
time after their seeds are shed. They vary from five-eighths to seven-eighths 
of an inch in the longer diameter ; otherwise they are similar to the smaller 
cones of Gowen cypress. Cone-scales range in number from G to 10 (instead of 
C to 8, as in the Gowen cypress), while the smaller. seeds (fig. 03. a) are black 
when mature, and only about 10 or fewer are borne under each perfect cone- 



164 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



scale. Wood, coarse-graiiied ; faint reddish brown (that of Gowen cypress is 
pale yellowish-brown). Nothing is known now of its other characteristics; 
but good-sized sticks are so rare that it is not likely to be used except for local 
domestic purposes. The tree deserves the forester's attention, however, par- 




FiG. 63. — Cuprcssus piigmaea: a, seed. 



ticularly on account of its remarkable ability to thrive in much-exposed coastal 
situations and in dry, poor soils. 

Longevity. — Very little is known of its age. Most of the largest trees now 
known in the greatly confined range are probably not over 60 years old ; recur- 



J 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 165 

rent destructive fires have killed older treep. The early diameter growth 
appears to be rather rapid iu protected situations, where trees from G to 10 
inches in diameter are from 18 to about 35 years old. Probably it would be 
fairly long-lived, if protected from fire. 

BANGE. 

California coast barrens of Mendocino County from Ten-Mile Run southward to Na- 
varro Kiver, e.xtending from about three-fourths of a mile of tlie sea inland for 3 or 4 
miles. 

OCCURRENCE. 

In "peat swamps" in wet soil of poor, shallow sand overlying a stiff, yellow clay 
hardpan. The soil, wet by seepage from higher levels, supports low huckleberry and 
other shrubby plants, with some peat. In these situations its growth is stunted, but in 
better soil of borders of the barrens and of deep gullies in them, it reaches tree size. 

On poor barrens, forms dense thickets, interspersed with groups of swamp pine and, 
occasionally, with lodgepole pine. Stunted growth of thickets is due partly to frequent 
fires and partly to the unfavorable soil ; best growth is freer from fire. 

Climatic Conditions. — Climate moderately equable, with temperature rarely up to 
112° and never below 12° F. Annual rainfall, between 20 and 50 inches, with an aver- 
age of about 35 inches. Summers are hot and dry, but the other seasons are usually 
humid. 

Tolerance. — Similar to (iowen cypress; decided tolerence of shade is shown by reten- 
tion of branches in the dense, over-crowded stands. 

Ukpkoduction. — Prolific seeder. Seed similar in quality to Gowen cypress. Bears 
cones when but a foot or two high. Reproduction abundant near seed trees. 

Macnab Cypress. 
Cupressus muonuhiana Murray. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Macnab cypress is a very rare and little linown tree, though several new sta- 
tions for it have been recently discovered. It is a low, open-crowned, bushy tree, 
under 2<.» feet in height. Frequently it is only a many-stemmed, low, wide-spread- 
ing shrub. The largest trees have only a few feet of clear trunk and rarely 
have a diameter of more than from 6 to 12 inches. Their bark is deep chocolate- 
brown, tinged with red, and about one-fourth of an inch thick ; firm and very 
distinctly cut by narrow seams into a network of rather regular, flat, connected 
ridges, and diamond-shai)ed interspaces. The thin, smooth bark of branchlets is 
dark-brown, or, where the scaly leaves have recently fallen and exposed it. clear 
purple-red. The foliage is a dark grass-green, sometimes with a whitish tinge. 
A minute blister-like gland distinctly marks tlie back of each leaf (fig. (54). 
Except in the case of young shoots, the leaves on all branchlets are sharply or 
bluntly pointed and closely pressed to the stems. On young shoots they are 
keenly pointed and stand slightly away from the stems. This makes the 
foliage prickly to the ttmch. Cones (fig. 04, a) mature at the end of the second 
summer, shed tlieir light chocolate-brown, flat seeds late in autumn, and usually 
remain attached to the tree for several or many seasons." At maturity the 
cones are reddish chocolate-brown, with a pale ashy coating. They vary from 
about three-fourths to nearly an inch in length. Sixteen to 18 seeds (fig. (!4. h) 
are borne under each perfect scale. The rather heavy, very narrowly winged 



" Cones recently examined were found to be full of seed after adhering to the branch 
for six years; moreover, the cone-scales were green and spongy, appearing to be a sub- 
stantial part of the living brancb. 



166 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



seeds are not carried more than a few rods away from the tree. Wood, exceed- 
ingly fine-grained, very light yellowish brown, and several pounds heavier per 
cubic foot than that of the Gowen cypress. It is of no commercial use. More- 




FiG. Q4.—Cupye.<<sns mactiabianu : a, cones; b, s?ed, natural size and enlarged. 



over, the tree is too rare to have great importance in forest management, but its 
ability to thrive on dry, thinly covered slopes makes it worthy of investigation 
for planting in barren situations. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 167 

Longevity. — Very little is known of its age; fuller records are required. 

Trees from o to 8 inches in diameter are from 80 to 12.5 years old. Probably 
only moderately long-lived — not exceeding 200 to 250 years. 



In widely separated groves in coast ranges of California from SIslciyous southward to 
Nap.i Counly ; also Sierra foothills of Shasta to Yuba counties. 

Occasional jjroves on dry hills and low slopes of northern coast mountains, from near 
head of Hooker Canyon (Napa Mountains, Sonoma County) and Mount Mtna (central 
Napa County) northward through Lake County to Red Mountain (east side of Ukiah 
Valley, Mendocino County). Lake County: Noted in gulch on Complexion Creek, begin- 
ning on stage road about miles west of Leesville, and continuing thence westward 
down gulch for ."? miles to Indian Valley ; road from Rumsey, at head of Capay Valley 
to I,ower Lake; exceedingly abundant along rocky gulch 2 or 3 miles beyond (north of) 
Manhattan Mine, whence it extends northward for about 2 miles, but not quite to south 
end of Morgan Valley ; west slope of Bartlett Mountain, a few trees at about 1,800 feet 
altitude on north road from Bartlett Springs to Upper Lake; west side of Clear Lake 
(road Highland Springs to Hopland), in gulch about 3 miles west of Highland Springs, 
continuing very abundant for some distance; farther south (road Cobb Valley to Middle- 
town), in gulch a few miles northwest of Middletown ; on east base of Mount St. Helena 
on St. Helena Creek, from about 5 miles south of Middletown at edge of valley (altitude 
about 1,200 feet), southward up gulch for several miles, to about 1,.500 feet; scattered 
on Kartlett Creek (Lake County). Common in gulch near Cook Springs (Colusa County). 
East Trinity Mountains, between Shasta (town) and Whiskeytown at 1,.'{00 feet, and 
reported elsewhere. Siskiyou County: Grove near Little Shasta River about 15 miles 
north of Mount Shasta (Sec. 14, T. 4.5 N., R. 4 W.) ; and also one (the northmost) on 
west end of Siskiyous, at point about 10 miles from mouth of Seiad Creek (tributary 
Klamath River). Noted in Sierras as follows: Shasta County: Just west of Lassen 
I'eak National Forest on plateau west of Burney Creek at 5,500 feet (southwest quarter 
of Sec. 24, T. 34 N., R. 2 E.) ; near head of North Fork of South Fork of Cow Creek 
at 4,000 to 5,000 feet (southeast quarter of Sec. 5, T. 32 N., R. 2 E.) ; Lassen Peak 
National Forest, small grove at base of Lassen buttes. Tehama County: Near Payne 
post-office and on Payne Creek Hill, just west of Payne Creek ; 160 acres on Upper Butte 
Creek (near north line of Sec. 25, T. 30 N., R. 1 W.) ; several trees few miles south- 
ward on Inskip Butte (T. 29 N., R. 1 W.). Butte County: Magalia, at 2,300 feet. 
Three groves near Dobbin (Yuba County), on Dry and Indiana creeks. 

OCCURRENCE. 

On dry east and west slope.? and ridges, in gravelly dry soils, which are often clayey 
and sometimes very shallow. In pure, dwarfed stands of limited area or in small 
groups. 

Cli.matic Conditions. — Climate characterized by wide annual variations in precipita- 
tion, minimum being about 13 and maximum 02 inches. Temperature, rarely or never 
reaches zero, but often above 100° F. during the summer. 

Tolerance. — Not determined ; appears to be similar to other related species. 

REi'RODtH:TiON. — Moderately abundant seeder, usually producing cones every year. 
Seed similar in quality to that of Gowen cypress, but reproduction less abundant tham 
latter. 

CHAMiECYPARIS. CEDARS. 

The cedars are a little known, small group of evergreen trees, usually called 
" cypresses," and somewhat resembling the Thujas. They differ greatly from 
the Thujas, however, in having very much heavier and harder wood, without 
the characteristic "cedar odor," but with a peculiarly sweet or rather faintly 
aromatic odor. They differ from Thujas also very distinctly in their habit, 
and particularly in having small spherical cones instead of small, narrow, 
elongated cones. The seeds of Chama'cyparis, which are without aromatic resin 
cells, differ from the seeds of Thujas in form and character. The small, scale- 
like leaves, which fall from the branches in the third year, are arranged like 
those of Thujas. The delicate twigs or branchlets are distinctly flat, like those 
of Thujas, but are noticeably narrower (finer) ; they are arranged in one plane, 



168 FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

forming conspicuously flat sprays (figs. 65-67). The leaves of seedlings are, like 
those of Thuja, long, slender, sharp-pointed, and spreading in regularly distant 
groups of 3 to 4 ; becoming shorter, more scale-like, and much less spreading on 
some branchlets of second and third year plants, and later assuming form of 
adult foliage. As a rule, the 2 seed leaves of westei'n native Chamjecyparis are 
nearly one-third longer (three-eighths of an inch) than seed leaves of the west- 
ern Thujas, with which the former are often associated. The flowers, which 
appear early in the spring, are minute and otherwise inconspicuous bodies at the 
ends of the twigs. The male flowers, pollen bearing only, and female flowers, 
which produce cones and seed, are borne on different branches of the same tree. 
The very small, spherical cones, which stand erect on the branchlets, are mature 
at the end of the first summer or in early autumn, when they open slowly to 
shed their seeds, after which some of them often remain on the tree for another 
season. From 1 to 4 or 5 minute seeds (figs. 65, 67) are borne under each cone 
scale. They are provided with light wings on two sides, but are less buoyant 
than seeds of Thuja, and usually fall near the parent trees. Seed leaves 2 and 
opposite. 

The cedars are important forest trees. With other species, they supply 
much needed cover on high, exposed crests and slopes, as well as most durable 
and excellent commercial timber. 

Two species inhabit forests of the Pacific region, one of which extends far 
northward on this coast. 

Yellow Cypress; Alaska Cypress. 

ChamcEcyparis nootkatensis (Lamb.) Spach. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

CJiamcecyparis nootkatensis is little known except within its range, where it 
is commonly called " yellow cypress " and "Alaska cypress." It is known also 
as " Sitka cypress " and occasionally as "Alaska cedar " and " yellow cedar." 
Although distinct in habit and in foliage, it may be mistaken for the western 
red cedar, from which, however, its clear sulphur-yellow wood plainly distin- 
guishes it. Yellow cypress is characterized by an open, narrowly conical crown, 
which in the dense forest has drooping branches, few and distant from each 
other, and with weeping flat sprays, and by an exceedingly slender, whip-like 
leader, which is too weak at its tip to stand erect and which bends over grace- 
fully. All of the branches (slender on young trees and thicker on old ti'ees) 
droop more or less, and the few flat side and terminal branchlets hang down, 
so that the crown as a whole has a weeping habit. It is from 75 to 80 feet 
high (sometimes 90 or 100 feet), and from 2 to 3 feet or not uncommonly 4 or 5 
feet in diameter. Forest-grown trees are clear of branches for from 30 to 50 
feet, but in the open or on the border of a forest old trees may have branches 
nearly to the ground. On high, exposed slopes and crests it is very much 
smaller, often only 10 feet or even less in height, and assumes a sprawling 
form. The trunk is usually conical, sharply tapering from a wide base, but in 
very dense stands the base is little swelled. Trunks are seldom perfectly 
straight, and in most old trees they have one or two slight bends. They are 
always more or less fluted or infolded at the base, and are rarely full and 
round. Bark is thin on old trunks (about five-eighths of an inch thick), 
affording but little protection against fire, which the trees rarely survive ; 
ashy brown on the outside, and clear, reddish cinnamon brown when broken. 
The surface is irregularly and rather finely broken by shallow seams ; the thin, 
flat ridges have frequent diagonal cross connections, and flake off in long. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



169 



narrow strips. The flat. I)Iue-green sprays are noticeal)ly barsli and prickly 
to the touch, in this respect unlike the smooth foliage of the associated western 
red cedar. The scale-like leaves (tig. G5), especially on thrifty leading branch- 
lets, have very distinctive, sharp, spreading points. The cones (fig. 65), ripe 




Fig. (35. — Chammcyixxris nootkatensis; a, seed natural sizo and twice natural size. 

in late September or early October, are deep russet-brown, with conspicuous 
whitish bloom. From 2 to 4 seeds (fig. 65, a), of similar color, are borne under 
each of the perfect cone scales. 



170 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Wood, appropriately named " yellow " from its clear sulphur-yellow color, 
exceedingly fine-grained; though light, it is comparatively heavy for its class, 
being from 10 to 12 pounds heavier per cubic foot than western I'ed cedar ; 
elastic, but somewhat brittle, and firm, and splits and works very easily. It 
is remarkably durable when exposed to weather, earth, or water. Logs of 
yellow cypress have lain on moist ground for half a century with little decay. 
The firm structure of the wood, together with the ease with which it is worked 
and the attractive finish it takes, renders it especially useful for interior finish 
and cabinet work, as well as for special uses I'equiring soft, light, durable wood. 
The comparatively limited supply of this wood is likely always to confine its 
usefulness to a few special but, nevertheless, important purposes. Very im- 
portant as an associate with other trees capable of forming protective cover on 
cold, high slopes. 

Longevity. — Little is known of the longevity of yellow cypress. It grows 
very slowly in height and diameter, however, and doubtless is very long-lived. 
Trees from 15 to 20 inches in diameter are from 200 to 275 years old. Very large 
trunks are probably from 500 to 600 years old. Further records are desirable. 

RANGE. 

Coast and islands of southeastern Alaska and British Columbia and southward on 
coast and In Cascades through Washington and northern Oregon. North of Vancouver 
Island at sea-level to 3,000 feet ; in Cascades of Washington and Oregon at from 2,500 
to 7,000 feet elevation. 

Alaska. — Sea slope of Coast Range and islands northward to Wrangell and to Prince 
of Wales Island, at from sea-level to timberline (2,000 to 3,000 feet) ; scattered, forming 
about 10 per cent of stand, and best growth between 1,000 and 2,000 feet. Farther 
north, only in isolated group at Sitka, at Icy Cape (just north of Cross Sound), a 
single tree on Khantaak Island (Yakutat Bay), a few trees on Hawkins Island at east 
end of Prince William Sound, and on opposite mainland, 6 or 7 miles from Orca ; 
small area on Glacier Island (Prince William Sound, just west of Port Valdes), and on 
opposite mainland from Long Bay to Unganik Bay (lat. 61°, long. 147° 20'), the 
northern and western limits. Locally noted also on Ketchikan Creek and Shrimp Bay, 
at 700 feet ; Revillagigedo Island ; Peter's Mountain ; Pearse Canal, at 725 feet ; Kasan 
Bay ; Prince of Wales Island, and at Wrangell. 

British Columbia. — Islands and sea side of Coast Range, at from sea-level to 2,000 
and 3,000 feet elevation as far south as northern part of Queen Charlotte Sound (north 
end Vancouver Island), and at higher elevations farther south. Occurs sparingly on 
Queen Charlotte Islands, on exposed west coast near sea-level, near Massett. at head 
of West Arm of Ciimshewa Inlet and of Rose Harbor, as well as other inlets of Moresby 
Island ; abundant on mountains between 2,000 and 5,000 feet. Southward, leaving sea- 
level, it becomes general on slopes, appearing on Burrard Inlet at an altitude of 
several hundred feet ; common in northern part of Vancouver Island, short distance 
Inland, on plateaus and mountains, and sparingly on Lake Nimpkish ; common in 
southern part, at from 1,000 feet up, in Renfrew district on Mount Edinburg (3,250 
feet), and in Gordon River Valley; noted on Nanaimo River and Mount Benson (near 
Nanaimo). Inland on mainland, in Eraser Valley, to Silver Mountain (near Yale), at 
4,000 to 5,000 feet. 

Washington. — Frequent in Olympic Mountains and on west side of Cascades north 
of Mount Rainier, generally at from 2,000 to 7,500 feet ; less abundant farther south 
in Cascades and on headwaters of rivers on east side. Ridges of Olympics below 3,500 
feet, and to lowlands at mouths of rivers on Pacific coast ; locally noted on upper part 
of South Fork of Skokomish River. Not recorded in Coast Range south of Olympics. 
Washington National Forest (west side of Cascades), moist slopes and benches at from 
2,000 feet to 6,500 feet ; locally noted in Green and White River valleys. Washington 
National Forest (east side of Cascades), moist valleys or slopes near main divide, 
at elevations of 2,100 feet to 6,000 feet ; noted as follows : Skagit Pass ; Methow River ; 
Rattlesnake Creek ; Stehekin River down to within about 5 miles of Stehekin ; Horseshoe 
Basin, near Mount Amos ; Stevens Pass, at head of tributary of Wenache River ; 
Wenache River Valley ; Mount Stuart ; Yakima River Valley. Mount Rainier National 
Forest, at 2,600 to 7,400 feet, forming 1 to 2 per cent of forest in White. Puyallup, 
Cowlitz, and Cispus river water sheds (west side of Cascades), and extending south- 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 171 

ward to Mount Adams, but not in Columbia River basin ; on east side of Cascades, only 
in northern part on Natches, Tieton, Atanum, and Klickitat river watersheds. Locally 
noted on Mount Hainier, at ?,,5()<) to 6.000 feet— more common on north than on south 
side; (loat Mountains; Dewey Lake (head of American liiver), at 5,300 feet. Not 
detected on Mount St. Helens. 

Oregon. — West side of Cascades southward to Deer Creek (tributary McKinzie River, 
T. 14 S., R. K.), generally at l.',500 to 6,100 feet elevation. Locally noted on Mount 
Hood at fJovernment Camp, and on north side (T. 1 N., R. S and R. E.) ; valley 
of Santiam River, at 4,000 to .T.OOO feet; between forks of Breitenbush River, at 4,150 
feet. Reported e-xtendinj; 150 miles south of Mount Hood, but definite records of its 
occurrence there are lacking, as are also records of its reported existence in northern 
Idaho. 

OCt'UKRKNCK. 

Common on bottomland, along streams, in basins, valleys, and gulches, and on moun- 
tain slopes. Where moisture is deficient, confined chiefly to north exposures and north 
«ides of mountains, but where precipitation and humidity are great, exposure is less 
important, and the tree is common on south slopes. Chiefly in moist, rocky or gravelly 
soils of good quality; occasionally, of small size, on poor, dryish soils; very much like 
western re<l cedar in s.jil retiuirements. Quantity and quality of soil more important 
where moisture is deficient or where evaporation is rapid. 

Mainly scattered singly or in groups; sometimes in pure stands of limited extent. 
Generally with Sitka spruce, western red cedar, western hemlock, grand fir, western 
yew, broadleaf and vine maples, and Sitka alder, in Washington. British Columbia, and 
south Alaskan coast region ; higher up, with black hemlock, lodgepole pine, alpine, ama- 
bilis, and noble firs, Douglas fir, western larch, western white pine, and Engelmann 
spruce. . 

Climatic Conditions. — -Climate of range generally favorable for tree growth. Sum- 
mers comparatively cool and humid, and winters not severe. Average annual precipita- 
tion from 20 to KJO inches or more, from Oregon to Alaska. Changes in temperature 
are usually gradual, but in places mercury drops considerably below zero. In vicinity of 
ocean, climate is especially mild and uniform, while humidity and precipitation are par- 
ticularlj- great. 

ToLEUANCK. — Not so tolerant as western red cedar and hemlock, but more tolerant 
than western white pine and noble fir. Under best conditions for growth it maintains 
fairly dense shade. Tolerance varies with soil, moisture, and climatic conditions. Less 
tolerant with age. Where soil and air are abundantly moist it thrives in the open ; but 
partial shade and shelter (reducing evaporation and transpiration) are beneficial when 
soil moisture is deficient. 

Repkodiction. — Seeding habits not fully known. Troduces cones rather sparingly, 
but with occasional rather good seed years. Seed has only moderate rate of germina- 
tion, with transient vitality. Reproduces itself freely under favorable conditions (moist 
soil and shade), but poorly in dry situations. Germination and growth of seedlings best 
on moist moss, muck, and mineral soils. 

Lawson Cypress; Port Orford Cedar. 

ChamacypariH lairsoniana (Murr.) I'arlatore. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

On account of its great beauty a.s an ornamental evergreen, Lawson cypress, 
the Port Orford Cedar of luraberiueii, is widely known in this country and abroad. 
It is little known, however, as a forest tree. It is the largest tree of its genus 
and also the largest representative of its tribe (Cupressinete) in North America. 
Height, from 125 to 180 feet, with a diameter of from 3^ to G feet. Trees 8 or 
more feet in diameter :nid nearly 2tM) feet high sometimes occur, but are now rare. 
In youth it is readily distinguished l)y its profusion of short, feathery, weeping 
branchlets of deep yellow-green, and its dense, sharply defined, pyramidal 
crown, which extends nearly to the ground and. in the open, is retained for 
many years. At first the branches all trend upward, but gradually, as the tree 
grows older, tho.v become horizontal and drooping, especially at the bottom of 
the crown. The tips of the leading branchlets and the fringy side sprays 
haug down conspicuously, ou old trees the leaf-covered twigs being shorter 



172 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

and less graceful tliau on young trees. Forest-grown trees carry a short but 
otherwise similar crown and have trunks clear of branches for 80 or 100 feet 
or more. Like those of the yellow cypress, trunks often have one or two slight 
bends and a broad, rapidly contracted base, which is somewhat flattened, 
hollowed or slightly fluted in places. The trunk form, however, is round and 
full above. The bark bears only a general resemblance to that of yellow 
cypress. This resemblance is due to the numerous narrow, diagonal ridges 
which connect the larger ridges, as in the yellow cypress. It is conspicuously 
thick — 6 to 8 inches or more at the base of old trunks — but thinner higher up. 
Deep, narrow seams divide an apparently separate outer layer of bark into 
narrow, rather loose ridges, which separate into long strips, showing a dark 
red-brown underlayer of bark, which is strong and little broken. The color 
of the outer bark is similar, but subdued by weathering. 

The minute scale-like leaves, on peculiarly flat sprays (flgs. 66, 67), are 
soft to the touch, in strong contrast with the prickly feeling of yellow cypress 
leaves, and their points are shorter and blunter than those of yellow cypress. 
The leaves are closely pressed to the twigs, except on young trees and on main 
branchlets. The small berry-like cones (Hg. 07) mature in one season, in the 
latter part of September or early in October. They are clear, dark russet- 
brown when they open in October. Some of them remaiTi on the tree until 
the following spring. Two (occasionally 1) to 4 pale reddish brown seeds 
(fig. 67, 6, c) are borne under each perfect cone-scale. The seeds have little 
buoyancy and are carried by the wind but a short distance from the mother 
tree. Seed-leaves are 2 and opposite, about three-eighths of an inch long, 
flat, one-sixteenth of an inch wide, pointed, and spreading. The succeeding 
leaves of the yoinig seedling are similar, but narrower and sharper, and stand 
out from the slender stem at regular intervals. During the first or second 
season shorter, closely pressed, scale-like leaves appear on tiny branchlets, 
followed shortly by foliage of adult form. 

Wood somewhat lighter than yellow cypress wood, very fine-grained, and 
faint yellowish white, with the slightest tinge of red. The wood has a most 
distinct, though faint, rose-aromatic odor, strong in green wood and fainter in 
seasoned wood and due to a resin.« It is rather hard and firm wood, works 
as easily as the choicest pine, and is very durable, without protection, under 
all sorts of exposure. In spite of its commercial excellence, the supply is so 
limited that it can hardly last long or find use outside of a restricted region. 
Owing to the large clear sizes obtainable, it furnishes the best of saw-timber 
and is a forest tree of the first importance. 

Longevity. — Few age determinations have been made of this tree, which is 
undoubtedly long-lived. Trees from 16 to 20 inches in diameter are from 186 
to 225 years old. The largest trees would very probably be at least 500 or 600 
years old. 

RANGE. 

Coast of southwestern Oregon from Coos Bay southward, within fog belt, to Mad 
River (near Humboldt Bay), Humboldt County, Cal., extending from within a few miles 
of sea to from 10 to 40 miles inland and reaching 5,000 feet elevation on seaward slopes 
of Coast Range. Noted at Crescent City, Cal., and in Humboldt County, on west side 
of Hoopa Valley, on VS'ilson Creek slope ; on trail between Hoopa Valley and Areata, 
about 4 miles west of Hoopa, at 1,800 feet ; farther west, in damp gulch between Red- 
wood Creek and Blue Lake. A few outlying stations occur farther inland, as in Siski- 

"■ Continued inhaling of the odor from freshly cut timber produces an aggravated diu- 
retic effect upon the system. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



173 



yous, near Waldo, Josephine County, and at a few other places in Oregon ; also at 
western base of Mount Shasta near Sisson, Cal., on headwaters of Sacramento River, 
at about 3,500 feet, and in Trinity Mountains at head of Halls Gulch (tributary East 
Fork Trinity River, T. 37 N., R. 6 W.), around Trinity Center, at 3,300 to 4,300 feet, 
and probably elsewhere. 








Fio. 6fi. — Chaniwcyparis lawsoniana. 

OCCURRENCE. • 

Most abundant and largest (north of Rogue River) on west slopes of Coast Range 
foothills from 3 to 15 miles from the ocean. Not very particular in choice of locality ; 
on coast sand dunes, on high, dry, sandy ridges and slopes of coast hills, and on banks 



15188—08- 



-12 



174 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



of streams and lakes. In mountains, best in narrow, damp, sunny ravines. Not exacting 
in soil requirements, yet best in moist, well-drained soils, neither dry nor swampy. In 
Oregon it thrives on sandy soils, growing even in dry soils of high ridges, while in north 




Fig. 67. 



-Chamwcyparis laicsoniano : n, fruiting branch; b, c, seed natural size and 
enlarged. 



west coast region of California it grows well in swampy places near the sea. In cultiva- 
tion it does well in almost any porous soil, except cold peat. 

In pure stands of limited extent only ; commonly scattered through forest singly or 
in small groups. Near Port Orford (southwest Oregon) abundant in mixture with west- 



1 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 175 

ern red cedar. Sitka spruce, grand flr, western hemlock, and Douglas fir. With same 
species, but less abundant, in northwest California (swampy places near sea) and some- 
times with redwood and California laurel. Near coast, often gives way to Sitka spruce 
and grand flr, growing on higher sites with Douglas flr and western hemlock. Occa- 
sionally in sugar and western yellow pine forests on rather dry, sunny slopes. 

Clim.\tic Conditions. — Climate characterized by moderate temperatures, heavy pre- 
cipitation with slight snowfall, high humidity, and many cloudy days. Temperature on 
coast between 10° and 9.5° F., and precipitation between 30 and 100 inches, with an aver- 
age of about 5G inches; higher altitudes have greater seasonal and daily ranges of tem- 
perature and proportionately larger snowfall. However, the generally low range keeps 
this tree within modifying influence of the sea. Successfully cultivated in Europe and in 
northeastern United States under more severe climatic conditions than those of its native 
range. I?ut it is sensitive to sudden changes in temperature and humidity, and suffers 
from prolonged drought, especially after rapid growth. Frost liardy except in early 
youth, and resists late frosts better than early ones, because it starts to grow late in 
spring. 

Toi/BHANrK. — Moderately tolerant of shade throughout life, but especially tolerant of 
heavy shade in early stages ; thrives also in open, provided the humidity of air is con- 
stant. Responds readily to side shading, so that forest-grown trees i)roduce straight 
stems of considerable clear length. 

Kki'koduction. — Very prolific annual seeder, beginning when about 12 years old and 
continuing to an advanced age. Seed generally has a fairly high rate of germination, 
but often a low one ; vitality transient. Germinates abundantly in shaded moderately 
open places, and considerably, also, in logged and burned-over areas. 

JUNIPERUS. JUNIPERS. 

The junipers, some of which imist, niifortmiately, be called "cedars." are 
evergreen trees, either with branchlets closely covered by short, minute, scale- 
like, sharp-pointed leaves, arranged in opposite pairs, alternating around the 
stem (sometimes 3 in place of a pair), or with branchlets bearing much longer, 
nec'dle-like leaves which bristle, or, at least, stand out loosely in groups of 3 at 
regular intervals. 

Close, scale-like leaves are very often marked with a pit on the back (figs. OS 
to 74.) When crushed the foliage emits u pungently aromatic odor. Junipers 
are further characterized by their fine-grained, aromatic, durable wood, which 
is dull yellow brown in some species and a clear rose-purple red in others. The 
bark is rather soft and distinctly stringy — one species only having brittle, check- 
ered, hard bark. 

The fruits of junipers, popularly called "berries," clearly distinguish them 
from the cypresses, which in the genei-al appearance of their foliage they resem- 
ble. The flowers are minute and inconspicuous. Male flowers (pollen bearing 
only) and female (developing into fruit) are borne on different trees, some- 
times, but rarely, both sexes occurring on the same tree. The "berries" are 
morphologically cones ; the fleshy or berry-like covering made up of flesliy flower 
scales (similar at first to those of conifers, which develop into woody cones) 
which unite in growth so as to envelop the hard seeds (1 to 12 in number; 1 to 4 
in Pacific junii)ers). Points of the united flower scales, or tip of the ovules, 
can usually be seen more or less prominently on the surface of the mature fruit 
(figs. G8 to 74). The berries ripen in one or in two seasons. Ripe berries are 
dark blue, red brown, or copper-colored, tlie surface covered (one Texan juniper 
excepted) with a whitish bloom, which may be rni)l)ed off easily, showing the 
ground color. The pulpy flesh of the berries is juicy or mealy, sweetish, and 
strongly aromatic (due to the jn-esence of resin cells). Birds eat the fruit of 
junipers, but the hard, bony seeds are entirely unaffected by digestion, which, 
indeed, is believed to facilitate in some degree their germination. Roth birds 
and niaimnals play a most important part in the dissemination of the.se seeds. 
Without their aid dissemination would be exceedingly slow on level ground, 
where the heavy l)erries lie as they fall beneath the mother tree. On slopes, 



176 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

however, they may be carried far by water washing the surface soil and dgbrls. 
The seed-leaves, 2 to 6, are usually needle-like, and the seedling leaves which 
follow these are similar in form ; but as the tree gi'ows older these are replaced 
by the short, close, scale-like leaves or by the lance-needle-shaped leaves of 
adults. 

Junipers are small or, at most, only medium-sized trees. Their trunks are 
too short, small and poorly formed for saw-timber, though the wood possesses 
qualities which would otherwise adapt it for this use. They are largely used 
for post timber, fuel, and minor manufactures. Some of them are of the great- 
est value for fuel in localities where no other trees grow. Forestally junipers 
are highly important. Their adaptability to dry, barren slopes and exposed 
situations renders them exceedingly useful in maintaining and extending tree 
growth where few if any other trees will thrive. 

Five tree junipers inhabit the Pacific region. One extends from eastern 
North America across the continent to the Pacific northwest. The ranges of the 
others lie wholly or in part within the Pacific States. Junipers are of ancient 
origin. Remains of them in Tertiary rocks show that they inhabited Europe 
ages ago. 

Dwarf Juniper. 

Juniperus communis Linnaeus. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Dwarf juniper is more widely distributed than any other tree inhabiting the 
northern half of the globe. It is one of the most singular of our trees in that 
throughout its world-wide range it attains tree size only in a few counties of 
southern Illinois, where it is from 15 to nearly 25 feet high and from 6 to 8 
inches in diameter. Elsewhere on this continent it is a shrub under 5 feet in 
height, with numerous slender, half-prostrate stems forming continuous tangled 
masses from 5 to 10 yards across. It is said to sometimes become a tree from 30 
to 40 feet high in north Germany, where it grows extensively also as a low shrub. 
As a tree it has a very unsymmetrical trunk with conspicuous rounded ridges 
and intervening grooves at and near the ground. It is clear of branches for only 
a few feet, and the crown, narrow and very open, has short, slender branches 
trending upward. The bark is less than one-eighth of an inch thick, deep choco- 
late brown, tinged with red, and composed of loosely attached, extremely thin 
scales. 

The dark, lustrous green, keenly pointed, needle-like, or narrow, lance-shaped 
leaves (fig. 08), chalky white above, clearly distinguish this juniper from all 
of the other native species. The leaves spread widely from the triangular 
branchlets in groups of 3 at rather regular intervals, those of each season's 
growth persisting for five or six years. Sharp-pointed leaves, similarly ar- 
ranged but nmch shorter and more slender, are found on young junipers of other 
species. A careful examination, however, will at once distinguish such leaves 
from the wider, more spreading leaves of dwTirf juniper. The "berries" (fig. 
68) are mature at the end of the second summer, when they are very dark 
blue — almost black, coated \yith a whitish bloom. The top of the " berry " is 
conspicuously marked by three blunt projections (points of the ovules). The 
soft flesh of the fruit is dry, resinous-aromatic, and sweet, containing from 2 
to 3 (sometimes 1) hard, bony seeds. The "berries" are greedily eaten by 
birds and by some mammals, otherwise they may remain on the branches until 
the following winter or spring. 

Wood, pale, yellowish brown ; heavy, rather tough, veiy fine-grained, and ex- 
ceedingly durable. The tree is too small to be of any commercial value. It has 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



177 



some importance for the forester, because it forms a low, matted ground cover 
on the highest and most exposed slopes and crests, and so retains much dC'bris 
and effectively holds masses of snow. 

Longevity. — Very little is known of its length of life. It probably lives for 
several centuries. Trees from 2 to 4 inches in diameter are from 2.5 to 83 years 
old. 









Fig. GS. — Juuiperus conimunis. 



RANGE. 

From Greenland to Alaska and in the east south alonj; the Appalachians to northern 
Georgia, to Oiiio. Michip:au. and northern Nehraska : in Rocky Mountains to Texas, New 
Mexico, and Arizona ; in I'acitic region south to northern (California, In Alaska at sea 
level to .S.OOO. in California at X.-'UK) to O.SOO feet : also in Old World. 

AiiA.SKA. — North at least to Yukon Valley and west to Kenai Peninsula on the 
I'acitic Coast. Noted almut .Arctic Circle at Walker Lake source of Kobuk River (lat. 



178 FOKEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

67° 10'. long. 154° 30'). Klondike River near Dawson at about 1,500 feet (Yukon), 
Lewes River below Lake Lebarge at base Semenow Hills (Yukon), Kenai Peninsula 
(west of Prince William Sound), White Pass at summit (2,880 feet), Lake Lindeman 
just inland from White- Pass (Yukon), shores Lynn Canal, from sea level to timberline 
3,330 feet, Chilkat River at Vanderbilt Point and elsewhere, Sitka. 

British Columbia. — Rocky Mountains of eastern British Columbia and through inte- 
rior and coast ranges north to Alaska. Noted near west coast on Vancouver Island on 
summits of Mounts Benson (3.300 feet), Mark (3,000 feet), and Arrowsmlth (5,900 
feet), and at Spence's Bridge (77G feet) on Thompson River just above its junction with 
Fraser River. 

Washington. — Mountain summits of whole State at 2,900 to 6,800 feet. Noted on 
northern Cascades (but not on Mount Stuart), Stevens Pass (4,050 feet at crossing of 
Great Northern Railroad), Olympic Mountains, Mount Rainier National Forest above 
5,500 feet. Mount Rainier on Nisqually River near Longmire Springs and up to 7,500 
feet. Mount Adams, Mount St. Helens, Loomis (1,200 feet, Okanogan County), but on 
Blue Mountains. 

Oregon. — Summits of Cascades ; not in Blue Mountains. Noted on Mount Hood on 
north side at about 6,500 feet and on Mount Mazama. 

California. — South in Sierra Nevadas to Tuolumne County, in coast ranges to Trinity 
County. Noted in Del Norte County, on Mount Shasta, encircling the peak near timber- 
line at 8,300 to 9,800 feet, above alpine lakes at head of Canyon Creek (Trinity County), 
west side Mokelumne Pass (Alpine County), and Mono Pass (Tuolumne County). 

OCCURRENCE. 

On dry knolls, sandy flats, rocky slopes and ridges, interspersed among spruce and 
aspen, and enduring same climatic conditions. 

Tolkrance. — \evy tolerant. 

Reproduction. — Fairly abundant seeder. Little known of seeding habits and repro- 
duction in wild state. 

Rocky Mountain Red Cedar. 

JuniperU'S scopiilorum Sargent. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Rocky Mountain red cedar was long supposed to be a western form of the well- 
known "red cedar" (./. virgin iana) of northeastern United States. It differs 
from this tree in maturing its " berries " in two seasons instead of in one sea- 
son. The two trees are similar in general appearance, and the heartwood of 
both is of a similar dull red color; but so far as now known, the western tree 
has a distinctly more western range. 

In open situations it is somewhat bushy, from 1.5 to 20 feet high, with a short 
trunk, from C to 10 inches through, and a rather narrow, rounded crown of large, 
long limbs, which trend upward ; often chere are several stems together. In 
sheltered canyons, on the other hand, it has a single, straight trunk from 25 to 
30 or more feet high and from 12 to 18 inches through, with a slender, branched 
crown, and the ends of the branches and twigs are often so decidedly drooping 
or even pendent that in some sections the tree is known as a " weeping juniper." 
The somewhat stringy bark, shallowly cut into a network of narrow seams and 
ridges, is red brown in color or, on the outside, grayish. Much more is to be 
learned regarding the characteristics of this really little known tree. 

The minute scale-like, pointed, often long-pointed, leaves (fig. 60) cover the 
slender 4-sided twigs in -1 rows of alternately opposite pairs ; the back of each 
leaf usually has a long, indistinct pit (gland). The foliage varies from a dark 
green to a light green — the latter shade emphasized by a whitish bloom. ]\[atui-e 
berries (figs. 69, 70) are smooth, are clear blue in color (from a whitish bloom 
which covers the thin blackish skin), and usually contain 2 seeds (sometimes 1) 
in a sweet, resinous pulp. Seeds (fig. 69, a) are pointed at the top end, 



FOREST TBEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



179 



conspicuously grooved, ami marked at the base with a short. 2-parted scar 
(hilum). Number and character of seed leaves unknown. 

Wood, dull red. or, more often, rather bright, rose-red ; fine-grained, durable, 
with a thick layer of white sapwood. It is suitable for the commercial uses to 
which the eastern red cedar is put, but since the occurrence of the tree is some- 
what rare and scattered, it is not likely to be of much economic importance. 
Locally prized for posts on account of its durability. The tree deserves the for- 
ester's attention for planting, since it thrives on dry soils and, especially, since 




Fig. 69. — Juniperun scopulorum : a, seeds. 

the red wood is valuable for pencils, for which the eastern supply of cedar is 
practically exhausted. 

I^oNGEviTY. — Few records of its age are available. It appears to grow very 
slowly and to be rather long-lived. Trees from 6 to 8 inches in diameter are 
from 1.30 to 175 years old. 

ran(;e. 



Kiistern foothills of Rocky Mountains in Alberta southward to western Texas, and 
westward to coast of British Columhia and Washington, to eastern Oregon, Nevada, and 



180 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



northern Arizona; probably also In Black Hills (South Dakota) and Oklahoma; gen- 
erally above 5,000 feet elevation, except near coast. Limits of range still imperfectly 
known. 

British Columbia and Alberta. — Eastern foothills of Rocky Mountains westward 
through southern British Columbia (here in Columbia River Valley, near Donald, shores 
of Kamloops, Frangois, and other lakes), to Pacific Ocean; here on heights near Van- 
couver (British Columbia), and at Esquinalt and Departure Bay on Vancouver Island, 
and on small islands in Georgia Strait. A tree juniper found as far north as Stikine 
River, on Telegraph Creek, just east of coast range, is probably this species. 




Fig. 70. — Junipcrus scopulonim. 



Washington. — Throughout eastern part below 5,000 feet ; reappears west of Cascades 
In arid localities, as San .Tuan, Orcas, Sucia, and Fidalgo islands (Puget Sound), 
Olympic Mountains, and Everett (Snohomish County "i. Locally noted, east of Cascades, 
at Sentinel Bluffs (on Columbia River), Peshastin and Wenache (on Wenache River), 
near Lake Chelan from Lake level (1,10S feet) to 1,800 feet, at lone (Stevens County), 
and at Spokane. 

Oregon. — Eastern part, probably including Wenaha, Blue, and Powder River and 
southeastern mountains. Locally noted in Wallula Gorge of Columbia River, below 
Juniper Canyon (Umatilla County), at 327 feet; southwestern Blue Mountains, be- 
tween Ontario and Harney, above 3,600 feet ; western slope of Steins Mountains, at 
4,800 to 6,500 feet. 

The detailed range of this tree in the Rocliies and eastward will be dealt 
with in a later bulletin. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 181 

OCCtJBBENCE. 

On dry exposed mesas, low, dry mountain slopes, and rather moist canyon bottoms 
(wliere best tree form occurs), in dry, rocky, sandy, or gravelly soil, but often very 
scanty in the latter sort. 

Nothing is known now of its silvical habits in Pacific region, where it is compara- 
tively rare; but single trees or small groups are commonly scattered among pifion pine, 
one-seed juniper, mountain mahogany, and narrow-leaf Cottonwood, in Rockj- Mountain 
range. 

Climatic Conditions, Tolerance, and Reproduction. — Not determined. In pro- 
tected canyons and other sheltered sites, it appears to endure (in most soils) considerable 
shade of broadleaf trees, closely resembling Junipcrus virr/iniana in this respect. Usually 
a prolific seeder. 

Western Juniper. 
Juniperus occidontulis Hooker. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Western juniper, a high luouutaiii tree, is chiefly known simply as "juniper." 
Because of its uniformly higher range it is not likely to be oonfounfled with the 
California juniper of a much lower zone, which it resembles iu general appear- 
ance. Western juniper has a round-topped, open crown, extending to within a 
few feet of the ground, and a short, thick, conical trunk. Height, from 15 to 20 
or, less commonly, 30 feet ; only rarely 00 feet or over ; taller trees occur in pro- 
tected situations ; diameter from 16 to 30 inches, exceptionally from 40 to (30 
inches. The trunks, chunky and conical in general form, and with ridges and 
grooves, are usually straight, even in the most exposed sites, but are sometimes 
bent and twisted. With its stocky form this tree develops euoriiiously long and 
large roots which enable it to withstand unharmed the fierce winds common to 
its habitat. There is rarely more than from 4 to 8 feet of clear trunk, while 
huge lower branches often rise from the base and middle of the trunk like 
smaller trunks. Of the other branches, some are large and stiff, standing 
out straight or trending upward from the trunk, while many are short ones. Some- 
times the top is divided into two or three thick forks, giving the tree a broader 
crown than usual. In such cases, when the trees are growing in flats with deep 
soil, the crowns are dense, symmetrical, round-topped, and conical, and extend 
down to within G feet of the ground. Young trees have straight, sharply taper- 
ing stems and a narrow, open crown of distant, slender, but stiff-looking, long, 
upturned branches. Often in old age the branches are less vigorouslj- developed 
and droop at the bottom and middle of the crown, but their tips continue to 
turn upward. The bark is a clear, light cinnamon-brown, one-half to IJ inches 
thick, distinctly cut by wide, shallow furrows, the long flat ridges being con- 
necte<l at long intervals by narrower diagonal ridges. It is firm and stringy. 
Branchlets which have recently shed their leaves are smooth, and a clear red- 
dish brown. The bark on them is then very thin, but later on it is divided into 
loosely attached, thin scales of lighter red-brown. 

The short, pale ashy-green, scale-like leaves (figs. 71, 72) clasp the stiff twigs 
closely, the longer, sharper leaves of young, thrifty shoots spreading slightly 
only at their points. All leaves are prominently marked on the back by a glan- 
dular pit, whitish with rosin. Groups of three leaves clasp the twigs succes- 
sively, forming a rounded stem with C longitudinal rows of leaves. The leaves 
producetl each season die in about their second season, after which they are 
gradually forced off by the growth of the branchlets. The "berries" (figs. 71, 
72), one-fourth to one-third of an inch long, mature about the first of September 
of the second year, when they are bluish black, covered with a whitish bloom ; 



182 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



their skin is tougb. and only slighly niarlced at the top by tbe tips of 
tbe female flower scales. Tbe flesb is scanty, dry, and contains from 2 to 3 
bony, pitted and grooved seeds, about wbich are large resin-cells (fig. 71, a). 
Tbese impart a sweetisb pungent-aromatic taste to tbe berries. Seed-leaves 2, 
needle-like, sharp-pointed, and about an inch long. Seedling leaves which follow 




Fig. 71. — Jiiniperus occidentalis : a, seed. 



these are similar in form, but much shorter, spreading in groups of three at close 
intervals. These leaves grow gradually shorter and closer in their arrangement 
until about the third or fourth year, when a few twigs bear short leaves of adult 
form. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



183 



Wood, pale brown, tinged with red. Very fine-grained, with a slight aromatic 
odor, and, like all of the brown-wooded junipors. remai'kably durable when 
exposed to weather or earth. It is soft and Itrittle. and splits easily. In the 
latter two qualities it is so similar to the wood of the eastern red-wooded. 








pencil "cedars" (J. virginiana and ./. harhadeusis) that it would serve excel- 
lently for lead-pencil wood ; but few consmners of pencil wood are familiar 
with it. The short, often very knotty trunks, much used for posts and fuel, fur- 



184 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

nish poor saw timber, but would give good blocks for pencils and other minor 
commercial uses. As a forest tree, western juniper deserves special attention 
on account of its unusual ability to thrive at high elevations, on dry wind-swept 
situations. Few other trees can so persistently withstand such exposure. 

Longevity. — While the age limit of this tree has not been fully determined, 
it is known to be exceedingly long-lived. Its height gi'owth is always slow, 
as is also its diameter growth when it is exposed, as it usually is, to fierce winds 
and grows rooted in crevices of rock. But even in such situations it grows per- 
sistently, producing thick trunks out of all proportion to its height. The wood 
of such trees is very fine-grained, indicating very great age. In protected moun- 
tain coves and on flats with deep washes of loose earth, large trunks show their 
more rapid diameter growth in their coarser grain. Trees of this type, from 
20 to 48 inches in diameter, are from 125 to 300 years old. A study of fine- 
grained stems grown in exposed places would doubtless show large ones to be 
from 500 to 800 years or more old. 

RANGE. 

Idaho, southeastern Washinfrton, and eastern Oregon southward to southern Califor- 
nia. Arid hills and high plains of Idaho, southeastern Washington, and eastern Ore- 
gon ; also high elevations in Cascades of Oregon and Sierras of California southward, in 
latter State, at least to San Bernardino Mountains. At north, possibly also in southern 
interior British Columbia, Montana, and in northern and western Xevada, but range 
there, as in Washington and Idaho, still imperfectly known. 

Washi.xgtox. — Only four localities known in arid southeastern part — at 591 feet 
elevation in Ryegrass Coulee (northwest of Fishhook Ferry) on Snake River, Franklin 
County ; Yakima Canyon bottom, Kittitas County ; Columbia River Canyon bottom below 
Sentinel Bluflfs, at 1,800 feet, Douglas County ; north side of Columbia River, for several 
miles each side of mouth of John Day River. Should be detected elsewhere in State. 

Oregon. — .\rid canyons, bluffs and mesas throughout eastern part and on both slopes 
of main divide of Cascades ; generally from 500 to 6,000 feet, but sparingly on west slope 
of Cascades, at 1,600 to 5,200 feet, and not on Umpqua-Rogue River Divide nor on 
northern slopes of Siskiyous. Noted at Corvallis in Willamette Valley. East slopes of 
Cascades up to 6.000 feet elevation. East of Cascades, noted in Deschutes River Valley, 
on Columbia River and tributaries in northern Wasco County, and on Mutton Mountain 
plateau (between Simnasho and Warm Springs^, at 2,900 feet, on Fly Creek Desert (be- 
tween Matolius Creek and Squaw Creek) ; from a point 9 or 10 miles northwest of Fare- 
well Bend to Prineville and eastward to Wagontire Butte, whore it is especially abun- 
dant. Generally distributed over Klamath-Deschutes Divide and throughout Klamath 
River Basin eastward to Goose Lake National Forest, being common here on Drews, Dry, 
and Chewaucan creeks, and also in Warner Valley, where it grows on east and west 
sides of Warner Mountains. In northern part of State probably goes eastward through 
Blue, Wenaha, and Powder River mountains. Noted on Columbia River and branches 
in north Wasco, Sherman, and Morrow counties, on south side of the Columbia, near 
Blalocks and on John Day River (Gilliam County), in .luniper Canyon at 950 feet, and 
on Columbia River (Umatilla County), and in Blue Mountains, generally below pines, as 
in Maury Mountains and mountains south of Prineville. 

California. — Northeastern part and mainly on east slopes and summits of Sierras 
southward to the San Bernardino Mountains. At north, from ridges east of Surprise 
Valley (Nevada) and both sides of Warner Mountains, westward to Shasta River Valley 
at a point northwest of Mount Shasta ; here abundant at 2,500 to 3,500 feet from point 
few miles east of Edgewood northward to I,ittle Shasta Valley, lower slopes of Siskiyous, 
and hills east of Hornbrook. Reported in Trinity Mountains at high altitudes about 
alpine lakes at head of Canyon Creek. Locally noted in northern California as follows : 
Above Cedarville (Warner Mountains) ; Modoc Bluff, 6 miles west of Alturas, at 5,000 
feet ; west of Warner Mountains in Fandango Valley ; Upper Goose Lake Valley, at 
7,000 feet; Lower Goose Lake Valley; Devils Garden (west of Goose Lake)', at 5,000 
feet, from lake to Willow Creek — few miles southeast of Steel Swamp and southward to 
Warm Springs Valley, near Canby ; between Tule Lake and Lost River ; from point 15 
miles south of Tule Lake to one 10 miles north of Lookout and eastward to Round Val- 
ley and Adin ; Pitt River (Modoc County), at 4,900 feet: west of lower Klamath Lake 
from Brownell to Picard ; Klamatlf Hot Springs at junction of Shovel Creek with 
Klamath River ; ridge east of latter, at 2,700 to 4,300 feet. Southward, from northern 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 185 

California, it extends east of Sierras into Nevada. In Plumas and Sierra counties, and 
generally in eastern Californian and trans-Sieiran regions, it occurs at 5,000 and 8,800 
feet throughout main and secondary ranges north of Sierra Valley ; also in a narrow 
fringe at lowest levels east and south of this valley, as well as throughout Truckee River 
hasin, except region around lakes Tahoe, Independence, Wehljer, and Donner ; reaches 
western limits on summits of Grizzly Mountains, mountains west of Summit City, and 
canyon of South Fork of Yuba River. Locally noted in northeastern Shasta County, 
about Dana, head of Fall River, Bald Mountain (south of Fall River* ; northeast Lassen 
County western edge (5 miles west of Bieber) and eastern third of Big Valley and 
northward to Adin ; about Susanville (southern Lassen County), at 4,500 feet, and east 
of Long Valley (south of Honey Lake) ; borders of Sierra Valley (Plumas and Sierra 
counties), at 3,600 feet; Feather River at Otis Ranch; from Sierraville to Loyalton ; 
Rubicon River, 1 mile above Rubicon Springs ; Canyon South Fork American Uiver, 1 
mile above Strawberry. Southward in Stanislaus National Forest, confined to summits 
of Sierras, at 7,000 to 8,500 feet. Here locally noted as follows : Donner Peak, at 7,000 
to 8,300 feet (Placer County) ; Little Truckee — south of Lake Tahoe, Glen Alpine Can- 
yon, and Loon Lake (KIdorado County) ; Twin Lakes (1* miles west of Woods Ranch), at 
9,000 feet ; Hope Valley ; Upper West Carson River Canyon ; upper Silver Creek to Moke- 
lumne Pass, and upper Mokelumne River (Alpine County) ; head of North Fork of 
Mokelumne River and Hermit Valley (on latter stream) ; west side of Sonora Pass, at 
*,000 feet, and westward to Eureka Valley, at 6,000 feet ; Tuolumne Meadows, Mount 
Lyell, Lyell Canyon, Unicorn Peak, Lambert Dome, Tenaya Nunitak, Tenaya Canyon, 
Grand Canyon of Tuolumne River, slope west of Lake Tenaya. Overhang Rock (bets\een 
Tenaya and Snow Flat), and Cathedral Peak (Tuolumne County) ;. Yosemite National 
Park, at head of Nevada Fall, at 6,000 feet, thence on trail from Little Yosemite to 
Cathedral Lakes, at 6,.';00 to 6,400 feet ; 4 miles north of Dardanelles ; Pacific Valley ; 
Jlokeluuiue Peak; Lily Creek (branch Middle Fork of Stanislaus River) ; Mount Reba, 
at 8,000 to 10,000 feet. On cast slope of Sierras, common above Jeffrey pine at high 
elevations; noted In West Walker Canyon (Mono County) between Antelope Valley and 
Bridgeport ; east side Bridgeport Valley ; canyon southeast of Bridgeport Meadows, and 
thence southward to Mono Lake, hills about Long Valley, Sonora Pass, and down to 
8,200 feet ; Mono Pass in Bloody Canyon, Rock Creek (tributary Owens River). Abundant 
on ridges and summits in Sierra National Forest at 6,000 to over 10,000 feet elevation. 
Locally noted on headwaters of South Fork of San Joaquin River and its tributaries. 
Mono and Bear creeks ; Kings River Basin on its North, Middle, and South forks, at 
9,000 to 10,600 feet; Woodchuck Creek (tributary North Fork), Horse Corral Meadows 
(head of Kings River), Bubbs Creek (tributary South Fork) ; Kaweah River watershed, 
head of its East Fork, at 9.000 to 10,200 feet from Mineral King to Farewell Gap ; 
Granite Mountain (head of East Fork), at 10,600 feet; head of Deer Creek (tributary 
Middle Fork) ; Kern River watershed, Whitney Creek at "Tunnel," headwaters of South 
Fork, Little Kern River (below Farewell Gap), and thence to North Fork; also near 
mouths of east and west forks. Abundant on Rock Creek (tributary Owens River). 
Reported on Panamint Mountains (east of Sierras) on north slope of Telescope Peak, at 
9,300 feet, far above J. utahensis, upper limit of which is 8,400 feet. San Bernardino 
Mountains, higher parts up to 9,500 feet; locally noted on Mount San Antonio at aljout 
10,000 feet, and in Bear Valley, at 6,700 feet; on north side of Holcomb Valley, at 
6,700 feet, and near divide between Holcomb Creek and Mohave Desert, at 7,000 feet. 

Extreme southern range not determined ; possibly extends through San Jacinto 
Mountains and southward to Mount San Pedro Martir, northern Lower California, where 
it has been reported at 5,000 to 7,000 feet elevation. 

The distribution of this tree iu the northern Rocky Mountains will be given 
in a future publication. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Exposed high mountain slopes and canyon sides, in dry gravelly and rocky soils, some- 
times in crevices of rock. In very open, hut practically pure stands, or scattered among 
Jeffrey and lodgepole pines. 

Climatic Conditions.— Similar to those of Jeffrey pine. 

Tolerance. — Imperfectly known. Appears to be decidedly intolerant of shade in all 
stages of growth; always grows in full light. 

Reproduction. — Very abundant seeder, but seedlings are only occasional and scattered 
in pure mineral soil. 



186 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



Utah Juniper. 
Juniperus utaliensis (Engelm.) Lemmon. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Utah juniper inhabits only a small part of the Pacific region, its main range 
lying east of this region. Commonly a low, very short-trunked, bushy, or many- 
stemmed tree from 6 to 12 feet high and from 4 to 8 inches through near the 
ground ; sometimes considerably thicker, and with a wide, rounded, rather open 




Fig. 73. — Juniperus iitahensis: a, seed. 



crown of numerous, upright, crumpled limbs. The usually short trunk is apt to 
be one-sided, with conspicuous hollows (or folds) and ridges. Its thin, whitish 
bark is cut into long, thinnish scales. 

Minute, sharp, scale-like, pale .vellowish-green leaves (fig. 73), generally 
without a- pit (gland) on the back, are mostly in alternately opposite pairs, and 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 187 

closely overlap each other in 4 rows on the slender, stiff-looking twigs ; some- 
times arranged in 6 rows with three leaves at a joint. Leaves of vigorous 
leading shoots are much larger and lieenly pointed, while those of seedlings are 
needle-like. The twigs appear round. Leaves of each season's growth persist 
ten or twelve years or more. Bark of larger twigs which have shed their leaves 
is pale reddish brown and scaly. Ripe l)erries (fig. 7?,), matured in the fall of 
the second year, are covered with a whitish bloom which, when rubbed off. 
exposes a smooth red-brown, tough skin. They usually contain one seed (occa- 
sionally 2), which is pointed at the top end, prominently and sharply angled 
(fig. 73, a), and marked nearly to the top by what appears to be scale-like basal 
covering (the seed scar), to which the thin, sweet pulp is attached. The surface 
of the berries shows projecting points (ends of minute flower scales). Seed- 
leaves, usually 5, but ranging from 4 to 6; pointed. 

Wood (conmionly called "cedar" or "juniper"), light yellowish brown, with 
a very thick, white sapwood ; the durable heartwood has a loss pungent " cedar " 
odor than that of other junipers. The tree is too small and ill-shaped for com- 
mercial use, though it finds important domestic use for fuel and posts wherever 
it is sufficiently abundant. 

Longevity. — Few records of its age are available. Probably rather long-lived. 
Trees from 6 to 10 inches in diameter are from 145 to 250 years old. 

RANGE. 

Southwestern Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, and western Colorado to southeastern Cali- 
fornia and northwestern Arizona ; common throughout desert parts of this region, and 
generally at from n.OOO to 8,000 feet elevation. 

California. — Desert ranges east of Sierras. Abundant along summit of White and 
Inyo mountains, except highest peaks, descending on east slope of White Mountains to 
6,700 feet. Common in I'anamint Range on northwest slope of Telescope I'eak, extend- 
ing from 6.300 to 8,000 feet and sometimes higher. On Grapevine Mountains, on Provi- 
dence Mountains above 5,000 feet. Less abundant In range westward, as in that part 
of Panamint Mountains near Jackass Spring, and on Coso and Inyo mountains ; ab.sent 
from Argus Mountains and not yet detected on east slope of Sierras. 

The detailed range of this juniper in the Rocky Mountain region will be dealt 
with in a future bulletin. 

OCCURRENCE. 

On desert foothills and mountain slopes, in dry. rocky, gravelly, and sandy soils. In 
extensive, rather open and scattered pure growths, or mixed with one-leaf pine and 
desert shrubs. 

Cli.matic Conditions. — Characterized by great aridity, high temperature, and small 
precipitation. 

Tolerance and Reproduction. — Little known ; probably similar to California juniper. 

California Juniper. 
Juniperus (■(ilifornica Carriere. 

DISTIXCJUISIIING CHARACTERISTICS. 

California juniper is commonly known as " juniper " or " cedar." Its much 
lower altitudinal range serves, however, to distinguish it roughly from the 
western juniper. The exact lines where the two trees (similar in appearance) 
approach each other have not been fully determined. Casual observation 
might confuse one tree with the other, particularly young trees without fruit. 
California juniper maj^ be distinguished l)y several fairly prominent characters, 
which should be carefully noted. Among these, and most conspicuous, is the 
deeply infolded or fluted trunk, which is straight and loss tajiering than the 
fuller, more rounded, and only slightly grooved trunk of the western juniper. 



188 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



The crowu form varies from a low, open, bushy, broad, round-topped tree under 
10 feet in height to one with a conical crown 20 or 25 or, sometimes, 30 feet 
high. The short, clear part of the trunk is rarely more than from 10 to 20 
inches in diameter. The branches often become large and greatly distorted 
in old trees, much as in the western juniper. The barli, outwardly weathered 
to a gray color aud red-brown beneath, is in contrast with the clear, light 




Fig. 74. — Juniperus calif ornica : a, seed, twice natural size. 

cinnamon-brown baric of its relative. Branchlets. after losing their leaves, 
have thin, scaly bark of pale ashy-brown color; those of the western juniper 
are reddish brown. 

The pale yellowish green color of the foliage is fairly distinct from the 
pale ashy-green foliage of western juniper. The light, red-brown " berries " 
(fig. 74), one-fourth to nearly one-half inch in length, and maturing by about 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 189 

the first of September of the second year, are in sharp contrast with the bluish 
black, white-coated fruit of western juniper. The loose, exceedingly thin, pa- 
pery skin of the fruit, though covered with a white bloom like that of the 
western juniper, is readily distinguished from the tough, thick covering of the 
" berries " of the latter tree. The berries are smooth except at the top end, 
where the tips of the female flower scales project slightly. The dry, mealy 
pulp, sweet and somewhat fibrous, is without resin-cells, which are a promi- 
nent feature of the other juniper's fruit. Seeds, from 1 to 2, are more or less 
angular and often irregularly grooved and ridged (fig. 74, a), but lacking the 
minute pits of western juniper. The minute, scale-like leaves have a glandular 
pit on their back and are an-anged 3 in a group on the roundish stout twigs 
(fig. 74). The leaves of young, thrifty shoots and young seedlings, very keenly 
pointed and spi-eading, are distinctly whitened on their top side. The 4, 5, or 
6 seed-leaves common to this juniper distinguish it from western juniper, 
which has only 2 seed-leaves. They ai'e bristle-like, shaip-pointed, and rather 
rigid. The later growth of the seedling and the form and arrangement of its 
leaves are as described for the western juniper. Wood, hardly to be distin- 
guished from that of western juniper. Economically, its field of usefulness is 
practically the same, while as a forest tree it merits special attention for its 
remarkable ability to thrive on low, desert slopes and plains, where, with little 
else but yuccas, pinon, and Sabine pines, it helps to form the only tree growth. 
Longevity. — No records of its age are available. It is believed, however, 
that it attains an age of about 200 or 250 years. A thorough study of its 
longevity is required. 

K.\NCiE. 

Central California to nortiiern Lowor California. Inner California coast ranges south** 
ward from lower Sacramento River Valley to Teliacliapi Mountains ; tiience up westera 
foothills of Sierras a sliort distance northward to Kern River Valley, and eastward 
through southern coast mountains to their desert slopes ; southward to Cuyamaca Moun- 
tains, and into northern Lower California; j;:enerally at 2,000 to 4,000 feet elevation. 

California. — North limit in Sacramento Valley unknown, hut reported in (Ilenn 
County (Stony Creek National Forest) on east slope of inner Coast Range along foothills 
up to 4,000 feet ; probably extends into Lake County. Locally noted on St. Johns and 
Snow mountains and Copper Buttes, at 4,000 feet; Elk Creek foothills (northwest Colusa 
County) from Sites to Stony Ford, and west of Font Springs (base of Snow Mountain i 
northward into Glenn County. Much more abundant south of San Francisco Bay 
throughout coast ranges from Moraga Pass and Monte Diablo southward. Locally noted 
as follows: ,'<(in Benito Counlii: On divide between Topa Valley and San Benito, at Her- 
nandez southward and eastward to New Idria Mine; Fresno Counti/: Mountains of south- 
western boundary between Coalinga and Briest Valley: hills about Briest Valley (.Mon- 
terey County). San Luis Ohispo County: On hills west of Carrizo I'lain and along San 
Juan Creek; Santa Barbara National Forest, in Santa Maria, Santa Ynez, Santa Bar- 
bara, Matilija, Biru-Sespe, Newhall, and Elizabeth river basins ; most abundant oa 
desert (north) slopes, where, with pinon pine, it forms a belt around base and lower 
ridges of mountains up to 5,000 feet. Occurs similarly in canyons of Tehachapi Moun- 
tains, as in Tejon Canyon. Northward sparingly in chaparral and oak belts of Sierras to 
Kern River Valley, where its northern limit is the vicinity of Kernville, or possibly Trout 
Meadow, .iust south of Kern Lakes, on Kern River: southward on South Fork of Kern 
River from point 7 miles south of Monache Meadow down to region of Walker Pass, at 
elevations between 2, .500 and about 5.100 feet. Reported in the Sabine pine belt of 
western Sierras foothills in Mariposa County, at point about ."? miles north of Coulter- 
ville at top of Merced River Canyon along road from Coulterville to Mariposa, and near 
mouth of Colton Creek. Locally noted on west slope of Piute Mountain just south of 
Kern River gap, at 3,000 to 4,000 feet; at Ilavilah on Clear Creek (6 miles south of 
Palmer Ranch); Caliente Creek to Piute post-office, at 2.000 to 5,000 feet; Walker 
Basin. More abundant on desert slopes of San Gabriel and San Bernardino mountains, 
here, with pinon pine, forming a belt around base of mountains at .",500 to 4,000 feet 
elevation, extending down among tree yuccas of Mohave Desert, and southward to San 
Gorgonlo Pass (south of San Bernardino Mountains). On north slope of Sierra Liebre 

15188—08 13 



190 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Range opposite west part of Antelope Valley, Cajon Pass up to 4,000 feet ; Soledad Pass, 
at 2,700 feet ; also occasionally in interior and on southern slopes of these ranges, as 
Cajon Pass, San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Wash near Los Angeles, vicinity of Pasa- 
dena, and Mill Creek (San Bernardino Mountains). Southward, it follows coast moun- 
tains, occurring on both east and west slopes ; at Mexican line from near Mountain 
Spring, at 2,700 feet; across Wagon Pass, at 3,117 feet, and down west side to Jacumba 
Hot Springs, at 2,822 feet, and possibly farther west. 

Lower California. — Reported from both east and west sides of lower slopes of 
Mount San Pedro Martir as far south as Trinidad Valley and Las Encinas (near San 
Tomas). 

OCCURRENCE. 

On very dry mountain slopes and barrens, on canyon sides in rocky, gravelly, or 
sandy soils. Frequent and most typical on seaward slopes of Coast Range. 

Sometimes in pure open stands, or predominating in nearly pure, very open stands 
of limited extent or in groups, but often mingled with one-leaf piiion pine, Sabine pine, 
mountain mahogany, and bigcone spruce, and occasionally with straggling western 
yellow pine, Douglas oak, and tree yucca ; in Lower California, with piiion pine, mesquite, 
manzanita, and yucca. 

Climatic Conditions. — Climate characterized by long, very dry summers, often lim- 
ited or deficient precipitation, except for desert plants (mostly winter rain). Seasonal 
temperature, about 15° to 100° F. 

Tolerance. — Little known of its tolerance, but apparently requires abundant light 
throughout life. 

Reproduction. — Prolific seeder. Actual seeding habits undetermined. Seed germi- 
nates on exposed mineral soil, but only when sufficiently buried by washing, or other 
favorable accident, to be moist. Reproduction rather scanty. 

Family TAXACE^. 

Trees (and shrubs) which belong to this family — yews or yew-like-trees — 
differ from the cone-bearers in producing male flowers on one tree and female 
flowers on another (very rarely both kinds of flowers on different parts of the 
same tree). Conifers have flowers of both sexes on different parts or branches 
of the same tree.' There are fewer seed-bearing trees, therefore, since only trees 
bearing female flowers have seed. Moreover, in thinning a stand of Taxaceous 
trees care should be taken to preserve both male and female trees as near to 
each other as possible if reseeding is expected to take place. Pollen of the male 
flowers must be carried by the wind to the female flowers. If male trees are 
distant more than 25 or 30 yards from the female tree, only the strongest 
wind, blowing at the right time, will effect fertilization. 

The leaves are evergreen, flat, and narrowly lance-shaped, and appear to 
grow (native species) in spreading lines on two opposite sides of the branches. 
The fruit (seed) is different from that of conifers in being almost or entirely 
enveloped in a pulpy covering. In the yews of this group it is a minute, berry- 
like cup, bright colored, juicy and sticky when broken, while in other members 
of the family the covering is firm, practically complete, and similar to an olive. 

TUMION. STINKING CEDARS. 

Stinking cedars are little-known trees which for many years were erroneously 
classified under the generic name Torreya. Only a few years ago it was found 
that this name had previously been applied to an entirely different plant." 
" Torreya," " nutmeg," and " stinking cedar " are the common names for them. 
They are characterized by their stiff, flat, lance-shaped, needle-pointed leaves 
(fig. 75), which grow in two rows from opposite sides of the branches and are 
somewhat spirally arranged, and by the pungently aromatic or ill-smelling 
(fetid) odor of the leaves and of the green bai'k. the odor being most pro- 

« Dr. Edward L. Greene, Pittonia, 11, 195, 1891. 



FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 191 

nounoed when they are crushed or bruised. They form pyramidal crowns in 
youth, while in old age the crown becomes round-topped. The crown is some- 
what open, and the branchlets droop rather conspicuously. Male and female 
flowers are each borne on different trees. Male flowers (pollen bearing only) are 
small, bud-like, and numerous on the under sides of the branches at the bases 
of the leaves produced the previous season. Female flowers, which develop 
into a greenish or purple, thin-fleshed fruit resembling an olive or a nutmeg, are 
also small, but much less numerous, and grow on the lower sides of the 
branches from the bases of new leaves of the season or of the previous season. 
The thin, tough skin of the fruit is resinous, and the seed has a smooth, hard 
shell. Seed-kernels are characteristically wrinkled, the surface appearing to be 
infolded, as in a nutmeg. Seed-leaves, 2. The bark is thin, and is distinctly 
and narrowly seamed and ridged. The trunk, rarely full and round, tapers 
slowly, and is usually slightly bent. A notable characteristic is the production 
of thrifty permanent sprouts ffom cut stumps. Wood, moderately light, hard, 
and fine-grained, clear lemon-yellow color, exceedingly durable under all kinds 
of exposure. Our species are so rare or are so limited in occurrence as to be 
of very little commercial use, for which, however, the extreme durability and 
good working qualities of their wood fit them. They are trees of only second- 
ary importance to the forester, and are mainly useful for maintaining a pro- 
tective cover on the borders of narrow mountain streams, in rocky coves and 
gulches. 

Two species only are indigenous to the United States. One is confined to 
Florida and the other to California. Trees of this group are of ancient origin. 
Species of them inhabited the Arctic Zone in the Tertiary period, and later inhab- 
ited portions of Europe, where they became extinct. 

California Nutmeg. 
Tumlon calif ornicntn (Toi*r. ) Greene. 
DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

California nutmeg is a rare tree of small size. It is called nutmeg from the 
fancied resemblance of its seed-kernel to the nutmeg of commerce, which belongs 
to a different and unrelated family of broadleaf jilants. It is locally known as 
" stinking cedar " and " stinking yew," on account of the disagreeable odor 
emitted by its green parts and, to some extent, by its green wood when bruised. 

In youth and middle age it has an open, wide, pyramidal crown which in the 
open extends to the ground. The slender branches stand out rather straight 
from the trunk in formal circles, and are somewhat drooping at their extremi- 
ties. Crowded in a dense stand, it bears a short, conical <-rown on a clear 
trunk, while old trees under such conditions have rounded, dome-like tops. The 
trunks, which are rarely straight, are clear of branches for two-thirds of their 
length, and are from 35 to 50 feet high and from 8 to 20 inches in diameter. 
Under conditions especially favorable for growth it is 75 or 80 feet high and 
from 2 to 3 feet in diameter ; but such dimensions are exceedingly rare. The 
trunk is uneven, almost never full and cylindrical. Bark, one-third to five- 
eighths of an inch thick, is finely checked with narrow seams and short, narrow, 
loosely scaly ridges, with frequent side coiuiections : rather soft, outer layers 
easily scaled off ; outwardly weathered to an ashy yellowish brown. 

The flat, glossy, deep, yellow-green, lance-shaped, keeidy pointed leaves 
(fig. 75), and particularly their sharp aromatic odor when bruised, distinguish 
the tree ; green bark and branchlets also emit, when bruised, the same disagree- 



192 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

ahle odor. The fruit (fig. To) matures by early autumn of the first season, 
when it is pale yellowish green with irregular dull purple areas or streaks. It 
is about 1 inch to If inches in length, with thin leathery covering. The seed 
Las a thin, hard, brittle shell, while the surface of the seed kernel is deeply 




Fig. 7.0. — Tumion calif ornicum. 

wrinkled. Seed-leaves, regularly 2. Nothing can now be said of the growth 
and other characteristics of seedling.s. which have not been studied beyond the 
stage of germination. Wood, bright lemon-yellow ; other characteristics of the 
wood and importance of the tree are given under the genus. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 193 

Longevity.^ Very little is known of the age, but it is believetl to be a long- 
lived tree. It appears to grow persistently, but very slowly, in height and diam- 
eter, as shown by its small size. Trunks from 4 to 8 inches in diameter are 
from 60 to 110 years old. and those from 12 to 18 inches through are from 170 
to 205 years old. Further study of its growth and age is required. 

RANGE. 

Central California, on coast ranges and west slope of Sierras. 

Coast ranges, from Big River (Mendocino County) to Marin and Napa counties and 
south of San Francisco Bay region to Santa Cruz Mountains (Santa Clara County). 
Noted as follows : Mendocino County: West slope Coast Range north to I'.ig River near 
Mendocino; on hills east of Russian River Valley bordering road from IIoi)land to High- 
land Springs, growing on both sides of Mendocino-Lake county boundary, especially on 
south side of gulch leading to Russian River Valley ; western part Stony Creek National 
Forest, in lower forest belt. Lake Count;/: Bartlett Springs (east Lake County) ; west of 
Clear Lake from point about 5 miles west of Highland Springs to Ilopland, continuing over 
summit into east Mendocino County; east side of Mount St. Helena (large trees in 
canyon below Tollhouse) ; canyon of Putah Creek (road from Middletown to Cobb Valley). 
Xapa County: South slope of Mount St. Helena between 2,500 and ."{.fiOO feet, and 
probably higher; Goat Rock (about a mile south of Tollhouse), on ridge forming east 
boundary of Napa Valley. Sonoma County: Big Sulphur (or Phiton) Creek Canyon 
(vicinity of Geysers) ; Dutch Bill Canyon (near Meeker). Marin County: Mount Tamal- 
pais, in many gulches, canj-ons, basins, and chaparral main ridge ; Cataract Canyon, 
notably near lower fall, at about 1,000 feet. Santa Cruz County: Near La Honda and 
sparingly in other localities (Santa Cruz Mountains). Sierras, west side from north- 
eastern Tehama County, on southwest slope (Mill Creek) of Lassens Butte, at about 
4,800 feet, to Tulare County (T. 21 S., R. ."50 E.), occurring sparsely in gulches and 
canyons, at from 2,000 to 4, .100 feet. Next stations southward from Lassens Butte are 
Deer Creek Canyon (south Tehama County) and canyons of Chico and Butte creeks 
(northwest Butte County) ; .30 miles southward, on upper Yuba and Feather rivers; 
noted near Dol)bins (just west of Oregon Hills, Yuba County). Stanislaus National 
Forest, very rare in Eldorado and Calaveras counties ; here noted on Empire Creek 
(tributary South Fork of American River), at 2,.">00 feet elevation; on north slopes of 
South Fork of Mokelumne River, at 2,000 to 2, .500 feet; San Antonio Creek (tributary 
South Fork of Calaveras River), at 2,000 feet, and on South Fork of Webber Creek, at 
3,000 feet. Southward, in Tuolumne County near mouth of South Fork at Colfax 
Springs ; In Mariposa County, found at Mariposa and on Merced River in lower Yosemite 
Valley; near Dinkey Bigtree Grove (T. 10 S., R. 26 E.) and on Mill Creek (tributary of 
Kings River, T. 14 S., R. 27 E.) in Fresno County ; in canyons along stage road to 
Giant Forest ; in Sequoia National Park on road to Mineral King ; East Fork, and other 
branches of Kaweah River, at .3,950 to (5,000 feet : locally noted in Coffeepot Canyon 
(tributary East Fork Kaweah River), on stream near Comstock Mill, and on Kaweah 
River between Kane Flat and Bigtree Canyon. Lower courses of Tule River branches 
and southward (to T. 21 S., R. 30 E.). Detailed range not fully determined. 

OCCURRENCE. 

In moist gravelly or sandy gulches, springy coves, and narrow watered canyons. De- 
pendent upon soil moisture. Forms dense thickets alone or occurs in mixture with 
canyon live oak, white alder, western sycamore, broadleaf maple. 

ToLicuA.NOE. — Very tolerant of shade throughout life, its own dense shade often ex- 
cluding other growth. 

Retroductio-N". — Seeding habits not determined. Reproduction confined to moist ex- 
posed soil or litter where seeds are fully covered by floodwaters ; usually rather scanty. 

TAXUS. YEWS. 

The yews, very distinct as a group, are not strikingly distinct as spec-ies. 
There is great similarity in the appearance, structure, and (lualities of the wood 
of different species, and also in the general appearance and form of the foliage 
and fruit. The shape and habit of growth, and minor differences in the form and 
color of the leaves, are mainly relied upon to distinguish the different species. 
They are world-renowned. trees. The wood of one species inhabiting Europe, 



194 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Asia, and Africa was long used by ancient tribes for bows, tbeir most important 
implements of war. 

Tbe leaves, which remain on the trees for many years, are flat, narrowly 
lance-shaped, and sharp pointed ; by a twist at their bases they appear to grow 
in comb-like lines on two opposite sides of the branches, but as a matter of fact 
they are arranged somewhat spirally on the branches. Male and female flowers 
are each" borne on different trees. (Exceptionally flowers of both sexes occur on 
different branches of the same tree.) Male or pollen bearing flowers are small, 
yellowish, bud-like, borne singly and rather abundantly on the under sides of the 
branches; female flowers, small and greenish, occur similarly on the branches, 
but are much less numerous. The latter develop into a fruit which ripens in one 
season and usually falls from the tree shortly after maturity. The fruit is 
berry-like, the single hard seed appearing to be embedded nearly to its point in 
sweetish, mucilaginous, bright coral-red (but not poisonous) pulp. Seed-leaves, 
regularly 2. The purple or brown bark is very thin. Wood, exceedingly fine- 
grained, and ranging in color from clear rose-red to dark reddish brown. It is 
extremely durable under all kinds of exposure. 

Yews are small trees which live to a great age. A marked characteristic is 
their ability to produce permanent sprouts from cut stumps, and to grow from 
cuttings. Four species are indigenous to North America. Three inhabit the 
United States and adjacent portions of Canada, while a fourth appears to be 
confined to Mexico. One of our species, limited to Florida, is a small tree; 
another, a shrub, grows in the North Atlantic region ; while one, a tree, inhabits 
the Pacific forests, extending northward into adjacent Canadian territory. 

Western Yew. 

Taxus hrcvifolia Nuttall. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Western yew is little known except to woodsmen in its habitat, where it is 
called simply " yew." The more distinctive name suggested is desirable in view 
of the fact that two other yews occur in the United States. 

A small tree, from 20 to CO feet high and from to 12 inches in diameter; 
much less commonly from 35 to 50 feet in height, and very rarely from GO to 
75 feet, with a diameter of from 18 to 30 inches. Trunks are straight and coni- 
cal, but conspicuously ridged and fluted by an apparent infolding of the sur- 
face. The diameter growth is often excentric (larger on one side of the pith 
than on the other). Except in larger old trees, an open conical crown extends 
nearly or quite to the ground ; the slender branches stand out straight, often 
somewhat drooping, while from their sides and extremities very slender branch- 
lets hang down, so as to give a weeping appearance. This habit is strongly 
marked in trees growing partly or wholly in the open, where the leafy branch- 
lets are very much more numerous and dense than in deep shade. The bark 
is conspicuously thin, rarely over one-fourth of an inch thick, and composed of 
thin, papery, purple, easily detached scales, beneath which the newer bark is a 
clear rose- or purple-red. The deep yellow-green leaves (fig. 7G) are soft to the 
touch, and nuich paler on their under sides than above. Those produced in a 
season perish in about five years ; occasionally a few green leaves are found on 
portions of 6 to 9 year old branches. The bright coral-red fruit (fig. 76), ripe 
in September, begins to fall during October. It is often eaten by birds for 
the sweetish mucilaginous covering, but the hard shell of the seed is unaffected 
by digestion. The attractiveness of the fruit to birds serves as an important 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPlS. 



195 



means of disseminating the seed, which otherwise would not be carried far 
from the mother tree. Seed-leaves, 2; flat, short, and pointed. Nothing can 
now be said of the later growth and characteristics of seedlings, which have 
not been fully studied. Wood, fine-grained, clear rose-red, becoming gradually 




Fig. 76. — Taxua brevifolia: a, fruit, lower side. 

duller with exposure to light; dense, rather heavy, and remarkably durable 
in an unprotected state. Little commercial importance can be attached to the 
wood, on account of its .scarcity. Its attractive color, durability, and elasticity 
render it useful mainly for such articles as canoe paddles, bows, and small 



196 FOKEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

cabinet work. As a forest tree, it is only of secondary importance, on acc&unt 
of its rarity and the fact that larger and more generally useful timber trees 
grow abundantly in the same range. Through its remarkable tolerance of 
dense shade it can assist in forming low protective cover in moist coves and 
canyons and at the heads of streams. 

LoNGEA^iTY. — Age limits of this yew have not been fully investigated. Growth 
in height and diameter are very slow, especially under deep shade, where, how- 
ever, it maintains itself most persistently, indicating that it is long-lived. 
Few representative sizes have been studied. Trees 6 inches in diameter are 
from 7.5 to 90 years, while those from 12 to 20 inches in diameter are from 140 
to 245 jeagcs old. The largest trees are believed to be about 350 or 375 years old. 

RANGE. 

Pacific coast region south from the southern tip of Alaska (Annette and Oravina 
Islands) and east to Selkirk Mountains ; through western Oregon and Washington to 
California (coast ranges south to southern Lake County and western slopes of Sierra 
Nevada to Tulare County) ; mountains of eastern Washington and Oregon and Montana 
(east to western slope of Continental Divide, south at least to south end Bitterroot 
Mountains, Idaho, and Swan Lake, Montana). 

Alaska. — Noted only on Annette and Gravina islands at southeastern end, but prob- 
ably also on neighboring islands and mainland. 

Briti-sh Colu.mbia. — Islands and sea side of Coast Range, extending some distance 
up Fraser River and reappearing farther east in Selkirk range. Queen Charlotte 
Islands, confined to borders of inlets ; noted on Cumshewa Inlet from Clew to head of 
West Arm, on shores of Prevost Island and south end of Moresby island. Skidegate 
Inlet, and near Massett. On mainland noted on lower Skeena River, on Fraser River 
up to Chapmans Bar near Suspension Bridge, and Coquihalla River up 20 miles above 
Hope. Vancouver Island common near coast, noted from sea level to 000 feet on 
southwest end in Renfrew district and near Victoria. Farther east on both sides of 
Selkirk Range north to Beaver Creek at 3,500 to 4,000 feet ; noted on Kootenai Lake 
and west of it between Sproats Landing and Nelson. 

Washington. — Douglas fir forests west of Cascades and moister parts of yellow pine 
forests east of Cascades, extending higher on both sides of the range into western 
white pine forest (at sea level to 5,000 feet). Eastward through mountains of northern 
and eastern parts of State. (West) Washington National Forest generally below 3,000 
feet. (East) Washington National Forest only detected on Stehekin River, in Horse- 
shoe Basin, at Nason City (Chelan County i, and in some mountain passes at 3,300 
to 5,000 feet. Yakima division Washington National Forest up to 6,000 feet, noted in 
Kittitas County. Mount Rainier National Forest generally below 4,200 feet ; locally 
noted on upper Nisqually River, Mount Rainier between Longmire Springs and Paradise 
Park, and on a summit 8 miles southeast of Mount Rainier at 6.000 feet. Olympic 
Peninsula common ; noted at Arbutus Point, in Queniult Indian Reservation and on 
Admiralty Inlet at Port Townsend and at Port Ludlow. Blue Mountains and infre- 
quently along streams near Pullman (Whitman County). 

Oregon. — West side of Cascades and Blue Mountains up to 6.000 feet. Not detected 
in Coast Range. Cascade (North) National Forest, west side below 2,100 feet in Doug- 
las fir forest, but occasionally reaching 5,000 feet : noted locally at Portland, Clackamas 
River Canyon, between Portland and Mount Hood, and south of Mount Hood on Camas 
Prairie. Cascade (South) National Forest west side of Cascades and north side of 
Siskiyous ; locally noted near Sawtooth Mountain (T. 25 S., R. 6 E.) above 6.000 feet, 
road from Rogue River to Crater Lake at 3,500 feet, headwaters of Rogue River in 
Cascades and of Bear Creek in Siskiyous, especially T. 38 S., R. 4 E. 

California. — Northern coast ranges from western Siskij'ou and Humboldt counties 
southward to Mendocino, Mendocino County, and Mount St. Helena, Lake County. Not 
detected in Del Norte County and in general not extending west quite to coast ; east 
to Marble Mountain and upper McCloud River (Siskiyou County) ; occurs in ravines 
from a little above sea level to 6,000 feet. Siskiyou County, noted in Klamath National 
Forest, on west slope Marble Mountain on Russian Creek, and on east slope Salmon 
River Mountains at 1,800 to 3,200 feet. Humboldt County, noted on west slope Trinity 
Mountains above Hoopa Valley as low as 4,000 feet, west of Hoopa Valley on trail to 
Redwood Creek, between Redwood Creek and Blue Lake, canyon South Fork Van Dusen 
River, Little Van Dusen, and a few miles from Briceland. Mendocino County, seaward 
side of Coast Range in redwood forest for 10 miles east of Westport and at a point 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 197 

10 or 12 miles east of Mendocino (western limitsj ; also near Cahto and Laytouville 
and near Willets and a few miles north of Kidgewood Summit (between Willets and 
Ukiah). Trinity County, noted east to canyon between Lewiston and AVhiskeytown at 
2,000 feet. Canyon Creek from Dedrick to Alpine lakes (o.GOO feeti, in gulches of Carl, 
Salt, and Dutch Creeks between Junction and Hay Fork and in gulches between I'osC 
Ranch and South Fork of Trinity Iliver. CoIuku County: On Snow Mountain and in deep 
canyons on Elk Mountain. Luke County: Noted on Sanhedrin Mountain, and east side of 
Mount St. Helena in canyon between Tollhouse and Middletown. Mount Shasta National 
Forest only detected east to headwaters of Sacramento River (Siskiyou County) and 
McCloud River (Shasta County) at 15 miles above Balrd, at 3,000 to G.OOO feet. Not 
known on Mount Shasta. Lassen I'eak, IMumas and Lake Tahoe National Forests infre- 
quent in yellow pine belt of central plateau region and wet canyons of west side of 
main range ; noted in I'lacer County just south of North Fork American River east of 
Iowa Hill, a few miles east of Forest Hill, and in Devil's Canyon between Forest Hill 
and Colfax. Stanislaus National Forest, infrequent in red fir belt ; noted in vicinity of 
Mutton Canyon and Deep Canyon (branches of Pilot Creek, a tributary of Rubicon 
River) at 4,000 feet; Big Iowa Canyon (tributary South Fork American River) at 
3,000 feet, headwaters of Sly I'ark Creek (tributary of North Fork of Cosumnes River), 
and North Fork of Webber Creek at* 4,000 feet, at 2,500 to 3,000 feet on the headwaters 
of Cedar Creek (tributary same river), at 3,500 feet on Clear Creek (tributary Webber 
Creek), headwaters of Mill Creek (tributary North Fork of Mokelumne River) at 3,500 
to 4.000 feet. South on west side Sierras at 5,000 to 8,000 feet to Tulare County. Also 
reported in coast ranges south of San Francisco Bay south to Santa Cruz Mountains. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Near margins of low mountain streams, moist flats and benches, deep ravines and 
coves, in rich rocky or gravelly soils. Largest in western Oregon, Washington, and 
British Columbia ; much smaller in eastern range, especially in drier situations. Groves 
In small groups and singly, scattered sparingly with Douglas fir, grand fir, redwood, tan- 
bark oak, vine, and broad-leafed maples. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of Douglas fir (in Pacific range). 

Tolerance. — Exceedingly tolerant of dense shade throughout life ; crown foliage thin 
and branches low to ground under deep shade ; grows well in partial or full light, but 
crown and foliage then much more dense. 

Reproduction. — Fairly prolific seeder. Vitality of seeds persistent and germination 
moderately high. Seedlings only occasional — often rare and mostly in deep shade on 
wet moss and decaying wood. . Imperfectly known. 

3IO]N OCOTYLEDONES. 

The trees which belong to the great class of monocotyledones differ from 
ordinary trees in not having their woody tissue arranged in annual concentric 
rings. Instead, the woody, thread-lilie fibers are scattered apparently irregu- 
larly throughout the trunk, on a cross-section of which the ends of these fibers 
appear like numerous dots. Another imijortant characteristic is the single 
cotyledon or seed-leaf jn-oduced by the newly germinated seed. Other tree seed- 
lings have 2 or more seed-leaves. The veins of monocotyledonous tree leaves 
are usually parallel to each other, just as in the leaves of grasses and Indian 
corn, also members of this class, in contrast with the feather and net like vein- 
ing of ordinary tree leaves. To this group belong the palms and yuccas, which 
are essentially subtropical or tropical plants. The tree palms grow throughout 
their life with a single unbranched, column-like trunk, at the toj) of which the 
haves are clustered. Tree yuccas are sparingly branched, much as in other 
trees, but their manner of producing leaves from the ends of the few branches 
is similar to that of the palms. 

Family PALM-ffi. 

The trees of this family, known as palms, have single, straight, unbranched, 
cylindrical trunks, crowned by a cluster of spreading, fan-like leaves. The fruit, 
borne in branched clusters, is berry-like and usually one-seeded — seldom 2 to 3 
deeded. 



198 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 
NEOWASHINGTONIA. PALMS. 



This small group of palms, named in honor of George Washington, is com- 
posed of trees with big, column-like trunks, almost uniform in diameter 




Fig. 77. — yeoicasliingtoyiia filifera ; original 48 feet high. 

throughout their length. The top of the trunk has a dense crown of very 
broad, fan-like, long-stemmed, circular leaves, deeply slashed into nbbon-like 




Fig. 78. — yeoicashingtonla fiUfcra: a, leaf stem one-I 

part of 

15188—08. (To face page 1J)S.) 




F:o. ■a.—Xcowaahliiglmila flllfera: a, lenf stem one-halt natural size; b, leaf one-sixth 
part of cluster — natural size. 
IDISS— OS. (To face ]iage lOS.) 



Ize; c. fruit — 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 199 

.strips, and the tips of the strips are split in two. The stems of the leaves 
are armed on their two edges with irregular, straight or curved, sharp teeth. 
New leaves appear each year from the summit of the trunk As those of the 
previous year die, they bend down, forming a dense thatch-like mass about the 
trunk (flg. 77). This adheres to the trunk for many years, finally falling and 
leaving the torn, wide overlapping bases of the leaves covering the trunk. Later 
diameter growth loosens these, and the trunk then becomes smooth, its rind 
(bark-like) being seamed and ridged somewhat as ordinary trees are. 

The miimte white flowers are perfect (male and female organs present in 
each) and borne in large branched clusters. The small, berry-like, elliptical 
fruit is black, with one russet-brown seed. 

Only two species of these palms are known, and but one is found within the 
United States. This inhabits desert parts of southern California and extends 
into Lower California. The other species grows in Mexico and in the southern 
part of Lower California. 

Commercially, these trees are of little importance (the trunks do not afford 

stable wood), except for ornamental purposes, for which they are much planted. 

They deserve protection and extension, however, since they are capable of 

forming true forest cover in desert localities where very few other trees grow 

naturally. 

Washington Palm. 

Neowashingtonia fiUfvra'^ (Wendl.) Sudworth. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Washington palm is known also as " desert palm " and " fan palm." It is 
the largest of our indigenous palms, growing to a height of from 35 to 50 or 
sometimes GO to 70 feet, with a diameter of from 20 to 30 inches. Titie 
trunks taper verj' gradually, and sometimes appear to be of almost the same 
diameter throughout. As a rule they are more or less bent. The bark-like rind, 
marked by narrow seams, is pale cinnamon to dull reddish brown. A broad open 
crown of about 50 huge, fan-like, pale green leaves caps the trunk (fig. 77). If 
fire has not destroyed them, the drooping dead leaves of many years' growth 
form a dense thatch-like shroud about the trunk down to within a few feet of 
the ground. When the lower dead leaves have been burned off there is a mass 
of dead leaves just beneath the green head (fig. 77). Very many of these 
curious trunks are marked by fire, to which they are particularly subject until 
their covering of dry leaves is consumed. A i-emarkable resistant power ap- 
parently enables most of the trees to endure such burnings without injury, for 
they grow on thriftily afterwards. 

The great leaves (fig. 78, &), about 4i feet broad and somewhat longer, have 
stems 5 or G feet long, armed on their two edges with irregular, sharp, straight 
or hooked teeth (fig. 78, a). They are deeply slashed into stiff ribbon-like divi- 
sions (2-cleft at the ends), the edges of which are frayed into many long, 
thread-like fibers (fig. 78, ft). The minute white flowers, produced every year 
when a tree begins to bloom, are borne in large branched clusters from 8 to 10 
feet long in the crown of green leaves. At the base the flower stems and 
branches are noticeably flattened, forming two edges; elsewhere they are 
rounded. 



» Since this bulletin went to press Dr. S. B. Parish has published (Bot. Gaz. 44 : 408- 
434, 1907) a most valuable contribution to our meager knowledge of the Washington 
palm. He points out that there is grave doubt as to what the plant originally described 
(by Wcndland) as our Washington palm really Is, and distinguishes the following 
species and varieties: Washinytonia flUfcra, W. fliiftra robusta, M'. fllifera microsperma, 
W. gracilis, W. sonorw. Dr. Parish's ^V. fllifera robusta corresponds with the palm 
described here as y. fllifera. 



200 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Large quantities of the berry-lilve, spherical or elongated fruit (fig. 78, c), 
about three-eighths of an inch long, are borne every year after a tree begins to 
fruit. The fruit is black when ripe, in early autumn. The pale chestnut-col- 
ored seed is about one-fourth of an inch long by one-eighth of an inch thick. 
The single seed leaf is narrow and lance-shaped. 

Wood, soft, very spongy and fibrous, and yellowish ; the tough fibers dull 
yellow-brown. The possible connneiTial use of this wood is yet to be deter- 
mined ; if of any considerable importance it is likely to be for paper pulp. 

Longevity. — Thei'e is no way of determining the age of palms, since there are 
no annual rings to count as in other trees. The age this species attains can 
therefore be given only approximately. Two very large Washington palms in 
San Pedro street, Los Angeles, Cal., supposed to have been planted there by 
Jesuits, are possibly 200 years old. They are about 3 feet in diameter and 
said to be 90 or 100 feet high. 

No arborescent plant is more popular than this for ornamental planting in 
the dry Southwest, and none better able to thrive and to grow rapidly where 
few other trees succeed without irrigation. Its many long, very strong roots 
descend to great depths. As a tree for clothing desert canyons and contiguous 
slopes, even if only an open forest can be secured, it is likely to be of no small 
importance. 

RANGE. 

Colorado Desert in southern California in central Riverside and San Diego counties 
and in canyons of south side of San Bernardino and east side of San Jacinto Mountains 
and of coast ranges farther south. South, in eastern part of Lower California, at least 
as far as southern end of Mount San Pedro Martir (lat. 30° .SO'). In general from sea 
level to 2,000 feet. 

Californi.\. — Confined to northern and western borders of Salton Sink and its 
northwestern extension. At base of foothills of south side of eastern range of San 
Bernardino Mountains east to Indio (T. 1 to 5 S., R. 5 to 8 E). Locally noted a few- 
miles north of Southern Pacific Railroad between Indio and Seven Palms. Northwestern 
limit Whitewater Canyon, in San Bernardino Mountains (lat. .34°, long. 116° 40'), which 
it ascends to 1,126 feet. San Jacinto Mountains locally noted Palm Canyon near Agua 
Caliente 10 miles south of Southern Pacific Railroad at Seven Palms at 500 feet and up, 
one tree in Andreas Canyon nearly at 800 feet, Dos Palmos Spring (T. 6 S., R. 5 E.), 
Thousand Palms Canyon (T. 9 S.. R. 5 E.t, Seventeen Palms (T. 10 S., R. 18 E.), and 
Palm Canyon north of San Ysidro Mountains (T. 10 S., R. 5 E.). Farther south, 
extending well up into most canyons of east side of Coast Mountains; not in canyon 
through which San Diego wagon road passes 5 miles north of Mexican boundary. 
Eastward a few trees follow line of old outlets of Salton Sea south into Lower 
California. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Margins of the inland Colorado Desert sea bed and low desert mountain canyons, in 
wet, sand.v, alkali soil (border of sea bedi, and moist, rocky, sandy ground (canyons). 
Forms open, extensive pure stands, with frequent rather dense groups, or is widely 
scattered ; sometimes interspersed with occasional cottonwood, and in southern range 
with mesquite, yuccas, cacti, mescal, and creosote bushes. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of Joshua tree. 

Tolerance. — Appears capable of enduring much shade In youth, but later grows in full, 
strong light. 

Reproduction. — Very abundant seeder. Reproduction plentiful, yet less frequent in 
some places, probably because large quantities of seed are collected by Indians. 

Family LILIACEJE. 

The trees belonging to this family differ from the palm included here in hav- 
ing large lily-like flowers and a capsule-like many-seeded fruit, instead of a 
berry-like one-seeded fruit. They differ from tree palms also in being branched 
to some extent when mature. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 201 

YUCCA. YUCCAS. 

The tree yuccas are characterized by their l)ristliug, stiff, upright, baj'onet-like, 
sharp-pointed leaves, which are thickly clustered at the top of the unbrauched 
joung trunk or at the ends of the few large club-like branches of old trees. 
The edtjes of the leaves of different species are either smooth (unbroken), rough 
with minute teeth, or with a few thread-like fibers. Toward their ends the 
edges of the leaves are often conspicuously rolled or turned toward each other 
(on the upper side), giving the top end of the leaf a trough-like form. The 
leaves of each season's growth remain green for several yeai's ; later they begin 
slowly to bend down, close to the trunk or branch, and finally they die and 
within a few years fall from the tree. Bark of the tree yuccas is rather thick 
and cork-like, and furrowed and checked as in ordinary trees. The large wax- 
like showy flowers are perfect (male and female organs in same flower), and 
appear in big branched clusters from among the topmost leaves. AVith one ex- 
ception (Y. aloifolia, which is self-fertilized), they are so constituted that they 
can be cross-fertilized only through the visits of in.sects (moths). The fruit (of 
Pacific species), matured in one season, resembles a small cucumber in form 
(about 3 to 4 inches long; fig. 81), or in some species a large butternut of the 
same dimensions (fig. 79). In some species it stands erect on the flowering 
branches ; in others, it hangs down. It is indistinctly G-sided with (> separate 
cells, each containing numerous thin, flat, black seeds. The fruit may have a 
thin, fleshy, outer covering, which dries upon the shell when the seed chambers 
do not open of their own accord, or it may consist of a stiff, brittle shell, some- 
times tending to split open at the top, but usually remaining closed. Such fruits 
fall from the tree in a dry and brittle condition and are carried some dis- 
tance from the parent tree by wind or water. Finally they are broken open 
and the seeds scattered. Large quantities of yucca seeds are eaten by rodents. 
Birds, which feed on the fleshy fruit covering, also assist in distributing the 
seed. Many seeds are blighted by insects (moths), to the attacks of which 
flowers and fruits of yuccas are especially subject, but upon which the flowers 
depend entirely for fertilization. 

The tough, fiber-like wood of yuccas is of little commercial value at present, 
but should be useful for paper pulp. The tree merits the forester's attention as 
a means of helping to maintain much-needed tree growth in arid southwestern 
plains and foothills. 

Two tree species occur within the Pacific region, and here only in southern 
California ; elsewhere they range eastward into the southern Rocky Mountain 
region and northward, one extending into Lower California. The yuccas are of 
ancient origin, remains of them h.'.ving been found in the Tertiary period. 

Joshua Tree. 

Yucca arhorencviis (Torr.) Trelease. 

DISTINGUISHIiNG CHARACTERISTICS. 

Of the two tree yuccas indigenous in the Pacific region the Joshua tree, also 
called "yucca cactus," is much the larger and more tree-like (fig. 79). From 
18 to 25 feet, or occasionally 30 or 35 feet, is the usual height, with a diameter 
of from 1 to 2 feet. It is easily the most wild-looking denizen of desert hills and 
i)lains. The keenly pointed bayonet-like leaves, bristling at the ends of big 
<lunisy branches, defy every intrusion and compel respect from many natur.nl 
enemies. Young trees are uubranched (fig. 80, a) until they have produced flow- 



202 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



ers, which is commonly at a height of from 8 to 12 feet. Usually two branches 
are then formed at the top of the single stem and, in succession, each of these 
forms two or more, until a broad, low-branched crown results at maturity. When 
from 3 to 6 feet high the trunks are often set with bristling leaves down to the 




Fig. 79. — Yucca arhorescens : a, leaves; b, fruit; c, sections of fruit; d, seed. 



ground (fig. 80, a). No living thing intrudes upon the ground they occupy. 
The topmost leaves are upright in position, but as the stem increases in height 
the first leaves grown begin, during about their second year, to droop, finally 
dying and becoming closely pressed down upon the trunk in a thatch-like cover. 




I 



15188—08. (To face 







Ui tlnil Ij f t 1 1 



I'-ISS — Ob (To face iMgc -U- ) 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 203 

Trunks 10 feet high may be entirely covered. Gradually these dead, but always 
stiff and prickly, leaves are forced off at the base of the trunk by the growth of 
the trunk and by wind, uncovering an ashy, gray, cross-checked and ridged 
bark. Except on old trees, the greater part of the tree is covered with dead, 
closely thatched leaves. This covering of formidable living and dead leaves 
suggests a wise protective measure through which alone the tree is jible to 
maintain and extend itself, with little check from its enemies, in a region often 
lacking in other vegetation. The bluish-green leaves (fig. 80, c) are from 6 to 
about 10 inches long and about five-eighths of an inch wide ; longer leaves occur 
on young trees. Leaves taper gradually from just above the base (li inches 
wide) to the point. The upper half is concave, tapering to a long, keen, red- 
dish or blackish brown point; the lower half of the leaf is flat or only slightly 
concave, while the two edges have minute teeth throughout. A single stiff, 
branched cluster (about 15 inches long) of rather fetid flowers grows from the 
end of the crown branches. The fruit (fig. 79, h), usually matured early in June, 
is borne on short stems, at first standing more or less erect, but after maturity 
somewhat drooping or bent down. The fruit covering is dry and soft. It rarely 
opens of its own accord, but when very dry and brittle it is blown or falls from 
the tree, and later is blown about and broken open by the wind and its seed 
scattered. The six chambers of the fruit are filled with flat, jet-black seeds 
(fig. 79, c, d). Wood rather soft and light (when dry), but tough on account 
of its strong fibers ; pale yellowish white. Further investigation may estab- 
lish its permanent usefulness for paper pulp, for which it is suitable." 

Longevity. — Nothing can be said definitely of the age to which this tree 
attains. It is very probable that an individual lives at least 100 to 200 years, 
and there seems little doubt that these trees may live 200 to 300 years. The 
growth appears to be very slow in both height and diameter, but very persistent. 
Its l)ig, strong roots descend to great depths, giving the trees firm anchorage. It 
is frequently bent and bowed, but few trees succumb to storm, and not often to 
fire, which does not burn tlieir stiff, hard leaves as readily as in the case of the 
thinner and more inflammable leaves or " thatch " palm trunks. 

KANGE. 

Southwestern Utah to the western and northern rim of the Mohave Desert in 
California. 

OCCtJBBENCE. 

Arid, desert plains and valleys, lower mountain slopes, benches, and plateaus, in dry, 
sandy and gravelly soils. Forms large pure, open or rather close stands ; sometimes 
much scattered singly and in groups and with California juniper and single-leaf and 
Sabine pines. Low, scanty growths of cactus and other desert shrubs occur with the 
yucca. 

Climatic Conditio.ns. — Similar to those of California juniper (witli probably higher 
temperature). 

Tolerance and Reprodictiox. — T'ndeterminod. 

Mohave Yucca. 
Yucca moharenxis Sargent. 
DISTIKGUISIIIXG CHARACTERISTICS. 

The Mohave yucca has been known for about fifty yeai-s, but tmtil about 
eleven years ago it had been confounded with two other species, from which it 
is now known to be distinct. Since its most extensive and characteristic growth 
is found on the Mohave Desert, the common name here coined for it seems mare 

" Considerable local use of the wood has recently been made for physician's splints. 
The logs are pared into thin sheets. 



204 



FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



appropriate aud distinctive than the usual name of " Spanish dagger," which 
is used for several other yuccas, some of which occur in the same range. It 
is a low species, chietly under 10 or 12 feet in height, not often branched, and 
then with only a few stout limbs. The trunk is seldom over 10 inches in diame- 
ter and where freed from dead leaves the cross-checked and furrowed bark 




Fig. 81.— Yucca mohavensi^: a, base of leaf; b, point of leaf; c, fruit; d, seed. 



is dark umber brown. The general aspect of the tree and the habit of its 
green and dead leaves are somewhat similar to those of the Joshua tree. Dis- 
tinctive characters are found in the length and form of the dagger-like leaves 
and of the fruit. The yellowish green leaves, from 16 to 24 inches long, have 
bases (iig. 81, a) about 3 inches wide, from which the blade is suddenly nar- 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 205 

rowed to about three-fourtbs of an inch, gradually increaf»lng in width, toward 
and above the middle, to about 1 or If inches ; then tapering, to a stiff sharp 
point (fig. 81, b). The blade is thin and the edges are strongly curled or rolled 
from above the middle to the point. The edges are, moreover, conspicuously 
marked with thread-like fibers, which are frayed from the borders as the leaf 
grows older. A single branched cluster (about 14 to IG inches long) of flowers 
is borne from among the uppermost green leaves. The pulpy, sweetish fruit 
(fig. 81, c), ripened late in August or early in September, is on a slender droop- 
ing stem. It is 3* or 4 inches long, blunt at the ends, the top end having a short 
thick point. The flat seeds, packed in 6 chambers of the fruit, are black (fig. 
81, d). Wood: Nothing can now be said of the wood of this yucca, except that 
it is lighter and somewhat softer than that of the Joshua tree. 

Longevity. — No definite statement can be made concerning the age limit of 
this yucca, which, however, can hardly be less long-lived than the Joshua tree. 
Messrs. C. R. Orcutt and S. B. Parish, who know the tree yuccas from long 
observation, both inform the writer that the Mohave yucca is an exceedingly 
persistent but very slow grower in its native habitat, scarcely any change having 
been perceived in trees under observation for the last twenty-five years. 

KANGt:. 

From northeastern Arizona and southern Nevada across the Mohave Desert into Cali- 
fornia, and from the southern base of the San Bernardino Mountains to the coast r.nd 
northward to Monterey, sometimes ascending mountain slopes to 4,000 feet 

OCCUBBENCE. 
Similar to Joshua tree. 

DICOTYLEDONES. 

The trees of the great dicotyledonous class are so called because the germi- 
nating seeds produce two seed-leaves, or cotyledons. They have broad leaves, 
with a central vein and a network of smaller connected veins. They are further 
characterized by having the non-resinous wood of their trunks in annual layers, 
which appear as concentric rings on a cross-section of the trunk. Each layer is 
formed just beneath the living bark and over the layer produced the previous 
year. This mode of diameter growth gave rise in earlier days to the class name 
" exogens," or outside growers, in contradistinction to " endogens," or inside 
growers, a class name then given to the trees we now more generally call " mono- 
cotyledones." The two terms, " endogens " and " exogens," originated when 
knowledge of how members of the two classes grow was incomplete. Later 
studies show that the term " exogens " is still correctly applicable to all dico- 
tyledonous trees, but that the term " endogens " does not express the manner in 
which monocotyledones actually make their diameter growth. Monocotyle- 
dones were once thought to increase in diameter by the addition, each year, of 
scattered woody fibers at the center or pith of the tree, thus gradually crowding 
the woody tissue previously formed to the outside of the trunk. In other words, 
the outside of the trunk was believed to have once occupied the center of the 
stem. We now know, however, that these trees grow in diameter by laying on 
tissue outside of that formed the previous year, but not in a distinguishable 
layer as in dicotyledonous trees. Diameter growth of the gj'mnosperms (pines, 
spruces, firs, etc.) is produced in exactly the same way as in dicotyledonous 
trees, but the oleo-resinous woods of the former distinguish tbem from the latter 
class. It is true, indeed, that the wood of some of our broadleaf trees contains 
resinous matter, but it is not in any high degree oleo-resinous, as In gymno- 

15188—08 14 



206 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

sperms. Examples of broadleaf trees with resin in tlieir wood are the cherries, 
plums, acacias, mesquite, red gum (Liquidambar) , etc., in which the character 
of the resin is distinctly mucilaginous. 

Family JUGLANDACEiE. 

The distinctive characters of Juglandacefe are that male and female flowers 
are each borne on different parts of the same tree and that the fruit is a nut 
(1) with a firm pulpy covering which does not break open of its own accord 
(walnuts), or (2) with a firm woody covering which separates at maturity 
into 4 nearly distinct or partly connected, rind-like divisions (hickories). 
The single hard-shelled nut is usually soon liberated from the latter type 
of covering, but the undivided pulpy covering of the former type dries and 
adheres to its nut until rotted away by contact with the ground. The leaves 
of the trees representing this family occur singly and more or less distant from 
each other — never growing in pairs, one leaf exactly opposite its fellow, as in 
trees of some other families. A very important group of timber trees. 

JUGLANS. WALNUTS. 

The walnuts are a small group of trees very sparingly represented in the 
Pacific region. They are important forest ti"ees. some of them producing very 
handsome and exceedingly valuable lumber. Pungent aromatic odor is charac- 
teristic of leaves and other green parts when bruised, while the heartwood is a 
rich dark brown. Distinctive characters of the branches are the leaf-scars with 
3 groups of minute dots, and the partition-like structure of the pith (best seen 
by slicing a twig longitudinally). =The leaves, called compound because they dif- 
fer from the ordinarj' simple leaf (an apple leaf) in being made up of a single 
central stem from which grow from 5 to 11 pairs of pointed leaflets (each 
appearing like an ordinary leaf). By the suppression of one leaflet of the 
terminal pair, the number of leaflets may be odd. The flowers appear after the 
leaves. Male flowers (pollen bearing) are long, flexible, cord-like, pendent 
bodies, borne singly or in pairs from buds of branches grown the previous sea- 
son ; female flowers, which develop into fruit, are bud-like bodies boi-ne in small 
clusters at the ends of the new green shoots of the season, usually on the same 
branch as contains the male flowers. The fruit, a spherical nut (in Pacific 
representatives), is matured in the autumn of the first sea.son. Its firm, pulpy 
husk breaks up after maturity, but with no regular divisions. The heavy 
nuts are dependent for their distribution upon the agency of rodents, which 
bury many of them for their winter food, and upon floods, which often carry 
them long distances. 

One only of the four species indigenous to the United States occurs in the 
Pacific region and it is confined to western California. Other representatives 
of the genus are world-wide in their distribution. 

The walnuts are of ancient origin. Remains of numerous ancient species, once 
common in Europe but now extinct, have been found in the Cretaceous and Ter- 
tiary formations, while in the northern Pacific coast region signs of ancient 
walnuts have been obtained from the Eocene formation, as well as fi-om gold- 
bearing gravel beds of the California Sierras. No living representatives are 
found in these regions now. 

California Walnut. 
Juglans californica Watson. 
DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 
Though it ranges in size from a shrub to a tree 50 feet high and from 8 to 
15 inches in diameter, California walnut is usually a low, wide-crowned tree 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



207 



from 12 to 20 feet high. The clear trunk is short, giving off big branches which 
curve upward, then down, often drooping nearly to the ground and forming a 
handsome dome-like crown. The bark of young trees and portions of the large 
branches is smooth and ashy white, while that of older trunks is blackish 




Fig. 82. — Jtiylans calif ornica: a, nut without hull. 



brown and rather deeply and sharply furrowed and ridged. The California 
species resembles the eastern black walnut sufficiently to suggest that tree to 
one familiar with it. The leaves (fig. 82), with from 9 to 17 leatlets, are light 
yellow-green and are smooth throughout when full grown; occasionally, how- 



208 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

ever, the leaflets may have minute clusters of tawny hairs underneath in the 
angles formed by the veins. The spherical fruit (fig. 82) is a thinly covered 
nut, with a very finely but perceptibly velvety surface. Divested of its thin 
husk, the hard-shelled nut, its two ends appearing to be pressed together, is 
indistinctly and irregularly grooved (fig. 82, a). 

Wood, rather heavy, dark brown, somewhat lighter-colored than that of the 
eastern tree, but similarly rich in color and grain. It is usually moderately 
coarse-grained, owing to the fact that it is mainly grown in the open. The tree 
is too poorly formed and usually too small to furnish wood of much com- 
mercial value except for local needs. When large enough for lumber it is 
useful as a cabinet wood on account of its handsome color and good working 
qualities. 

As a forest tree it can be of only secondary importance, serving with a num- 
ber of other riparian species in maintaining needful protective tree growth along 
streams. 

Longevity. — Few records of its age are available. It is a very rapid-growing 
tree in youth and gives evidence of being short-lived, probably not exceeding 
150 years. Trees from 12 to 15 inches in diameter are 13 to 17 years old, 
while one tree 154 inches through showed an age of 15 years. 

RANGE. 

California. — River courses of foothills and valleys of coast region usually 20 or 30 
miles from the sea, from Lower Sacramento River (noted 2 miles north of Shingle 
Springs, Eldorado County, at about 1,500 feet). Mount St. Helena (southern Lake 
County), vicinity of San Francisco and Monte Diablo (northwest base), south in coast 
ranges to south side of the Santa Ana (Orange County) and San Bernardino Mountains. 
Santa Barbara National Forest common at 800 to 4,000 feet ; in watersheds of Santa 
Maria, Santa Ynez, Santa Barbara, Ma till ja, Piru-Sespe, and Newhall rivers. Santa 
Monica Mountains and Puente Hills, near Los Angeles; frequent in foothills below 3,000 
feet ; less so on south slopes of San Gabriel and Santa Ana Mountains ; noted locally 
near Arroyo Seco west of I'asadena. San Bernardino Mountains south and west slopes 
up to 3,000 feet and occasionally at some distance from foot of mountains ; locally noted 
in Waterman Canyon at 2,000 feet. 

OCCUKKENCE. 

On margins of perpetual and intermittent streams and bottoms, usually in rather 
moist gravelly or sandy soil ; sometimes in dry situations. Much scattered or in small, 
straggling groups. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of California sycamore. 

Tolerance. — Intolerant of shade. 

Reproduction. — Seeding habits undetermined. Seedlings scarce. Much of seed eaten 
by rodents, and carried by flood waters to places unfavorable for germination. 

Family MYRICACEiE. 

The family characters of the trees of this group are thick, narrow, minutely 
resinous-dotted leaves, which grow from the branches in alternate positions 
(never in pairs, one leaf opposite the other), and the small berry-like fruit, 
coated with minute grains of white waxy matter. The male and female flowers 
are each borne either on different branches of the same tree or upon different 
trees. 

MYRICA. WAX MYRTLES. 

Wax myrtles are small trees (or shrub-like) with willow-like leathery leaves, 
the season's growth of which persists for about one year, when they begin to fall 
a few at a time. The crushed foliage and twigs exhale a resinous aromatic 
odor, somewhat perceptible even without bruising. The bud-like clusters of 
male and female flowers (of Pacific species) are each borne singly on different 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 209 

parts of the same tree and usually of the same branch, each at the base of a 
previous year's leaf, the female clusters above the larger, longer male clusters. 

The small, berry-like spherical fruit is ripened in autumn ; several close 
clusters of fruit may appear on leafless parts of the branch, the leaves of the 
previous year, present when the flowers open, having fallen. The surface of 
the berries is thickly coated with round grains of whitish waxy matter, which is 
an exudation. 

Though of no economic value on account of their small size, these shrubby 
trees are of some importance in forming with other species a protective cover. 
The western representative is likely to be especially useful for extension on 
exposed coast sands and low hills, situations to which all of the species are 
particularly adapted. 

The sole present importance of the genus is the production of the vegetable 
wax of commerce, which is obtained from the berries of two eastern species. 
Three tree species occur within the I'nitod States; two in the south Atlantic 
States, adjacent islands, and Gulf coast regions, and one in the Pacific coast 
country. A group of ancient origin, members of which once existed ou this 
continent in the Cretaceous period. 

California Myrtle. 

Myrica calif arnica Chamisso. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

California myrtle, also called " bayberry " and " wax myrtle." is mainly a 
bushy tree, from 8 to 20 feet high, sometimes under 5 feet, and from 3 to 6 
inches in diameter ; only very rarely from 25 to 30 feet high and from 8 to 12 
inches in diameter. Slender upright branches form a dense, narrow crown with 
rounded top, exposing a short, smooth, thin-barked trunk, the bark grayish brown 
externally and deep reddish brown within. The very dark green glossy leaves 
(figs. 8;i, 84), light yellowish green beneath and with numerous minute black 
specks, are thin but tough in texture. The extreme edges of the leaves are 
slightly curled toward the under surface. A slight aromatic odor is perceptible 
from the leaves. As a rule, the female flowers appear ou the upper part of a 
branch, below which the larger, longer clusters of male flowers are borne on a 
separate portion of the branch. Occasionally anomalous flower clusters, with 
both male and female flowers, occur between the upper and lower regular single- 
sex flowers, and some trees bear only, or mainly, male flowers. The clusters of 
berry-like nuts (fig. 84), maturing in September, are ashy white, the wax cover- 
ing of the berries, however, concealing the dull purple color beneath. The 
shells of the nuts are very thick and hard. Commonly some of the berries 
remain on the branches until spring, but most of them fall during winter. 
AVood, pale rose-red, heavy, hard, and stiff, the whitish sapwood being com- 
paratively thick. Of no economic value, but deserving protection and extension 
as a cover in the vicinity of the sea. 

Longevity. — Little is known concerning the longevity of this tree, which may 
Iiossibly reach an age of 100 years. Trees from to 10 inches in diameter are 
from 25 to 40 years old. 

RANGE. 

Pacific Coast region from Puget Sound, Washington, to near Santa Monica, Cal., never 
far from the sea. 



210 



rOKEST TKEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



OCCURRENCE. 



Sea coast dunes and low hill slopes and on streams in moist, pure or humous sand 
and in dryish, poor, gravelly soil. Occurs in clumps and dense patches of pure growth 
in open and in shade of swamp pine and live oak. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of swamp pine. 

Tolerance. — Very tolei-ant of shade. 

Reproduction. — Abundant seeder ; young plants frequent both in shade and open 
moist ground. 




Fig. 83. — Myrica califot-nica, young shoot. 

Family SALICACEiE. 

A large group of trees (and shrubs) comprising the well-known willows and 
poplars or aspens. The bark is characteristically bitter — especially so in the 
willows. The leaves, shed in early autumn, are borne alternately on the 
branches (never in pairs on opposite sides of the branch). Male and female 
flowers are each produced on different trees; seed is therefore borne only by 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



211 



female trees, the flowers of which are fertilized by insects (largely bees). 
The fruits, ripe in late spring as the leaves reach full size, are thin capsule- 
like bodies, many of which are produced in long tassel-like clusters; the cap- 
sules split open soon after maturity, liberating the minute seeds. The seeds 




Fig. 84. — Myrica californica. 



are provided with long, exceedingly flne, silky hairs, which permit the wind to 
carry them for very long distances. 

With some exceptions, they are moisture-loving trees and shrubs, which ac- 
counts for their prevalence along streams and bottoms. A remarkable charac- 



212 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

teristlc is their ability to grow readily from root or branch cuttings and to sprout 
vigorously and persistently from cut stumps of almost any age. 

SALIX. WILLOWS. 

The many trees (and shrubs) of the willow group are at once distinguished 
by the quinine-like bitter taste of their bark, which is harmless. Their decidu- 
ous leaves, variable in form, are most frequently long and narrowly pointed, 
smooth throughout, or coated with fine silky hairs on their under surfaces ; 
their margins may be entire (uncut) or variously toothed. They grow singly 
on the branches at points alternating with each other on different sides of the 
branches (never in pairs, one opposite the other on two sides of the branch). 
Willow leaves are peculiar in having a pair of ear-shaped, minute or large, leaf- 
like growths at the base of their stems. These are larger and therefore more 
conspicuous on vigorous annual shoots, on which they may remain until they 
fall with the leaves, while on other stems they are present only during the 
early growth of the leaves. The leaves may fall in the autumn without much 
change of color, or they may first turn a lemon yellow. Leaf-scars (left by the 
falling leaves) are mai-ked by three minute dots (fibro-vascular bundles severed 
by the parting of the leaf stem). The fruit and seed are sufficiently described 
under the family (Salicaceae). 

Annual sprouts of willows are exceedingly strong and withy, while older 
branches from the crown are often peculiarly frangible ; twigs are notably 
frangible where they join a larger branch or fork. A frequent habit of growth 
among willows is to produce several trunks from a single greatly extended root- 
stock, while some species regularly have single, isolated trunks. Species of the 
latter form have been readily admitted to be trees. Those forming clusters of 
very large trunks have, on the other hand, been denied this rank for some time, 
even though the trunks were otherwise tree-like. For practical purposes, how- 
ever, they certainly are trees. A striking and valuable cultural feature of the 
willows is their remarkable vitality, which enables them to grow persistently 
from cut stumps and easily from pieces of branches or roots. Through this qual- 
ity some of the foreign willow trees have been pollarded for centuries, the shoots 
being used for coarse baskets and other economic purposes. 

The willows are swamp or moist-ground species, finding their habitat from 
sea level to an elevation of 10,000 or more feet. 

Willow wood is soft, light, usually brittle but firm, commonly pale brown, 
tinged with red ; the heartwood of some species is very durable when exposed 
to water or earth. It has various minor economic uses, especially for cricket 
and ball bats and for ginipowder and charcoal. The greatest commercial use- 
fulness of willows appears to have come mainly through the manufacture of 
baskets and furnitui'e from shoots or rods produced in one season. Some of 
the tree willows produce moderately large, clear trunks, which would yield 
lumber, but as a rule their boles are of poor form for saw timber. Except in 
generally forestless regions, where willows and their allies, the cottonwoods, 
become useful because no other trees are available, these trees have little to 
commend them in comparison with many other trees of demonstrated value. 
They are, however, distinctly important to the forester for binding shifting 
sands and for holding banks of streams in soft bottoms where serious ruin of 
agricultural lands may result from the erosion of unprotected banks. 

Tree willows attain their mature growth in comparatively few years — 50 to 
150 years — after which the trunks become hollow, may gradually show signs 
of decay, and are easily broken by storm. Their tenacious vitality, however, 
permits them to grow for centuries, repairing or replacing broken trunks by 
new stem or root sprouts. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 213 

Approximately 75 species occur on this continent, while about 20 are trees, 
13 of which inhabit the Pacific region, into which one extends from the Atlan- 
tic States. The willows are of very ancient origin. Remains of them exist in 
the Cretaceous formations of our Middle West, while willows appear to have 
flourished extensively on this continent and in Europe during the Miocene 
period. 

With few exceptions the various species of willows, which, as a class, are 
nearly always distinguished as willows from other trees and shrubs by laymen, 
are exceedingly difficult to identify, especially before they become trees. When 
they have attained tree size most of the important ones can be distinguished 
by a careful study of their mature leaves, bark, twigs, and habit of growth. 
But individual trees are likely to be found which will baffle attempts at identi- 
fication without a close examination of the minute characters of the male and 
female flowers and the tiny seed capsules, all consideration of which is here 
omitted. Such an examination i-e(piires a strong magnifying lens and a good 
knowledge of plant morphology. 

Black Willow. 

Salix nigra Marshall. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Black willow is the largest and most widely known of our tree willows, but 
much less abundantly represented in the Pacific country than in its eastern 
range. It is more distinctly a tree throughout its range than almost any of our 
other tree willows, and for this reason it is probably the mo?t commonly recog- 
nized. Several trunks grow close together. Its usual size is from 25 to 50 feet 
in height and- from 10 to 20 inches in diameter. Trees from 60 to 80 feet high 
and from 2 to 3 feet in diameter are of rather rare occurrence. The trunks 
(rarely straight) are usually somewhat bowed and leaning, but are clear of 
branches for a third or a half of their length in the open, and for two-thirds of 
it in close stands. The branches trend somewhat upward, forming a wide, 
round-topped, open crown. Hough, furrowed, blackish-brown bark, with wide, 
thick-scaled ridges and narrower connecting ridges, is a marked character. 
The slender, drooping branchlets are very easily snapped off at their bases. 
The leaves — very variable in size and form — from straight to scythe-like (figs. 
85, 86), are from 2J to 5 or sometimes 6 inches long, and pale yellow-green. 
They may be somewhat shiny above and smooth beneath, or minutely hairy on 
the veins of the under surface. Wood, pale red-brown, light and soft, rather 
fine-grained, but firm. It has little or no actual or possible economic value, 
except for fuel and charcoal. 

Longevity. — Not much is known of its age limits, which in trees from 12 to 
18 inches in diameter are from 35 to 60 years. Occasional large trees are esti- 
mated to be from 125 to 150 years old. Further study of its longevity is 
required. 

RANGE, 

New Brunswick to southern Florida and west to eastern Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, 
Indian Territory, southern Arizona, southern and central California, and south into 
Mexico. 

California.^ — Western foothills of Sierras, San .Toaquin and Sacramento valleys, north 
to eastern foothills of coast ranges in Colusa County, and south through southern cross 
ranges. 



214 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



The detailed range of this species east of the Pacific region will be given in a 
future publication. 




Fig. 85. — Salix nigra, seed-bearing branch. 

OCCUKBENCE, 

On borders of streams, and on low flats, in humus-covered wet or moist gravelly and 
sandy soils. Forms strips and small patches of pure growth, and grows with other 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



215 



willows ; rather uncommon in Pacific region. Climatic conditions marked by moderate 
temperature, which probably accounts for its rarity in this region. Decidedly intolerant 




Fig. 86. — Sali-x nipra: a, male flowers. 



throughout life. Abundant seeder (over greater part of range) ; reproduction best on 
wet humus or sand. 



216 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Almond Willow. 
Salix amygdaloides Andersson. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

This willow, also called "peach willow" (from a resemblance of its leaves 
to those of the peach), produces one straight, or sometimes leaning, trunk. 




Fig. 87.— Salix amygdaloidcs: a, male flowers; h, seed-bearing branch. 

(Verj- rarely several clustered stems.) Its upright branches are peculiarly 
straight forming a rather compact, round head. Ordinarily it is from 20 to 30 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 217 

feet high and from 8 to 12 inches in diameter ; occasionally from 40 to 50 feet 
high, and from 16 to 18 inches in diameter. Bark, very pale reddish brown, 
about half an inch thick, rather deeply furrowed, the wide ridges thick-scaled 
-and connected by narrower ones. The straight, slender, shiny, red to orange- 
brown twigs are tough and can not readily be broken off where they join a 
branch. On their upper sides the thin leaves (fig. 87) are shiny, light yellow- 
green ; on their under surfaces, very pale or whitish, but smooth ; the minute 
teeth on the borders have gland-like points. The prominent mid-veins and 
their branches are conspicuously light to dark yellow. Wood, pale yellow- 
brown, light in weight, soft, brittle, and fine-grained. It has no economic value 
or commercial uses. Very probably this species, not yet tested under cultiva- 
tion, will prove to be a good basket willow. The straight, slender annual shoots 
are tough and resemble in character and appearance the true almond willow 
(Salix amyydaUna) , which furnishes a standard basket rod. 

Longevity.— Little is known of the age limits. The tree grows rapidly in 
diameter during 25 to 30 years. * Trees from 7 to 10 inches in diameter are 
from 20 to 35 years old. Probably attains maturity in from 40 to 50 years. 

BANGE. 

Quebec (near Montreal) and New York (Cayuga County) to the upper Saskatchewan; 
southward to Ohio and Missouri, and westward in the Plains region to the Kocky Moun- 
tains, where it ranges from southwestern Texas to Oregon, Washington, Hritish Columbia. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Borders of perpetual and intermittenl streams, in rocky or gravelly soil. Climatic con- 
ditions, silvlcal characteristics, etc., undetermined. 

Sm.ooth Willow. 

Salix lavigata Bebb. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

For want of a distinctive current common name " smooth willow " is here 
coined from the technical name. Smooth willow is known in its range only as 
*' black willow," from the roughly furrowed, very dark reddish brown bark, the 
ridges of which are firm, narrow and connected by still narrower lateral ones ; 
bark of the large dark brown limbs is also seamed. Commonly with one straight 
stem from 15 to 25 feet high (the clear portion short) and from 6 to 10 inches 
in diameter ; sometimes 30 or 35 feet high and a foot in diameter — rarely larger. 
The slim branches form a somewhat irregular, broad, round-topped crown. Full 
grown twigs are very slender, smooth, and clear reddish yellow to reddish 
brown. The distinctly deep bluish green leaves (fig. 88)" are smooth through- 
out, shiny on their upper surface and whitish beneath, about 3i to Oi inches 
long (sometimes IJ inches wide) and with conspicuous yellow mid-vein.s, 
branches of which are clearly seen on the top side of the leaf — less evident 
beneath. Leaf stems, wide, channeled, very minutely and sparingly hairy. 

Wood, pale reddish brown. Not used for commercial purposes. 

" Variety Sialix Icrvipata auqustifolia Robb is a form with narrow scythe-shaped leaves 
with rounded bases: while the variety ^'. Ucvifjuta conr/csta was distinguished by the 
same author by its short dense flower clusters and the spherical, cone-shaped, very short- 
stemmed seed capsules. 



218 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



Longevity. — Age limit undetermined. Grows rapidly in height and diameter 
during first 25 years and appears to be short-lived. Trees from 10 to 14 inches 
in diameter are from 28 to 40 years old. 




Fig 88. — Salia- Iwvigata: a, seed-bearing branch. 

EANGE. 

California '(Siskiyou County to the soutliern boundary of the State). At middle el* 
vations in coast mountains and Sierras. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 219 

OCCUERENCE. 

Confined to wet borders of mountain and lower streams, in gravel and sand. Forme 
clumps and patches, often mixed with Bigelow willow and white alder. Climatic and 
Other requirements undetermined. 

Western Black Willow. 

Salix lasiandra Bentham, 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Western black willow, like the preceding species, is known throughout its 
range simply as " black willow," on account of the color of its bark. The 
bark is distinctly cut by cross-seams into flat plates longer than they are wide. 
The form of its leaves and twigs affords the principal means of distinction. 
Ordinarily it is 25 or 30 feet high and from 14 to 20 inches in diameter; some- ' 
times from 40 to 50 feet high and from 24 to 30 inches through ; in some parts 
of its range, often a bushy tree under 10 feet high. The clear trunk, rarely 
straight, is short, and the long, straight limbs grow upright, producing an open, 
unsymmetrical crown. The mature twigs are rather large, and clear reddish 
yellow to brown. The leaves (fig. 89), deep yellow green at maturity and 
about 4^ to 5 inches long, are shiny on their upper surface, whitish beneath, 
the large mid-veins reddish yellow and the leaf stems, with two or more black- 
ish spots (glands) at their juncture with the leaf blade, smooth or slightly 
and minutely hairy. As a rule the largest leaves are produced at the ends 
of the branches, apparently on account of the more vigorous growth there. 

RANGE. 

California (west of the Sierra Nevada) ; western Oregon, Washington, and southern 
British Columbia (Selkirk Mountains) at middle elevations. 

OCCtTRRENCE. 

Borders of streams, water-holes, and lakes, in damp, gravelly, and sandy soil. Scat- 
tered in small groups and singly ; sometimes with red and white alders, black and 
Fremont cottonwoods, and California sycamore. Climatic and other requirements unde- 
termined. 

A well-marked variety of this willow is the Lyall willow (Salix lasiandra 
lyalliia Sargent), often from 20 to 30 inches in diameter; common on streams 
of western Oregon and Washington. Its leaves (fig. 90) are sometimes 10 or 12 
inches long, and distinctly white beneath, while the leaf stems have more 
glands than those of the Western black willow. Another less distinct form is 
Salix lasiandra caudata (Xutt.) Sudworth, which has smaller, more leathery 
leaves than the species; they are also often scythe-shaped, tapering at the 
base, and green throughout. 

Salix lasiandra lyalUi occurs in western Oregon, Washington, and southern British 
Columbia at middle elevations. It grows on borders and bottoms of lowland streams and 
of those on lower mountain slopes, in moist, loamy .sand and gravel or humous, rocky, and 
gravelly soils of higher sites. Forms clusters in open pure stretches and patches, or 
Is scattered singly at higher levels among other inhabitants of stream banks. Appears 
Indifferent to altitude, but abundant soil moisture is a requisite. 

Climatic Conditions similar to those of red alder. 

Tolerance. — Endures considerable shade — probably one of the most tolerant of willows. 

Reprodcction. — Abundant seeder ; seedlings rather scattered, but frequent. 

" Described in 1842 by Nuttall as Salix spcciosa, from its large handsome leaves ; a 
name which, nnknown to that author, was unfortunately already assigned to another 
willow. 



220 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



Wood of Salix lasiandra and its varieties is pale brown and especially brittle. 

It is probable that the annual shoots of this willow, particularly of its variety 
lyallii, would, with training, prove to be good basket rods. They are worthy 
of trial in moist, sandy river bottoms. 




Sallx lasiandra. 



LoNGEMTY. — Probably reaches maturity within about 50 years. 
12 to 18 inches in diameter are from 30 to 47 years old. 



Trees from 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



221 




Fio. 90. — Salix lasiandra lyallii, three-fourths natural slee. 
15188—08 15 



222 



FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



Longleaf Willow. 
Salix fluviatilis Nuttall. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Longleaf willow is one of the most distinct of our tree willows ; it can readily 
be recognized by its long, very narrow leaves. Because it forms dense thicliets 




Pig. 91. — SaliiV fluviatilis. 

on river sand-bars, usually long before any other willow secures a footing there, 
it is widely known as " sand-bar willow." The more appropriate common name 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 223 

chosen here is derived from the technical name Salix longifolia, which was used 
for it until it was found to he antedated by S. fluviatilis. 

A slender tree under 25 feet in height, with a narrow, compact crown of short, 
slim, nearly upright branches ; sometimes from 40 to 50 feet high and from 18 to 20 
inches in diameter. A large part of the trunk is dear of branches. Over much 
of its range it is only a reed-like shrub growing in very dense thickets 6 or 8 
feet high. The closely scaly bark is very thin (usually less than one-fourth of 
an inch thick), and dark grayish brown, with a faint reddish tinge; smooth on 
small stems. Mature leaves (fig. 91) are pale yellowish-green, the under surface 
lighter than the upper, smooth on both surfaces, and from about 3 to 5 inches 
long. A variety of this species, Salix fluviatiU.s anjyrophyUa (Nutt.) Sargent, is 
distinguished by the dense coating of silky hairs on its leaves and seed capsules ; 
while another form, .S'. fluviatilin crigua (Nutt.) Sarg., is characterized by its 
very narrow leaves. If to 2f inches long by one-fourth to one-third of an inch 
broad. Both of these varieties range from northern California through the 
Southwest to Texas. ' 

Wood, pale reddish brown, light, firm, and rather elastic. It is of no economic 
value. 

The longleaf willow is one of the most useful of its kind for retaining moist 
sand bars and the erodable banks of streams which flow through rich bottoms. 
It forms the densest of pure thickets, and propagates itself largely by shoots 
from a mass of running roots, as well as by its seed, quickly occupying every 
available strip of moist sand. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. Stems from 2 to 3 inches in diameter are 
from 9 to 1-4 years old. 

RANGE. 

Quebec (Lake St. John and Island of Orleans i and southward through western New 
England to the Potomac River ; northwestward to the Arctic Circle (valley of Mackenzie 
River) and British Columbia and California ; southward in the Mississippi River basin 
to northern Mexico and Lower California. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Sand bars bordering lowland streams, ponds, and lakes, in moist or wet sand and 
gravel, overlaid with silt, which this willow's dense reed-like stems retain. Forms exten- 
sive pure thickets and patches, in which cottonwood is sometimes mingled. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of aspen at lower levels. 

Tolerance. — Very intolerant of shade. 

Reproduction. — ^exceedingly prolific seeder. Crowded masses of seedlings the first 
tree growth to hold wet bars and muddy shores. Strikingly even-aged stands character- 
istic of reproduction. 

Silverleaf Willow. 

Halix sessilifolia Nuttall. 
DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Silverleaf willow is generally known only by the name of "willow." In gen- 
eral appearance, and in the form of its leaves, it closely resembles longleaf wil- 
low, particularly the variety aroi/roplnjlla. It is sometimes 20 or 25 feet high 
and from 8 to 10 inches through, but usually it is a slender shrub from G to 10 
feet high. The grayish-brown bark of larger trunks is from one-third to one- 
half an inch thick, with irregular shallow seams. Mature leaves (fig. 92), about 
2 to 4^ inches long by about one-fourth to one-third of an inch wide, sometimes 
narrower, are light pea-green, smooth or minutely hairy on the upper side, and 
with white, silky hairs beneath. Midveins of the leaves, lemon yellow, and the 
short thick stems minutely hairy. 

The distinctive characters of this willow are not fully worked out. Many 
forms of it so closely resemble S. fluviatiUs argj/rophyUa, with which it may 
occur, that they can bo distinguished only with great difficulty. Further careful 
field study is required for both. 



224 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



Wood, pale reddish brown. Not used commercially. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. Stems from 6 to 9 inches in diameter are 
24 to 37 years old. 




Fig. 92. — Salix sessilifolia: a, seed-bearing branch. 

RANGE. 

From mouth of Columbia River, Washington, to southwestern California, ranging 
through western Oregon and western slopes of Sierras and coast ranges. 

OCCUREENCE. 

Borders of streams and moist depressions. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 225 

Mackenzie Willow. 

Salix cordata mackenzieana Hooker. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Mackenzie willow is a little-known species, probably not now distinguished by 
laymen. Slender, straight, from 15 to 18 feet high and from 3 to 5 inches in 




a. FT V;;-.^ 

Fig. 9.3. — Salix cordata mackenzieana: a, fruiting Itranch ; 6, seed pod, enlarged. 

diameter, with tliin, smootli, unbroken i)ark of an ashy gray color, and a narrow, 
rather compact crown of thiu branches which grow upward. Mature twigs of 



226 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

the year are rather slender, but stiff in appearance, shiny yellow, later becoming 
greenish. Mature leaves (fig. 93), from If to 3i inches long, are deep yellow- 
green (paler beneath), smooth on both surfaces; the somewhat scythe-shaped 
form of the leaves is a notable character. ^lidveins and stems of the leaves 
are yellow. Wood, reddish brown, light, soft, and brittle. 

Lo^-GE\^TY. — Not fully determined. Stems from 3 to 5 inches through are 
from 13 to 22 years old. 



Great Slave Lake and southward (through region along eastern base of Rocky Moun- 
tains) to northern Idaho and California (Lake County). 

OCCURRENCE. 

Borders of mountain streams in rocky and gravelly soil. Climatic and other require- 
ments undetermined. 

White Willow. 
Salix lasiolepis " Bentham. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

The white willow, so calletl on account of the smooth ashy gray bark (with 
brownish tinge) of young trunks and limbs of older trees, varies in size from a 
cluster of low shoots (at high elevations) to a tree from 15 to 2.5 feet in height 
(at low elevations) with a diameter of from G to 10 inches. Very exceptionally 
it is from 30 to 40 feet high and a foot or more in diameter. The slim branches 
trend upward strongly in a rather narrow, irregular open crown. Bark of 
larger trunks is less than one-half an inch thick, shallowly seamed, the wide 
ridges connected here and there by smaller lateral ridges ; indistinctly dark 
brown or blackish with occasional grayish areas oh the flat ridges. Mature 
twigs of the season, rather thick, bear numerous leaves and are deep red-brown, 
tinged with yellow toward their extremities, where they are very minutely 
downy, but smooth lower down. Mature leaves (fig. 94), from 2i to about 5j 
inches long, are somewhat thick and leathery, with yellow stems and midveins, 
dark yellow-green and .smooth on their top sides, conspicuously silver-white 
beneath, where the midveins and terminal leaves are minutely hairy. Wood : 
Very little of the pale brown heartwood is formed, the main bulk of the trunk 
being sapwood. Not used commercially, but in the southern range at a low 
altitude, where fuel timber is scarce, it is locally used for fuel. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. Stems from 5 to 9 inches in diameter 
are from 12 to 22 years old. 



Northern California (Klamath River) and southward through the western part of the 
State to Lower California and southern Arizona (Tanners Canyon on Huachuca Moun- 
tains, and White River Canyon on Chiricahua Mountains). 

" There is doubt, which can not be cleared up at present, as to whether this name is 
older than SalLr bigelovii Torrey, supposed to have been published in 18.56 or January, 
1857, while S. lasiolepis Bentham appeared in February, 1857. Torrey, however, cites 
other species of Salix described and published by Bentham with his aS". lasiolepis, and 
this seems to show conclusively that the latter's name was actually published before 
Torrey's S. bigelovii, notwithstanding the printed earlier date of the document containing 
Torrey's name of this willow. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



227 



OCCUBEENCE. 

Borders of lowland streams and adjacent bottoms (as a tree), and lower mountain 
slopes in springy places and on streams (shrubby), In moist sandy and gravelly soil. 
Scattered and in small groups witti California sycamore and wliite alder. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of white alder. 




Fig. 94. — Salix lasiolepu. 



228 FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Nuttall Willow. 
Salix nuttallii Sargent. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Nuttall willow, so called here for the sake of a distinctive common name, is 
mainly known as " black willow," and to some extent, because of its high moun- 




FiG. 95. — Salix nuttallU. 

tain habitat, as " mountain willow." It has a single straight trunk, and when 
grown in the open its long, slim branches droop in a somewhat close, long, 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 229 

doaie-like crown ; the clear trunk is very short, even in dense stands. Its usual 
height is from 20 to 25 feet, and its smooth, thin-harked, dark ashy brown trunks 
are from G to 8 inches in diameter. Bark on the bases of large trunks is irregu- 
larly broken into wide ridges and is blackish brown, with a faint tinge of red. 
The red tinge is evident also on smoother parts of the trunk. Twigs of one or 
two season's growth are thick, clear reddish yellow, becoming a deep mahogany 
brown with age. The form and texture of the mature leaves (fig. 9~j) serve 
generally to distinguish this willow from others associated with it. They are 
thin, somewhat shiny, smooth, and deep yellow-green on the top sides, pale or 
whitish beneath (sometimes very minutely hairy), about 2 to 5 inches long, 
margins slightly curled toward the under surface, and the prominent yellow 
midveins, as well as the stems, finely hairy. The Pacific coast form of this 
willow distinguished as Salix nuttallii hrachystachys (Benth.) Sargent, is gener- 
ally a larger tree than that occurring farther eastward, being from 40 to 50 feet 
in height and from 12 to 18 inches in diameter. It has a longer clear trunk, 
which is more commonly ashy gray, with whitish areas, and irregularly seamed ; 
the bark when broken shows clear red-brown. The general appearance of the 
trees and their foliage is, however, essentially the sajue; the female flower 
clusters only are shorter in the variety and frequently strongly curved. The 
coast tree is here considered only as a geographic form, inseparable, for the 
forester's purijoses, from the type growing farther inland. Wood (of the inland 
tree), pale reddish brown and of somewhat lighter weight than that of the 
coast tree, which is of a slightly more reddish color. The wood has no com- 
mercial or domestic value, for it grows where there are many other superior 
woods. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. Trees from 8 to 14 inches in diameter are 
from 25 to 48 years old. 



From southern Assiniboia and British Cohimbia (Columbia River near Ponald), Wash- 
ington, and Oregon southward in the Rockies to northern New Mexico and Arizona (San 
Francisco Mountain) ; California (Sierras and coast ranges to the San Bernardino 
Mountains). 

OCCTJEBENCE. 

Headwaters and upper courses of high mountain streams ; moist benches, depressions, 
and gentle slopes with damp, humous, rocky or gravelly soil ; abundant soil moisture and 
well-drained, situation essential. Occurs singly and in small groups, often with red 
alder and broadleaf maple. 

Cli.matic CoNDiTiuNs.— Similar to those of red and mountain alders. 

Tolerance. — Endures considerable shade. 

Reproduction. — Moderately abundant seeder. Seedlings frequent, but usually much 
scattered. 

Broadleaf "Willow. 

Salix umpJifolin Coville. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Broadleaf willow is a new and as yet little known willow discovered in 1899. 
The common name is coined from the technical name, which refers to a conspic- 
uous characteristic. Locally, the species is called " willow " only. As now 
known it is a shrubby tree from 20 to 25 feet high and from S to 12 inches in 



230 



FOKEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



diameter. Nothing is Ijnowu now of tlie trunk form, crown, bark, and wood, 
which need to be studied. Young twigs (fig. 96) are densely white-woolly, but 
in two or three years this covering goes off, and the dark red-purple bark is 
exposed. Mature leaves (fig. 97) are light yellowish-green, nearly or quite 




Fig. 96. — Salix amplifolia: a, male flowers; h, female flowers; c, seed-bearing branch. 



smooth on their top sides (sometimes slightly woolly) and whitish beneath; 
young and immature leaves are more or less densely white-woolly on both sur- 
faces, the wool gradually disappearing with age later in the season. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



231 



Alaska. — West shore of Yakutat Baj, near Hubbard Glacier in Disenchantment Bay 
and on Haenke Island and Egg Island and on the east shore at the head of Yakutat Bay. 



vVV 



/ 1 / 




Fig. 97. — Salix ampUfoUa. 

OCCUBBENCE, 

Near sea beaches on sand dunes. Scattered and with Alaska willow. 
Climatic Conditions. — Probably similar to those of black cottonwood ; little known 
now of requirements. 



232 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



Hooker Willo-w. 
Salix hookeriana Barratt in Hooker." 
DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 
The Hooker willow is not known by this name in its native habitat, but simply 




Fig. 98. — Salix hookeriana. 
as " willow." It varies from a sprawling shrub to a cluster of trunks from 12 

" This name is commonly credited to Hooker, who published it thus ; "Salix hookeriana 
Barratt mst." — Barratt having described and named the tree. Hooker obviously intended 



I 



FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 2t53 

to 18 feet high and from G to 10 inches in diameter ; rarely single trees are 25 or 
30 feet high. The thin, scaly bark is pale reddish-brown, and indistinctly and 
irregularly seamed. Mature twigs of the season are densely coated with whit- 
ish woolly hairs, a thinner covering of which remjiins during another year, 
showing the clear red-brown bark beneath. Mature leaves (fig. 98), 3 to 6 
inches long, clear, rather shiny, jellowish green and usually smooth on their 
top sides, except along the midyeins, which are hairy ; sometimes entirely cov- 
ered with a hairy coat, which is always present on young leaves. The under sur- 
face of the leaves has whitish, dense wool or minute, close hairs, particularly on 
the large midveins and their branches. 

Wood : A large proportion of the stem is heartwood, which is i)ale reddish- 
brown. Not used commercially. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. Stems from 4 to 7 inches in diameter are 
from 18 to 35 years old. 

RANGE. 

Vancouver Island to southern Oregon — coast region. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Commonly near tide-water streams, slouglis, ponds, and salt marshes, but also about 
other wet places, in sandy, gravelly, or mucky soil ; sometimes in dryish situations. Scat- 
tered singly and in groups. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of Sitka spruce. 

Tolerance. — Undetermined, but appears little tolerant of shade. 

Reproduction. — Abundant seeder. Young plants are frequent, especially in sand and 
muck. 

Silky "Willow. 

Salix sitchensis Sanson in Bongard. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Silky willow ordinarily has slender shrubby stems from 8 to 12 feet high. 
As a tree (rarely over 20 or 25 feet in height), it is greatly branched, with a 
crooked or variously bowed or leaning trunk from 8 to 10 inches in diameter. 
The thin, scaly bark is faintly reddish-brown. Mature twigs of the y^ar are 
deep reddish-yellow to reddish-brown, minutely hairy ; a season later they 
become nearly or quite smooth, but occasionally with a whitish coating. The 
leaves (figs. 99, 100), from 3 to 5 inches long, are clearly distinguished by their 
dense covering of shiny, white, silky hairs on their under surfaces, while on 
their top sides they are very deep grass-green, smooth, and shiny. The mid- 
veins, as well as the thick leaf-stems, are hairy. 

Wood : The heartwood, pale cherry red, forms only a small proportion of the 
stem. Not used commercially. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. Trees from 5 to 9 inches in diameter are 
from 10 to 30 years old. 

BANGE. 

Alaska (Cook InUt and Kodiak Island) to southern California (Santa Barbara — coast 
region^and up to higher timber belt in mountains) and east to Blue Mountains, Oregon. 

OCCURRENCE. 
Borders of streams, meadows, and moist depressions ; often in rich, mucky soil. 

it to be cited as Barratfs species, since no author would deliberately name a species in 
honor of himself, necessitating the citation of a patronymic from his name, and his name 
also as its author, side by side. 



234 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 




Fig. 99. — Salix sitchensis. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



235 




Fie. 100. — Salix sitchens 



236 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



Teltleaf Willow. 

Salix alaxensis (Anderss.) Coville. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Feltleaf willow, so called on accovint of the felt-like, woolly covering of its 

leaves, was known for over thirty years as a low shrub. It was only about 




Pig. 101. — Salix alaxensis: a, male flowers; b, seed-bearing branch. 



eight years ago that it was found to become a tree from 20 to 25 feet high and 
from 4 to 5 inches in diameter in protected situations. Little is yet known of 



FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 237 

its habit when of tree size, and nothing of tlie character and appearance of the 
barli and wood, concerning whicli further study is required. The yearling 
twigs are thicli and densely covered with wliite hairs (fig. 101) ; later the twigs 



• Fig. 102. — ^nlix alaxctisis. 

lose this covering, and the somewhat shiny, dark purple bark beneath is 
exposed. Mature leaves (fig. 102), yellowish-green, are rendered unique by 
being densely coated with pure white, shiuy hairs on their inuler surfaces, but 

15188—08 16 



238 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

smooth, and slightly wrinkled by the depression of the veins on their upper sides. 
The wide midvein is yellow. They vary in length from about 2i to 4 inches, 
and in width from 1 to li inches. The hairy seed capsules are borne in a pecu- 
liarly dense, cylindrical cluster, from 4 to 5 inches long, while the top of the 
capsules ends in a minutely double-forked, thread-like tip (tig. 101). 



Coast of Alaska, from Alexander Archipelago to Cape Lisbourne, and eastward to the 
valley of the Mackenzie River and to the shores of Coronation Gulf. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Little is known of its occurrence. Bay shores in newly deposited gravel (low shrub), 
and in gravel of older deposit (as a tree) among shrubs. Scattered, and sometimes with 
broadleaf willow. 

Climatic Conditions. — I'robably similar to those of black cottonwood. 

POPTJLUS. COTTONWOODS AND POPLARS. 

This large group includes the trees popularly known as aspens, poplars" or 
" popples," and cottonwoods. Several of them are very large forest trees, with 
rough, deeplj' furrowed, grayish bark ("cottonwoods"), or with smooth bark, 
little broken, and whitish or ashy (aspens). In their habits, their reproduction, 
and, to some extent, their foliage, they are closely related to the willows, with 
which they are most often associated. The leaves grow singly at alternate 
points on the branches, as in the willows. In outline, many of them are remotely 
triangular or egg-shaped, sometimes lance-shaped — very closely resembling the 
pointed-leafed willows ; the borders of the leaves either have small, hooked, 
blunt teeth or are entire (uncut), \yhen mature, thej- are most often smooth, 
on both surfaces, but occasional species have hairy or woolly leaves. The leaf 
stems of many species are flattened at right angles to the leaf blade, and this 
causes the leaves to tremble in the slighest breeze. The leaves, after turning 
yellow, fall from the trees in autumn, leaving prominent leaf scars which give 
the twigs a knotty appearance. The scaly buds of many species are character- 
ized by a covering of pungent, sticky resin. & which appears to have a protective 
use. Male and female flowers are each borne on separate '" trees ; only the female 
trees produce seed. Trees of the two sexes are unevenly distributed — fre- 
quently only one seed tree to many male or sterile trees ; sometimes they are 
very widely separated. The flowex's are fertilized by insects. With one or two 
exceptions (in female flowers), the flowers of each kind appear in long cylin- 
drical clusters, which hang down conspicuouslj' from the bases of buds on twigs 
of the previous year's growth. The seed-bearing flowers develop bud-like cap- 
sules (arranged on a pendent, thread-like stem) which are usually mature in 
early spring, before or by the time the leaves are full grown. Soon afterwards 
the capsules split open by from 2 to 4 divisions and liberate their minute, cot- 
tony seeds. These are provided with exceedingly fine, silky, white hairs, which 
render them Aery buoyant, so that the wind may bear them many miles from the 
parent trees. Of all trees, this group, together with the willows, is best 

'^ Liriodendron tiiUpifera L.. native of the East, more properly called tulip-tree, is often 
known as " poplar " or " yellow poplar." It is a member of the magnolia family and in 
no way related to the true poplars. 

'' The so-called " bee glue," with which honey bees fasten their honey combs in hives 
or in the hollows of trees, is gathered by bees from the buds of the cottonwoods. When 
hard, it is very strong. 

<" Sometimes one tree may produce clusters of male and of female flowers, or even 
clusters combining both male and female flowers, but this is exceptional. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 239 

equipped for effecting a wide distribution of its representatives by seeding. 
The lightness and abundance of poplar seed doubtless accounts for the ubiqui- 
tous i)resence of poplars wherever moist ground is available in all situations 
from sea level to nearly 10,000 feet elevation, but especially in cold, far northern 
regions. 

The wood of the poplars is light, soft, and straight-grained. The grain is 
commonly fine, but is often coarse as a result of the rapid diameter growth 
characteristic of these trees. Its color is from whitish to a light, sometimes 
yellowish, brown. The wood of most species is brittle, unstable, and indurable, 
but that of a number of them is nevertheless of great commercial value for 
lumber and paper pulp. Formerly poplar wood had no economic importance, 
but is now rapidly coming into wider and wider use, both for pulpwood and to 
take the place of other woods, the supply of which is decreasing. " Yellow pop- 
lar " (tulip-tree), which some of the poplars resemble in grain and in the ease 
with which they can be worked, is one of the woods for which the poplars supply 
substitutes. 

The poplars are important to the forester especially for maintaining tree 
growth on stream bottoms where few other trees naturally grow. They produce 
a forest cover and useful timber in from twenty-five to fifty years, while, like the 
willows, the ease and convenience with which they can be grown from root and 
branch cuttings and from cut stumps — even from stakes set in damp soil — 
renders artificial propagation particularly simple. They attain maturity in 
from 100 to 200 years, most of them within a century, and then begin to show 
signs of arrested growth, but on account of their gi'eat vitality and recuperative 
power some species may continue to grow for a much longer time, repairing 
broken truidvs and other injuries to which their brittle stems are subject. 

Ten i)oplars occur within the United States and adjacent Canadian territory, 
and 4 of these inhabit the Pacific region ; but 3 of the latter also extend far out- 
side the Pacific region, to the north and east. 

The poplars are of very ancient origin. Remains show that they existed 
among the earliest tree forms of the Lower Cretaceous period in Greenland, and 
that many different species inhabited the central portion of this continent in 
the same epoch, and existed also in the Tertiary and Miocene periods in this 
counti'y and in Europe. 

Aspen. 

Populus trontiloidcs Michaux. 
DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Aspen is the best known and most extensively distributed of our trees. Its 
conspicuously whitish, smooth, straight trunks and small, trembling leaves dis- 
tinguish it from its associates. It is from 60 to 80 feet high and from 14 to 20 
inches in diameter, more commonly from 30 to 40 feet high and from S to 12 
inches through. In high exposed places it is small, with bent or almost pros- 
trate stems; elsewhere the trunks are straight, unbranched, except near the 
suutmit, and of an apparently uniform diameter for one-half or two-thirds of 
their length. The short, slender, irregularly bent limbs stand out straight from 
the stem in a narrow dome-like crown, which is long in open stands and short 
in dense growths, in which two-thirds of the stem may be clear of branches. 
The hard, firm bark is little broken except near the ground. Near the ground 
it is broken and blackish, and, on large trunks, is nearly 2 inches thick; higher 
up it is thinner. Freciuent black, rounded protuberances and curved, scar-like 
marks characterize the trunks. 



240 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



The color of the bark, which is prevailingly whitish, is sometimes varied with 
very pale green or yellowish areas. The leaves (figs. 103 to 105) are smooth 
on both surfaces at maturity, somewhat shiny, and deep yellow-green above and 
much paler beneath. Leaf stems, yellow and flattened near the leaf blade, vary 
in length from about li to nearly 3 inches. In autumn the leaves become a 
clear lemon-yellow. Mature twigs are smooth, shiny, clear reddish brown, with 
similarly colored thinly i-esinous buds. 

Wood : Silvery white sapwood forms a large proportion of the stem ; the small 
core of heartwood is pale brown. The wood, rather fine-grained, is light, exceed- 
ingly soft, brittle, not durable in contact with the ground. Owing to its phys- 




FiG. 103. — Populus tremuloides, eastern form. 

leal fitness and tlie white color of its wood it is much in demand in the East 
for paper pulp, while its freedom from odor has made it very useful in its west- 
ern range for fruit-box boards, into which large quantities of fire-killed trees 
are cut. Green timber is not used for the latter purpose because it warps and 
checks. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. Evidently a short-lived tree. Trees from 
10 to 14 inches in diameter are from 21 to 36 years old. 



Southern Labrador to Hudson Bay (southern shores) and northwest to Mackenzie 
River (near mouth) and Alaska (Yukon Valley) ; south to New Jersey, Tennessee, 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



241 



northeastern Missouri, nortliwestern Nebraska, and throughout western mountains to 
northern New Mexico and Arizona and central California ; Lower California (Mount 
San Pedro Martirj and Mexico (mountains of Chihuahua). 

Alaska. — North in Yukon Valley to latitude of Arctic Circle on south slopes of 
Endicott Mountains, west probably nearly to Bering Sea and south to inland side Pacific 
Coast Range, and to its seaward side at Cook Inlet, and possibly at head of Lynn Canal. 
Noted near International boundary in Yukon Valley, north side Yukon basin from Fort 
Yukon to Deering (Bering Sea), Chandler River, Koyukuk River, Endicott Mountains 
up to 2,000 feet, 10 miles below Walker Lake at head of Kobuk River, Dall River to 
2,500 feet, Allen, upper Kuskokwim, Matanuska, Sushitna rivers, and Copper, Tanana, 




Fio. 104. — Populus Ircmuloidcs, Colorado form. 



and White rivers up to about 3,500 feet ; Lake Clark and near Nogheling River at base 
of Alaska peninsula, on Cook Inlet at Tyonek, and on west slope and plateau of Kenai 
Mountains ; also reported at head Lynn Canal from Skagway to Glacier. 

Yukon and British Cdh.mbia. — West to inland slopes Pacific Coast Range. Noted 
on Klondike, Stewart, McQuestion, and upper Pelly rivers, about Dease Lake, Liard 
River between Dease and Francis rivers, eastern side Cassiar Range, upper Stikine 
River and Skeena River al)ove 100 miles from mouth. 

Washington.— Whole State but not common ; west of Cascades from sea level to 
4,000 feet, and east of Cascades from l..jOO to 4. .".00 feet. Noted West Washington 
National Forest generally alwve ;^.000 feet : locally on Slate Creek and other tributaries 
of Skagit River, 10 miles below Ventura, above Newby"s ; in East Washington National 



242 



FOKEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



Forest generally 1,100 to 5,000 feet; Yakima division Wasliington National Forest gen- 
erally at 1,600 to 3,500 feet ; Mount Rainier National Forest generally at 2,500 to 5,800 
feet : noted locally on Natches River near mouth Nile Creek, Mount Adams, canyons 
Yakima River, Umptanum Creek, and Columbia River between Priest Rapids and Sen- 




FiG. 105. — Populus trcmuloidcs, California form. 



tinel Bluffs in Saddle Mountains, at Wenas (Yakima County), Egbert Springs (near 
Trinidad on Columbia River, Douglas County), divide between Columbia and Yakima 
rivers (Kittitas County), Darling Mountains, Colville Indian Reservation, vicinity Pull- 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 243 

man (Whitman County), and in Wenaha National Forest at 3,000 to G,000 or 7,000 
feet. 

Oregon. — Whole State but not common. Noted on Columbia River (northeastern 
Wasco County), Blue Mountains, Cascade (north) National Forest, west shore upper 
Klamath Lalie, Sprague River basin (T. 35 S., Rs. 11 and 12 E ; T. 37 S., R. llj E.), 
Swan Lake Valley, Goose Lake National Forest, and Steins Mountain (southern Harney 
County). 

California. — Northern part and in Sierras south on both sides to Kern River (Kern 
County), at the north at 5,000 to 8,000 feet and at the south at G,000 to 10,000 feet. 
Noted in Modoc and Warner Mountains National Forests, at upper end Davis Creek at 
6,100 feet. Trinity Mountains at liead Canyon Creek, not known on Mount Shasta ; 
northern Sierras 7,000 to 8.800 feet. Middle Fork Feather River, about Sierra Valley 
above 6,500 feet, Lake Tahoe, 5,000 to 6,500 feet ; Stanislaus National Forest general 
at 5,000 to 8,500 feet, locally noted south side of Mount Relia, Highland Creek, Rattle- 
snake Creek, Middle Fork Stanislaus at Mono Road crossing, head North Fork Moke- 
lumne River, 10 miles north of Gardner IJ miles west of Woods at 9,000 feet (timber- 
line) (Alpine County) ; Yosemite National Park at Aspen Valley and elsewhere at 
5,500 and 0,000 feet; Parker Creek near Yosemite Park line (Mono County) (T. 1 S., 
R. 26 E., sec. 18) at 7,S00 feet ; Sierra National Forest locally noted South Fork San 
Joaquin at 8.000 to 9,000 feet. Mono Creek up to head. Silver and Fish creeks (tribu- 
taries to South Fork San Joacjuin), North Fork Kings River to head, Dougherty Creek 
(tributary Middle Fork Kings River) near Meadow, South Fork Kings River to head 
and its tributaries, Bubbs Creek (up to 10,500 feet) and Copper Creek (up to 9,000 
feet), Crown Creek, East Fork Kaweah up to 1 mile below Farewell Gap and on its 
tributary Soda Canyon at Mineral King, and in Giant Forest at 6,500 feet. Kern River 
Canyon at 9,700 feet. 

Lower California. — Plateau of Mount San Pedro Martir above 8,000 feet a few 
localities. 

The eastern range of this species will be giAen in a future publication. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Alaska. — On streams (drier parts), up valley slopes; protected gulches (Cook Inlet) ; 
rolling land and steep hillsides (interior) ; often preferring south exposures. 

West Canada. — Usually on streams, low-lying land ; also on moderately high situa- 
tions — sometimes characteristic of dry, grassy hillsides (somewhat stunted) ; on all 
slopes, l)ut most abundant on south exposures. 

Washington, Oregon, California. — I'refers stream bottoms, benches, moist slopes ; 
less abundant and smaller on dry hillsides. In Blue Mountains (Oregon), occasional 
groups in open spaces on high ridges. Forms part of undergrowth in yellow pine 
forest on east slope of Cascades — nowhere abundant. In south Oregon, as a small part 
of stand, and much scattered ; in thickets about springs, occasionally over large areas 
of semiarid land. In north California (Sierras) in thickets, stunted, and at elevation 
of red fir, lodgepole pine, on borders of mountain meadows, moist slopes ; southward in 
very high, rocky, moist canyons. Throughout range liest growth is on moist, porous, 
well-drained humous soils. Grows in nearly all soils not too wet, but relatively small 
or stunted on poorer and drier soils. 

In Pacific region generally forms pure stands only over very small or limited areas; 
to the east it occurs in large pure forests as well as extensively in mixture. In Alaska, 
commonly with balm-of-Gilead, birch, white spruce, alders, and willows (stream banks) ; 
occasionally also with lodgepole pine, Sitka spruce, black spruce, alpine fir, tamarack, 
birch, and black cottonwood on limited areas. On Kenai Peninsula, in forests of white 
spruce, with black hemlock, balm-of-Gilead, and birches ; about Cook Inlet, sparingly in 
birch forest with small numbers of white spruce and balm-of-Gilead, mainly with latter. 
At Skagway, abundant with balm-of-Gilead on river bottoms over extensive areas adjacent 
to Sitka spruce, lodgepole pine, and ali)ine fir. On the lower Yukon, with birch and balm- 
of-Gilead on hills. South slopes of Rockies north of the Yukon carry a little aspen with 
white spruce and birch. In west Canada with balm-of-Gilead, blaclf cottonwood (flats and 
lower slopes), birch, alders, and willows (streams), lodgepole pine (dryish terraces), and 
white spruce (slopes and ridges), Engelmann spruce, and black spruce. Grows with white 
and Engelmann spruces and witli lodgepole pine singly, but mainly in groups, which fill 
burned or logged areas in coniferous forest. I'sually subordinate in main stands of lodge- 
pole pine. On margins of swamps, lakes, and sluggish stream banks with tamarack and 
with black spruce. Not abundant in Washington or Oregon, rarely occurring except singly 
and in small thickets, mixed especially with Douglas fir, and western yellow and lodgepole 
pines. On Mount Rainier, near lower limit of Douglas fir; on east slope of Cascades, 
under Douglas fir and yellow pine from foothills nearly to summit : with lodgepole pine on 
west shore of upper Klamath Lake (southern Oregon). In northern and middle Califor- 
nia, in moist places with lodgepole pine, alders, black cottonwood, and willows, and in dry 
places (low or bushy) with mountain mahogany and other chaparral. 



244 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Climatic Conditions. — The exceedingly wide range from ttie Atlantic to the Pacific 
region and from low to very high elevations shows adaptation to very varied climatic 
conditions, which, for the Pacific range, are essentially a combination of those already 
given for the many associates of aspen. 

Tolerance. — Very intolerant of shade throughout life. Its light foliage permits growth 
in crowded stands, under which there is usually a more or less dense herbage. Mingled 
with shady conifers, intolerance of even side shade is quickly shown by long, clean 
stems and small narrow crowns in full light. 

Reproduction. — An exceedingly prolific annual seeder. Seed of high germination but 
of transient vitality, usually germinating shortly (ifter being shed. Extreme liuoyance 
results in very wide dissemination by wind. Germination best and mainly in moist, 
exposed mineral or slightly humous soils. The fact that its numerous seeds are quickly 
and widely scattered over burned and other cleared lands accounts for its being the 
first tree growth in many localities, where, however, it is often replaced or gradually 
crowded out by shade enduring associates. It is persistently present more as a result of 
extraordinarily prolific and constant reproduction than of power to cope with Its 
aggressive associates. 

Balm-of-Gilead. 

Popiiliis halsaniifera Linnjpus. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

The balm-of-Gilead, " balsam poplar," or " taeamabac," as it is also called, 
is distinguishable in general appearance by its lustrous, very dark green leaves, 
which, as they tremble and turn in the breeze, show glinting flashes of their pale 
green and bright rusty brown under surfaces. Height, from 75 to 80, sometimes 
90, feet and diameter from 30 to 40 inches; very old trees are from 4 to 6 feet 
through. Stem straight and clear of branches for from 30 to 40 or more feet ; 
the large thick limbs, trending upward strongly, form a rather long, narrow, 
and irregularly open crown. The bark of large trunks is slightly reddish gray 
and has regular deep furrows and wide ridges, while that of the limbs and young 
trees is brownish-gray, sometimes with a greenish shade, and is smooth. Year- 
old twigs are clear, shiny red-brown, with conspicuously large, sticky buds 
(fig. 106). End buds are about an inch long and buds from the sides of twigs 
are from five-eighths to three-fourths of an inch long. The bud-scales are thickly 
coated with a yellowish, pungently fragrant balsam, with which the young leaves 
are also covered. Mature leaves (fig. 100) are thin, somewhat leathery, smooth, 
Clark shiny green on the upper surface, light green or often rust-colored, and 
very veiny beneath ; from 3i to about 5 inches long and 2 to 3 inches broad ; 
leaf stems smooth, very slender, roimd, and from If to about 2 inches long.a 

Wood, of light weight, soft, rather fine-grained, pale brown ; not distinguish-" 
able in general appearance from that of other timber poplars. The large trunks 
give clear, wide lumber which is being more and more used for box and cooper- 
age stock in place of pine and other more valuable timbers, as w^ell as for paper 
pulp. Its commercial uses are likely to increase in the future. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. Trees from 14 to 17 inches in diameter 
are from 40 to 50 years old. 

RANGE. 

Alaska to Hudson Bay and Newfoundland ; southward to northern New England and 
northern New York, central Michigan and Minnesota, South Dakota, northwestern 

"A well-marked variety is Popuhis balsamifera candicans (Ait.) Gray, a large tree 
with less upright branches, more open crown, and with wide heart-shaped leaves, which 
are usually silvery whitish beneath, minutely hairy on their margins, mid- and other 
veins, and on the leaf stems (fig. 107). It has been long cultivated for ornament in 
eastern United States and Canada, but nothing authentic is known of its native range. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



245 



Nebraska, northern Montana, Idaho, and Oregon. West of Hudson Bay, abundant on 
all Great Plains rivers of Canada, extending northward in Macltenzie River valley to 
(above lat. 68°) within 40 miles of Arctic Ocean, and westward in Alaska to Bering Sea. 
Less abundant southward in its western range. 




Fio. 100. — Populusi halsamifcra. 



Alaska. — Yukon River valleys and main tributaries ; probably remaining north of 
Pacific coast ranges, except at Chilkoot Pass (head of Lynn Canal), where it may 
descend to south side for a short distance, and at Cook Inlet, where, from Bering 
Sea forest. It crosses low base of Alaska Peninsula and meets Pacific coast forest. 



246 FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Abundant here about Turnagain Arm of Cook Inlet, at Hope, at mouth of Resurrection 
Creek, and up west side of Kenai Peninsula to Kenai Lake, reaching nearly to timber- 
line (1,600 to 2,000 feet), being common also at Tyonek, and probably down west 



^.IJ >-^>----i 



•v.r^'( 




Fig. 107. — Populus lialsamifera candicans. 

<;oast of Cook Inlet at least as far as Iliamna Bay : reported from shores of Kodiak 
Island. Western limits in Alaska are limits of tree growth (Bering Sea and Arctic 
Ocean), as are also its northern limits (valley ol Noatak River, lat.^ 68°, long. 163°), 
except that Populus balsamifera is unknown in Turner River Valley, but occurs iu 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 247 

Anaktuvuk River valley (branch of Colville River), on Arctic waterslied of Endicott 
Mountains, liere reaciiing its nortlimost limit (lat. GO" 20') at 75 miles from coast. 
Abundant throughout Yukon River Valley Iwttoms and also on slopes. Extends, on 
south slopes of Endicott Range, to about 1,000 to 2,000 feet, on Koyukuk River to about 
i!,000 feet, on White and Upper Tanana rivers to about 3,500 feet, on lower Stewart 
River to about 2,500 feet ; on south slopes of Alaska Range, near Cook Inlet, to about 
1,200 feet, river bottoms on Chitina River and in 8kolai Mountains, on upper Sushitna 
and Copper rivers to somewhat higher elevations, Skwentna River to 2,500 feet, on 
north and west slopes of Alaska Range to 3,500 and 4,000 feet, valley of Kobuk River 
(western tributary of Arctic Ocean) to 1,000 feet. 

Okegon. — Reported from eastern part, but definite records are wanting. 

Native range of Populus halsamifera candicans unknown, but the tree is cultivated 
and escaped from cultivation from New Brunswick to Georgia and west to Minnesota. 
It may possibly be met with in the Pacific region. 

The detailed range of this tree east of the Pacific region will be described in 
later bulletins. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Alluvial stream bottoms, flats, borders of lakes and swamps in moist sandy and grav- 
elly soils, which are often rich and deep. Forms pure stands and is more or less mixed 
with black and white spruces, birches, alders, and willows. 

('LiM.iTic CoNDiTioN.s. — Characterized by humidity, heavy precipitation, very low tem- 
perature, short growing season, and long, severe winters. 

ToLEHANCE AND Repkoduction. — Not determined. 

Black Cottonwood. 
Populus trichorarpa Torrey and Gray. 
DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Black Cottonwood, the largest of our poplars, under the best conditions for 
growth, is from 80 to 125 feet high and from 3 to 4 feet in diameter; trees 
somewhat taller and from 5 to 6 feet through occur much less commonly, while 
over much, of its range it is under 50 feet and from 12 to 18 inches in diameter. 
The pale gray, deeply and regularly furrowed trunks are clear of branches for 
from 50 to 80 feet or more in the best grown trees, straight, or, often, with a 
long, slight bend. Smaller trees, grown under less favorable conditions, have 
relatively long, clean trunks, except in the open. All have rather open, short, 
wide crowns of thick upright branches. The furrows and ridges of the trunk 
bark, often nearly 2 inches thick^ are distinctly and sharply defined. Young 
twigs are indistinctly angled, later becoming round, shiny, and reddish yellow. 
The similarly colored buds, from five-eighths to three-fourths of an inch long, 
are often curved (as if bent) and covered with a fragrant, yellowish-brown gum, 
from which the tree gets the name, " balsam cottonwood." Mature leaves (figs. 
108, 109) are thick, leathery, and smooth; deep shiny green above, and silvery 
white or whitish beneath, with rusty areas and veiny. Midveins and their 
branches, as well as the slender, round leaf-stems, sometimes very minutely 
hairy. In dying, the leaves become a dull yellowish-brown. Wood, soft, 
straight-grained, fine-grained in dense stands; dull grayish-brown. Large logs 
obtainable from the. best grown trees give clear, wide lumber and other mate- 
rials which are extensively used in the range of the species, especially for coop- 
erage stock. It is likely to be even a much more imi)ortant soft wood in the 
northwest Pacific region than it is now, owing to tlie scarcity of other broad- 
leaf timber trees suitable for the special purposes to which this wood can 
be put. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. Probably attains the greatest age of any 
of our native species. Trunks from 2 to 3 feet in dianieter are from 85 to 110 



248 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



years old ; one tree 43i inches in diameter showed an age of 112 years. The 
much larger trees — now very largely cut for lumber — would doubtless show 
ages of 150 or 175 years. 




-Fig. 108. — Populus trichocarpa. 

RANGE. 

Coast ranges of southern Alaska and southward through interior Yukon Territory, 
British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon, to southern California (San Jacinto Moun- 
tains) ; reported also in northern Idaho and Montana. Northern range still imperfectly 
known. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



249 



Alaska. — Probably on coast from north end of Kodiak Island, Iliamna Bay, Cook Inlet, 
and Kenai Peninsula eastwai-d to Lynn Canal and Stikine River, extending into the Inte- 
rior in British territory down Lewes, Pelly, Frances, upper Liard and probably upper 
Peace and Parsnip rivers, and throughout region east of coast ranges at this latitude. On 




Fig. ion. — Poinilus trichocarpa, leaf of vigorous shoot. 



river banks and islands of Lynn Canal, reaching 2,000 feet elevation on Kenai Peninsula. 
Locally noted at mouths of Lewes, Pelly. and Stikine rivers, Lake Frances, on Dease, 
Chlchamin, Taiya, lower Chilkat, and Chllkoot rivers. 



250 FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Wj'STEEN Canada. — Not known to, but probably does, extend southward in interior 
British Columbia, and possibly also on seaward side of coast mountains ; unknown on 
Queen Charlotte Islands. 

Vaxcoi'ver Island. — Noted on San Juan Tliver (southwest coast.) In lower Fraser 
River Valley up to Yale, and in Columbia River Valley at Donald, and westward in low 
valleys of Selkirks to Kamloops Valley, here ascending to about 7,000 feet elevation. 

Washington. — Washington National Forest (West) common up to 5,000 feet, locally 
noted at Ferndale and on Nooksak and upper Skagit rivers (Whatcom County). Eastern 
division at 1,100 to 4,000 feet, locally noted on Lake Chelan, mouth Stehekin River and 
near top Cascade Pass. Yakima division up to 3,000 feet, noted on Wenache Mountains, 
Blount Rainier National Forest, up to 4,200 feet, locally noted on Nisqually River at 
Ashford and up to a point above Longmire Springs and on Mount Adams. Olympic 
Peninsula, locally noted on north and south forks of Skokomish River, 12 miles west 
of Hoodsport and 8 miles south of Lake Cushman, and at head of South Fork (Mason 
County) and in Queniult Indian Reservation and at Dryad (Chehalis County). In 
central part of State noted in Klickitat County and in Kittitas County, locally in 
canyons of Yakima River and its tributaries, Umptanum Creek, Atanum and Wenas 
rivers (up to 4,200 feet), and on west slope of divide between Columbia and Y'akima 
rivers ; on Columbia River from Saddle Mountains to Egbert Springs (near Trinidad, 
Douglas County). Snake River (Columbia County) at 1,.500 feet. Blue Mountains, at 
Almota and Colfax (Whitman County) and Spokane (Spokane County). 

Oregon. — Both sides of Cascades and east, at the north to Blue Mountains and at 
the south to Goose Lake. Noted on Deschutes River in northern Wasco County, Colum- 
bia River in Wasco, Sherman, Gilliam. Morrow, and Umatilla counties, .lohn Day River 
from Hay Creek to mouth (Gilliam County), coast region of Clatsop County, Cascade 
(North) National Forest up to 1,600 feet. Blue Mountains National Forest locally 
noted on John Day River and its tributary, Cottonwood Creek. Noted in Wenaha and 
Goose Lake Natioual Forests. 

California. — Abundant in Sierras and southern cross ranges, but much less frequent 
in coast mountains ; generally at 3.000 to 6.000 feet elevation. Klamath National Forest 
in low situations. Vicinity of Mount Shasta only on Shasta River, at about 3,000 to 
4.000 feet, and near Sissons on head of Sacramento River at about 3,500 feet. Shasta 
National Forest on streams in yellow-pine belt. Locally noted as follows in northern 
coast ranges : Lewiston trail west of town of Shasta (Trinity National Forest) ; South 
Fork Eel River (Stony Creek National Forest) ; near Mountain House (Round Valley 
road from Fkiah), western limit, and occasional stations to north; Mitchell Canyon 
(Monte Diablo) : San Leandro Creek (near Alameda). Southern coast ranges: Near 
(Jilroy on Carnadero Creek (south end Santa Clara Valley I ; near Buenaventura on 
Santa Clara River; Monterey National Forest, on constant streams, at 500 to 2,700 
feet, as on Sur, Carmelo. Arroyo Seco. San Antonio, and Nacimiento rivers. San Luis 
Obispo National Forest, at 500 to 2.000 feet, preferably in such perpetual stream beds 
as San Luis, Arroyo Grande, and Huasna rivers. Coast islands, including Santa Catallna 
and Santa Barbara. Sierras : Plumas. Diamond Mountain, and Lassen Peak National 
Forests ; rare in foothills ; thence throughout western slope to point on South Fork 
of Kern River 10 miles south of Monache Meadow (lat. 36°) ; abundant on larger 
rivers at from 3,000 to 6,000 feet elevation. Abundant in Stanislaus National Forest 
and on larger rivers in Sierra National Forest. Locally noted as follows in Sierras : 
Middle Fork Stanislaus River between Cow and Lily creeks, and on Mill Creek and 
in Donalds Flat: Yosemite River; Middle Fork San .Joaquin River at Balloon Dome; 
Middle Fork Kings River near Crown and Blue creeks, and at Tehipite Dome ; South 
Fork Kings River at Godard Creek, Converse Basin, and Simpsons Meadow; Bubbs 
Creek (tributary South Fork of Kings River) ; Big Arroyo and Soda creeks (branches 
Kern River) ; East Fork Kaweah, above Mineral King, to headwaters, and on Marble 
Fork Kaweah ; Kern River at Funston Creek, below Little Kern Lake, and up to East 
and West forks ; South Fork Kern 10 miles south of Monache Meadow (southern limit 
known in Sierras). On east slope of Sierras, only on ITockett trail to Owens Valley, and 
In Truckee River valley, Nevada, there ascending creeks to 7.000 feet : also on Panamint 
Mountains (east of Sierras in California), where trees were seen in Hannope^ Canyon, 
at 8.500 feet. Tehachapi ^lountains, in Tejon Canyon. Southern cross ranges and south- 
ward into San Jacinto Mountains : generally at 1.000 to 5.000 feet. Santa Barbara 
National Forest canyons of perpetual streams .in Santa Maria, Santa Y'nez, Santa Bar- 
bara, Matilija, Piru-Sespe, Newhall, and Elizabeth basins, at 500 to 5,250 feet, some- 
times extending down into valleys. San Gabriel National Forest, not common below 
4,500 feet ; locally noted on foothills near Pasadena and on San Gabriel River up to 
6,000 feet. San Bernardino Mountains, south slopes up to 5.300 feet ; locally noted in 
Santa Ana Canyon from mouth to '• Pines,'" 2,500 to 5.600 feet, and on Keller and Bear 
creeks. San Jacinto Mountains, noted on San Jacinto River and Tahquitz Creek at 
6.000 feet. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 251 

OCCURRENCE. 

At lower levels on river bottoms, sand bars, and banks, in sandy, humous, rich soils, 
where it is largest ; at higher elevations, in canyon bottoms and gulches, in moist, sandy 
or gravelly soil, where it is much smaller. 

Forms belts and limited forests of pure growth, or occurs in mixture. At north, with 
willows, red and Sitka alders, vine and broadleaf maples, lowland fir, Douglas fir ; south- 
ward, at higher levels, with red and white alders, incense cedar, and occasionally Doug- 
las fir. 

Climatic Co>-ditioxs. — Not fully determined. Climate in region of best growth is 
marked by great humidity and precipitation and by moderate temperatures. Beyond 
influence of sea and fogs, where the tree is subjected to dry atmosphere and is dependent 
upon soil moisture only, growth is smaller. 

Tolerance. — Very intolerant of shade throughout life. Very rapid, persistent growth 
permits it to hold its own in mixture with more tolerant conifers, among which its small 
crown is carried high into full light. 

liErRODicTioN.— Prolific annual seeder. Seed has a high rate of germination, l)ut very 
transient vitality. Keproduction good on moist, bare, humous or sandy soils, but very 
abundant on wet bars. 

Fremont Cottonwood. 

P()puhi.-< fr(in())itii Watson. 

DISTIXGUISHIN G CHARACTERISTICS. 

In its native range Fremont Cottonwood is not known as such, but simply 
as " Cottonwood," a name wJiich should bo replaced by the more distinctive one 
coined from the technical name and adopted here. This tree was long supposed 
to be the same as the big cottonwood (P. deltoides) of the Prairie and Eastern 
States, which it very closely resembles in general appearance. Again, until 
recently, there had been uo stable character found by which to distinguish it 
from the perplexingly similar cottonwood (P. tcisJizcni) at western Texas, the 
Kio Grande Valley, New Mexico, and contiguous Mexican territory. Fremont 
cottonwood differs from the latter species in the much longer stems of its seed 
capsules. 

Ordinarily Fremont cottonwood is from 50 to 75 feet high and from 1^ to 2h 
feet in diameter ; rarely it is from 80 to 90 feet and 4 or more feet through. The 
trunks, clear of branches for about half their length, are seldom straight, but 
are more or less bowed or leaning. Thiclc limbs and their drooping branchlets 
form a very wide, round-topped, open crown. The rough, very deeply furrowed, 
thick bark is externally dark grayish-brown and clear red within ; the wide, 
distinctly cut ridges are connected irregularly by smaller lateral ridges. Bark 
of large limbs and young trunks is only slightly seamed and pale ashy brown. 
Year-old twigs are smooth, pale yellow, yellowish gray as they become older, 
with shiny greenish buds. Mature leaves (fig. 110) are smooth throughout, 
leathery, rather thick, clear yellow-green and shiny, with flat, yellow stems. 
In dying, the leaves become a bright lemon yellow. Wood pale, dull brown, 
considerably heavier than that of other cottonwoods, fine-grained, soft, brittle, 
not durable, and specially liable to crack badly in seasoning. Much used locally 
for fuel, but has no commercial use. 

Fremont cottonwood is of very great service for protecting and holding the 
soft shifting banks of bottomland on western streams, where it is the only tree 
that marks their meandering courses. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. Appears to grow rapidly to maturity 
and to be short-lived. One tree BH] inches (inside of bark) showed an age of 
only 29 years. Further investigation of this tree's age limits are desirable. 



252 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



Central and southern California, through central Nevada, southern Utah, northern 
Arizona, and western New Mexico ; in valleys and lower foothills. 

California.— Sacramento River Valley, foothills of Sierras and adjacent coast ranges ; 
abundant on flats and streams up to 2,000 feet ; northward to about mouth of Pitt River, 




Fig. 110. — Populus fremontii: a, seed pods. 



and westward to Whiskeytown (Shasta County). Locally noted in Tahoe and Stanislaus 
National forests at from 500 to 2,000 feet, near Jenny Lind (road to Salt Springs Valley, 
Calaveras County) ; Deer Creek on Lassen Peak (Tehama County). Not detected on 
seaward coast mountains nor in middle ranges of northern California ; but abundant in 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 253 

San Joaquin River Valley, on foothills of southern Sierras, and on southern coast ranges, 
up to 3,000 and 5,000 feet elevation. Locally noted as common on South Fork of Kern 
liiver from below Canebiake Creek to Isabella ; on Kern River to Kernville, at a point 
8 miles below Isabella and at Bakersfield. East side of Sierras, only on Cottonwood 
Creek (west side of Owens Lake), and on Cottonwood Canyon in Panamint Mountains. 
Probably elsewhere also on southern east side slope of Sierras and on ranges east of 
them. Coast ranges of southern California : Santa Lucia and San Luis Obispo mountains ; 
abundant generally on streams at 200 to 2. GOO feet elevation, incli*ding Sur, Carmelo, 
Arroyo Seco, San Antonio, Nacimiento, Carriso, Salinas, and Santa Margarita rivers. 
Elsewhere, scattered throughout southern California on streams, on edges of deserts, and 
on lowlands between the mountains and sea. Santa Barbara National Forest : All 
watersheds, at 900 to .~),280 feet, including Santa Maria, Santa Ynez, Santa Barbara, 
Matilija, I'iru-Sespe, Newhall, and Elizabeth rivers. In all canyons of Tehachapi Moun- 
tains, including Caiiada de las Uvas and Tejon Canyon. Rare in vicinity of Los .Angeles, 
occurring at Fernando. Not detected in Santa Ana Range. Lccally noted as follows : 
San (Jabriel National Forest, in Tujunga Canyon (2 miles from mouth), at 1,000 feet; 
Mohave desert, at Victor on Mohave River ; San Bernardino Mountains in San Ber- 
nardino Valley, Santa Ana Canyon and Bear, Keller, and Mill creeks. Common in San 
Diego County south of San Luis Rey River, extending westward nearly to .sea and 
eastward into desert to tree limit ; noted at .Tamul Creek, 1.5 miles from sea, near 
Mexican boundary ; Mountain Spring, east side of Coast Range and just north of 
Mexican boundary, at 2,500 feet; Salton River (Colorado Deserti. 

The detailed range of Fremont Cottonwood outside of the Pacific region will 
be dealt with in a future publication. 

OCCURBENCE. 

Confined to alluvial stream bottoms and their borders, in moist sandy and humous 
soils, or in moist gravelly ones. Very dependent upon soil moisture, of which the pres- 
ence of this tree is always indicative. 

Forms strips and small bodies of pure growth, or is scattered in mixture with willows 
and occasional western sycamores and white alders. 

Climatic Conditions. — Climate marked by high temperatures and small precipitation; 
air is dry in some parts of range, but humid in others, through influence and proximity 
of sea. 

ToLER.\xcE. — -Extremely intolerant of shade throughout life. 

Reproduction. — Similar to black cottonwood. 

Family BETULACE-ffi. 

This family contains the birches and alders, well known and widely distrib- 
uted forest trees and shrui)s. They are characterized l)y their small, scaly fruit- 
ing cones, which somewhat resemble in form those of the true cone-bearers. 
The minute seeds (nuts) are produced luider the scales of the cones, which in 
the birches fall to pieces when ripe, scattering the seed, but which in the alders 
remain intact, after liberating the seed by a spreading of the scales. In this- 
respect the cones of these trees behave almost exactly like those of some of 
the conifers. ^lale and female flowers are each borne on different parts of 
the same tree, usually on different parts of the same branch. A further striking 
analogy between the reproductive organs of these trees and the pines is the habit 
of forming either partly developed male flower clusters alone, or both male 
and female flower clusters, during the summer previous to their opening. These 
may be seen on the leafless twigs of birches and alders in winter, during which 
they remain in a quiescent state until spring, when they again begin to grow 
and the flowers open — commonly before the appearance of the leaves, which (in 
our species) are shed annually in autumn. The leaves are borne singly on the 
branches (never in pairs, one opposite another). 

The wood of these trees is dense in structure, and its very minute, numerous 
liores are diffused irregularly throughout the annual rings, which are very in- 
distinctly defined. All are useful forest trees. And some are especially valuable 
lor their timber. With few exceptions, they require moisit soils. 
151SS— OS 17 



254 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

BETULUS. BIRCHES. 

Without exception, the tree and shrubs of this group are called birches. 
In most of the species the bark of j'oung trees is smooth and often sep- 
arable into paper-like sheets of a chalky-white, yellow, orange-brown, red- 
brown, or copper color ; cue or two species, however, have gray-brown bark, 
not separable into layers. Old trees have furrowed, scaly bark. The. fine, 
dense structure of the hard wood and its comparatively indistinct annual 
layers are also characteristic, while most birches have beautiful, reddish- 
brown heartwood, which is commercially of great value. The very fine, 
round twigs are conspicuously marked by long-persistent, light-colored spots. 
Year-old twigs produce, the succeeding year, two leaves from the side buds, 
while from the end a bud a new shoot grows with only one leaf at a point. 
Young twigs and the inner bark of several birches have a fragrant, winter- 
green taste when brui.sed or chewed (they are not poisonous). The cylindrical 
male flower clusters, partly matured the previous summer and so remaining until 
early spring, one or several together, are long, tassel-like bodies hanging dow'n 
from the ends of the twigs, back of which the very much smaller, cylindrical, 
quite or nearly erect female flowers proceed from the short, 2-leafed, thorn-like 
side twigs. Flowers appear before or with the growing leaves ; female clusters 
develop into cylindrical or elongated cones, under the scales of which are borne 
very minute, brownish seeds with two gauze-like wings. The cones mature and 
fall to pieces in late spring or early summer, leaving on the twig a central 
thread-like stem, to which the scales were attached. Sown thus early, the 
seeds germinate at once in moist, shady places, and the seedlings mature suffi- 
ciently that season to pass the winter safely. It is best, if possible, to sow birch 
seed soon after it is gathered, since by storing it until the following spring 
much of its germinating power may be lost. 

Few of the Pacific birches are of importance for their wood, because within 
the region most of them are too small or infrequent to form stands sufficient 
to supply commercial or domestic use.?. When they occur with a few other small 
trees, they are useful as a protective cover on canyon streams, but otherwise they 
are unimportant for the forester. Eastern and northern representatives of the 
group are much more important forest and timber trees. 

The birches from which our species descended existed in early geologic times. 
Remains of them are found in the Cretaceous rocks of the Dakota formation 
and in the more recent Tertiary formations. In Tertiary times they inhabited 
the north central and northwest coast region of this continent. Many species, 
now extinct, also existed in Europe during the Eocene and Miocene periods. 

Nine tree birches grow in the United States and adjacent Canadian ter- 
ritory, of which four inhabit the Pacific region. 

Western Birch. 
Betula occidental is Hooker. 
. DISTIXGUISHIXG CHARACTERISTICS. 

Very much confusion has existed regarding the identity of the true Betula 
occidentalis, which, so far as now known, occurs only in northwestern Wash- 
ington and adjacent territory in British Columbia. To Prof. C. S. Sargent 

» The last bud on a season's twig is not strictly a terminal bud, such as is produced by 
oaks, pines, etc., but a side or lateral bud, which appears terminal because the immature 
terminal part of the shoot dies and falls late in autumn or in winter. This is true of 
all birches. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 255 

belongs the credit of finally i^eparating this tree from the red-hrown or bronze 
barked tree (B. fontinalis Sargent) of the Sierra and Rocky Mountain regions, 
and also from the paper birch, B. papyrifera. a form of which was thought to 



Fig. 111. — Bctula occidentalis: a, fruiting twig; b, cone scale; c, d, seed, natural size and 

enlarged. 

occur in British Colnmliia and Washington. The latter, a more eastern and far 
northern tree, is not known to reach the range of the western birch. 



256 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Not locally called " western liirch," but simply " birch." It i.^ very desirable, 
however, to use the more distinctive name given here, wliich is derived from the 
tree's technical name. 

' It is the largest of our birches and, indeed, of any known species of birch. 
Height, from SO to 90 feet (not rarely 100) ; diameter, from 2 to 3 feet, or 
occasionally larger. The smooth, shiny, light orange-brown trunks are clear 
of branches for from 40 to GO feet, while the branches of the spreading, open, 
round-topped crown droop considerably. Young trees have rather compact, 
conical-shaped heads. All but the lower slender branches trend upward, but 
with age they become more and more drooping. The thin bark is separable 
into thin sheets, the freshly exposed surface being a clear orange-color. Year- 
old twigs are clear, light yellowish-brown, more or less very minutely hairy, 
and with very few speck-like glands (abundant on young twigs) ; later, the 
twigs become smooth and are without hairs and very shiny. Mature leaves 
(fig. Ill), from 2^ to 3i inches long, are thin, marked with minute dots (made 
by resinous glands which cover the young leaves), dull deep green above (mid- 
veins hairy) and light yellowish green beneath, where the yellow midvein and 
its larger branches are minutely hairy. Leaf stems, more or less hairy and 
minutely glandular. Mature cones (fig. Ill), somewhat erect, are about 1| to 
li inches long and one-half inch or slightly less in diameter. Cone-scales 
(fig. Ill, 6) very minutely hairy on the outside, especially on the margins. 
Minute seeds (nuts) with pale, very thin wings on two sides (fig. Ill, c). 
Wood : Nothing now known of the characteristics of the wood, but since the tree 
occurs only occasionally, it is not likely to be commercially important. 
Longevity. — No records of age are available. 

RANGE. 

Extreme northwestern Washington and southwestern British Columbia : possibly in 
central British Columbia, eastern Washington, Idaho, and Montana. Range little known 
at present. 

British Columbia. — Mainly in Lower Eraser River Valley ; a few trees at various 
points on Vancouver Island, and reported at Donald, on Columbia River (long. 118°). 

Washixgtox. — Vicinity of Puget Sound, extending inland on Skagit River (above 
Ruby Creek) to 4,000 feet in Cascades, and southward at least to Seattle ; occurs also 
on islands of Puget Sound and on shores of Gulf of Georgia and Straits of Fuca. Lo- 
cally noted at Sumas Prairie and Everson, in Whatcom County. Reported on Tukannon 
River in eastern Washington, in Blue Mountains, at a point 10 miles southwest of Pull- 
man, and in Whitman and Stevens counties. Much more careful field study is required to 
define the eastern range of this tree, which appears to approach, in some individuals, 
occasional western forms of Betula papyrifera. A birch recently found in Idaho and 
Montana resembles the latter species, but it is suspected of being B. occidentalis. 

OCCURRENCE. 

On borders of streams, margins of meadows and lakes, in rich, moist, humous sandy and 
rocky soils. Nothing further known now of occurrence nor of silvical characteristics. 

Kenai Birch. 
Betula keuaica Evans. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

The Kenai birch is a comparatively new and little known Alaskan birch, 
called " red birch " and " black liirch." names long used for the eastern birch 
(Bctithi nlfjra). The name ''Kenai birch." coined from the technical name, is 
proposed to avoid confusion with names already appropriated. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



257 



From 20 to 30 feet high, with a broad crown, and a short, very deep brown 
to blackish brown, furrowed trunlt. from 12 to IS inches in diameter. Season's 
twigs, large, clear red-brown, and dotted with minute light specks. Mature 




Fig. 11'2. — Brttila krnoica: a, fruiting twig; b, seed, natural size and enlarged; c, cone 

scale, enlarged. 

leaves (fig. 112), .«?mooth throughout. <lnil deep green on their top sides and 
lighter beneath ; both surfaces prominently marked by a net-work of veins 
which, with the very delicate leaf stems, are yellow. Mature cones (fig. 112) 



258 FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

somewhat upright, from seven-eighths inch to ahout 1 inch long and approxi- 
mately tlu'ee-eighths inch thick. Cone-scales, minutely hairy on their margins 
(fig. 112, c), and the very small seeds (nuts) with thin wings on two sides (fig. 
112, &). Wood : Nothing is now known of the characteristics of the wood, 
which, however, on account of the tree's rarity, can be of little commercial use. 
LoxGEViTY. — No records ai'e available of the age of the tree or of its silvical 
requirements, concerning which observations are needed. 

RANGE. 

Only on sea side of coast mountains of Alaska from head of Lynn Canal westward to 
Kenai Peninsula and north end of Kodiak Island. Here, associated with Picca sitcheu- 
sis and Betula alasJ:ana. and reaching the same elevations as spruce ; on Lynn Canal, 
growing to about 2.600 feet elevation; on Prince William Sound, to ahout 1,600 feet; 
while on Kenai Peninsula it is abundant on top of plateau, pxtending up slopes to about 
2,000 feet. At Sunrise, on shore of Turnagain Arm, and southward on west shore of 
Cook Inlet to Halibut Cove, Kachemak Bay ; possibly extending inland, around head of 
Alaskan Peninsula, into the interior and up Sushitna and Copper rivers, as well as over 
passes at head of Lynn Canal. Reported on Koyukuk River above the Arctic Circle. 
A few trees occur back of Kodiak village on Kodiak Island, while the species grows 
abundantly in valley at head of English or 'VVomens Bay. 8 miles south of Kadiak 
village. 

White Birch. 
Betnla alashaiia Sargent. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

White birch is a little-known Alaskan species. Its possible relationship to 
some of the imperfectly known Asiatic white-barked birches has not been deter- 
mined. The earliest record of it is from specimens collected on the Saskatchewan 
River in 1858. after which date its identity was in doubt until 1901. There is 
still much to be learned of its forest habits. 

Ordinarily from 25 to 35 feet high — sometimes 50 or 60 feet, and about one- 
half foot to 1 foot through. The hard, firm bark of large trees is thin, occasion- 
ally almost white, but usually light reddish-brown, and is separable into thin 
scales. The slender twigs, reddish-brown and smooth, are conspicuously covered 
with minute, resinous, gland-like specks, as are also the young leaves. Mature 
leaves (fig. 113), thin, smooth, deep green on their top sides, lighter green be- 
neath, and smooth or minutely hairy on the small veins, as are often the deli- 
cate, reddish leaf stems. Mature cones (fig. 113) more or less drooping, from 
li to about 1^ inches long and approximately one-third inch through. Cone 
scales (fig. 113, c) minutely hairy on the margins: the very small seeds (nuts) 
have broad delicate wings on two sides (fig. 113, h). Wood: Nothing is now 
known of its quality and other characteristics. The fairly abundant occurrence 
of the tree may render the wood, which is probably similar to that of the east- 
ern paper birch, of commercial importance for some of the same purposes (small 
turnery, etc.) for which that timber is extensively used. 

LoxGE^nxY. — No records are available of age. 

RANGE. 

Western British America and Alaska from Saskatchewan River and northern Rockies 
northward to mouth of Mackenzie River : on south side of Endicott Range, in Alaska, 
and westward to the Arctic Ocean and Bering Sea ; and south to sea side of Alaskan 
Pacific coast ranges. Distribution imperfectly known. 

"Western- Canada. — Saskatchewan River and westward from Prince Albert (about 
lat. 58°, long. 106°) ; northward (probably only near eastern base of Rockies), to 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



259 



Liard River, here crossing to interior plateau west of Roclcies. Tnrougliout Mackenzie 
River Valley nortliward from Great Slave Lake, reaching its northern limit at Great 




Fig. 113. — lictuhi (ihiskuiui: a, fruiting twig;-?^, seed, natural size and enlarged three 
times ; c, cone scale, twice natural size. 



Bear Lake and at the mouth of the river (ahout lat. 68° 30') \Yest of Rockies, probably 
extending southward in British Columbia only to Stiklne River ; little, however, is 



260 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

known now of Its solithern limit. Extends down Stiliine River to Kloocliman Canyon 
(where river crosses coast range) ; occurring frequently with spruce and cottonwoods 
northward throughout region east of coast ranges, except on Upper Pelly River above 
Hoole River. Locally noted on Dease River, headwaters of Llard River northward to 
Frances Lake, where timber line is about 4,000 feet ; on Stewart, Klondike, McQuestion, 
and Yukon rivers ; at Dawson, Fort Selkirk, on Peels River, and at Fort Simpson. 
Lewes River, but not above head of Fifty-mile River between Lake Marsh and Lake 
Lebarge. 

Alaska. — Probably not on sea side of coast mountains, except at Lynn Canal and 
west of it, on Kenai Peninsula and about Cook Inlet. Common in interior valleys and 
throughout Yukon River Valley, in mountains, and toward west coast, northward as 
far as timber extends. Noted on White and Tanana Rivers (up to 3,400 feet). Copper 
River (below 2,000 feet), Sushitna River to headwaters, Chitna River (tributary to 
Sushitna) and adjacent Skolai Mountains, Kuskokwim River from Kolmakof to head- 
waters, Allen, Kanuti, Dall, and Kowak rTvers (up to about 2,500 feet), Koyukuk River 
up to Roberts Creek, and Chandler River to a few hundred feet above Chandler Lake 
and on head tributaries to 600 feet above main river. Sea side of passes at head of 
Lynn Canal from point a short distance below summit, becoming very common at low 
elevations nearer sea ; locally noted at Chilkoot, Portage Bay, and on Chilkat Inlet. 
Abundant over Kenai Peninsula plateau, reaching timberline, with white spruce and 
balm-of-Gilead, at 1,600 to 2.000 feet elevation, and extending to shores of Turnagain 
Arm, up Sushitna River and its tributaries and also to west side of Cook Inlet ; here 
abundant, especially at Tyonek, reaching 2,000 to .3,000 feet elevation. Occurs sparingly 
farther south on west shore of Cook Inlet at head of Iliamna Bay, and Inland about 
lakes Iliamna and Clark (southern limit of timber at head of Alaskan Peninsula). 

OCCURRENCE. 

In vicinity of streams and on lower hill slopes in moist gravelly soils, mingled with 
spruces and other conifers of its range. Silvical habits, etc., undetermined. 

Mountain Birch. 

Betula pmtlnaUs Sargent. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS, 

Mountain birch is a slender, graceful tree or tall shrub, long known as Betula 
occidcntalis Hooker, a name which is now known to belong to an entirely differ- 
ent tree. This discovery necessitated giving the mountain birch its present 
name, Betula fontinalis. There is still some doubt, however, in regard to the 
true identity of at least one form of this tree. This can be cleared up only by 
further field study. 

This tree has several conflicting and inappropriate field names, such as 
" black birch," " sweet birch," " cherry birch," " water birch," and " canyon 
birch." Mountain birch is proposed as mof-e suitable, since the habitat of the 
tree, in contrast with that of most other birches, is distinctly a mountainous 
one. 

Very commonly a slender-stemmed, shrub-like tree from 10 to 15 feet high 
(in dense thickets), but sometimes from 25 to 30 feet high and from 6 to 10 
inches through. The deep, shiny, old-copper-colored bark of the trunks dis- 
tinguishes it from other asociated trees. The thinly foliaged crown is composed 
of very slender branches with delicate pendent twigs. V\^hen young the twigs 
are greenish and more or less thickly covered with resinous, shiny dots (glands), 
which disappear gradually in one or two seasons, during which the twigs 
become deep red-brown or copper-brown and more and more shiny. Mature 
leaves (fig. 114). resinous dotted at first, are smooth, except for numerous dots 
on the lighter green under surfaces : leaf stems also with glandular sjiocks and 
minute hairs. Fruiting cones (fig. 114), ripe in early summer, about seven- 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



261 



eightliR inch to IJ inches long; the minute, gauzy-winged seeds (nuts) minutely 
hairy at. the top end (fig. 114, b). 




Fici. 114.— Uctula foiitiiKiIis: a, fniitinK twig; 7), seed, twice natural size; c, cone scale, 

twice natural size. 



Wood, light yellowish hi-own. with a very thick layer of whitish sapwood. 
Similar in quality to that of the eastern, hrown-wooded timber birches. Owing 



'262 FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

to the small size of the trees, too little of the wood is available for commer- 
cial use. 

Its dense thickets bordering rocky canyon streams and in gulches are very 
helpful conservers of the scanty water supply in its range. 

Longevity. — Records of the ages attained by large trees are not available. 
Young stems indicate rapid height and diameter growth : those from 3 to 6 
inches in diameter are from 18 to 30 years old. Further investigation of lon- 
gevity is desirable. 

RANGE. 

British Columbia and probably Yukon and southward into Colorado, possibly to 
northern New Mexico, southern Utah, Nevada, and central California ; westward to east 
side of Pacific coast and Cascade ranges of Canada, Washington, and Oregon ; east side 
of northern California coast mountains and east side of Sierras of central California ; 
eastward to Upper Saskatchewan River in Alberta to such outlying ranges as Bear 
Paw and mountains at head of Musselshell River, in Montana, to mountains of North 
eastern Wyoming, to Black Hills, South Dakota, and to northwestern corner of Ne- 
braska. Generally in valleys and canyons. In Washington and Oregon, at 1,600 to 
4,500 feet elevation ; at 5,000 to 10,000 feet in California Sierras ; at 4,000 to 6,000 feet 
in Idaho ; at .3,000 to 6,500 feet in Montana ; at 5,000 to 9,000 feet in Colorado. 

Western Canada. — Throughout British Columbia, from Upper Fraser and Peace 
rivers, and probably farther north, southward and eastward over Continental Divide to 
eastern Rocky Mountain foothills in Alberta ; extending eastward, also, down Saskatche- 
wan River to Edmonton. Not detected west of Pacific coast mountains. Locally noted 
on mountains east of McLeods Lake, on north Saskatchewan River from Edmonton to 
Victoria ; on Columbia River from Golden City to Selkirk summit. 

Washington. — Generally distributed, but not common on streams throughout eastern 
half of State, and usually at 1,600 to 4,:200 feet elevation. Westward to Okanogan 
River, Columbia River, in its north and south course below the Great Bend and to Yak- 
ima River ; possibly also to eastern foothills of Cascades ; northward to Okanogan 
River and Colville Indian Reservation and probably into Canada, and southward to 
Blue Mountains. Locally noted as follows : Conconully, in Okanogan River Valley ; 
Wenache, en Columbia River; Wenache Mountains; Coulee City (Douglas County) ; Co- 
lumbia River Valley and divide between Columbia and Yakima River, also on banks of lat- 
ter stream; Umptanum Creek (tributary the Y'akima) ; Spokane; Hangman Creek 
Spokane County ; Pullman, and at Almota, near I'uUman, also at point 10 miles south- 
west of Pullman; Touchet River and Waitsburg (Blue Mountains). 

Oregon. — Throughout eastern part, west to eastern foothills of Cascades. Cascade 
(North) National Forest, but not widely distributed. Locally, noted in Columbia River 
and Deschutes River valleys in northern Wasco and Sherman counties, the Columbia 
Valley in Gilliam, Morrow, and Umatilla counties, and John Day Valley in northern Gil- 
Ham County. 

California. — From Siskiyou to Humboldt County and eastward to Surprise Valley, 
east of Warner Mountains ; southward, chiefly on east slope of Sierras to near their 
south end. About Mount Shasta only at south end of Shasta Valley (northwest of 
mountain), at 3,000 to 4,000 feet elevation. On east side of Sierras, common on all moun- 
tain streams at about 4,500 to 9,000 feet, particularly those on west side of Owens Val- 
ley ; south to 10 miles north of Walker Pass (northeastern Kern County), south limit; 
locally noted near Mono Lake, on Rock Creek (Mono County), at 4,500 to 7,100 feet, and 
near Lone Pine (Inyo County). West side of Sierras, detected only in head basin of 
South Fork of Kings River above Simpson's Meadow, and in canyon of Bubbs Creek 
(head tributary South Fork of Kings River) below a point 2 miles from head. 

The detailed range of this birch east of the Pacific region will be dealt with 
in a later bulletin. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Borders of lower mountain streams and canyons in moist, gravelly, and rocky soils. 
Forms long lines and patches of pure (thicket) growth. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of mountain mahogany. 

Tolerance. — Requires full top light ; its own moderately dense side shade produces 
very slender, long, clear stems. 

Reproduction. — Abundant seeder. Seed of medium high germination, but of transient 
vitTlily. Seedlings abundant in moist or wet washed mineral soil. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 263 

ALNUS. ALDERS. 

Trees and shrubs of this group are knowu always as alders. The trees 
are of small or niediuui size — rarely over 7."> to 00 feet in height. The bark is 
ofteu smooth and gray, sometimes marked conspicuously with large, chalky- 
white areas ; only the trunks of large trees have scaly bark — chiefly at the base. 
The dense, brittle wood is comi)osed largely of sapwood, with only a small core 
of reddisli brown heartwood. 

Alders shed their leaves in autumn, but while they are still green. The 
^<>aves are conspicuously straight-veine<l, the veins from the midvein running to 
thfc margin of the leaf. Alder buds, formed early in summer, are peculiar in 
being raised on a well-defined, minute stem and in not being scaly. Male and 
female flower clusters, each borne on different parts of the same branch, are 
produt-cd in a partly developed state the summer before they open. Both are 
then small, cylindrical bodies. The male clusters (the larger) become in spring 
from 2 to G inches long ; they are pendent, and terminate a branchlet. Lower 
down on the twig are produced the very much smaller female flower clusters, 
which develop into small, woody, persistent cones, between the scales of which 
numerous very small, flat seeds (nuts) are borne. The cones are green in 
autunui when the seeds are mature, but later become brown, and in late fall or 
in early spring they gradually open their scales and liberate the seeds. The 
seeds of some species have very small and narrow gauze-like marginal wings, 
while those of others are wingless (figs. 115 to 120). Seeds of the latter tyi)e 
are rather heavy and are not distributed by the wind, but depend for distribu- 
tio". largely upon water. Winged seeds are very buoyant and easily wafted l)y 
the wind. 

Commercially the alders are of scarcely more than secondary importance. 
Only one of the Pacific species produces useful wood; the others are too small 
for any purpose except fuel, for which all species are very commonly used. 
They grow in moist or wet situations, from sea-level to over 7,000 feet elevation. 
A common habitat is in river and canyon bottoms, along mountain streams, and 
on wet mountain slopes. 

Six tree alders inhabit the United States and adjacent territory (on both the 
north and south), while four of these occur within the Pacific region. ]Many 
species of alders exi-sted in the early epochs of the earth's history ; remains of 
them are found iu Eocene and Miocene rocks of the Tertiary period. 

White Alder. 

Alnii.s rhomhifolia Xuttall. 

DISTIN(;riSIIIX(J CII auactekistics. 

The name " white alder " is not knowu to be used in the range of this tree, 
but it is proposed for the want of a distinct common name, and refers to the 
tree's pale greenish foliage. So far as is now known, the tree's field name is 
simply " alder." 

Similar in general appearance to the red alder, from which it is probably 
not distinguished by laymen. It differs from the latter tree in having thin, 
conspicuously scaly, brown bark ; the scaly bark extends considerably higher 
up t)n the stem than that gf red alder, which is connnonly unbroken and smooth. 
The stems are usually straight, from 50 to 75 feet high and from IS to 24 
inches in diameter, often only 30 or 40 feet high and from S to 12 inches iu 
diameter. Trunks are clear of branches for about one-half to two-thirds of 
their length, and the crewu is rather broad, open, and dome-like, with middle 



264 



FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



and lower branches which droop decidedly at their ends. Twigs of the year 
are smooth, with distant light-colored specks, and reddish yellow; the dull 
red buds are coated with light-colored, scaly down. Mature leaves are charac- 
terized by light yellow-green upper surfaces and, particularly, by their usually 




07 

Fig. 11.5. — AXnus rliombifolia. 

Aoe-toothed, wavy borders (figs. 115, 116), which are curled a little toward the 
under surface, the gland-tipped teeth, of different sizes, standing out irregu- 
larly. The toothed border, only rarely somewhat double toothed, differs greatly 
from the rather regularly double-toothed borders of leaves on other Pacific 



FOREST TllEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



265 



alders. Under surface of leaves, including the prominent yellow midveins, their 
branches, and the leaf stems, have very minute soft hairs. Mature cones 
(fig. 116) vary from about one-half to nearly seven-eighths of an inch in length. 
Most of them shed their mature seeds in midwinter, but a few shed them very 




Fig. IIG. — Alnus rhombifolia: a, seed. 



late in the autumn. Ends of the cone scales, somewhat thickened, and with an 
•intended lobe. The .«!eeds have very "thin hard borders (fig. 116. a). Flowers 
open in midwinter, when the pendent male clusters are most conspicuous. 4J to 
5J inches long and as thick as a pipe-stem. Wood, pale yellowish-brown ; of 



266 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

somewhat lighter weight thau that of the red alder. Its principal value is for. 
fuel, but it is suitable for cabinet work. 

Longevity. — Little is known of the age limits. Trees from 12 to 15 inches 
in diameter are from 37 to 50 years old. 

RANGE. 

From northern Idaho to the eastern slope of the Cascade Mountains of Washin'zton 
and southeastprn Oregon, and southward through California (coast ranges, western 
slopes Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino, San .Jacinto, and Cuyamaca mountains). 

OCCURRENCE. 

Canyon bottoms and borders of foothill and lower mountain streams, commonly in moist 
gravelly or rocky soils. Forms dense stretches, lines, and patches of pure growth, and 
is often mingled with California sycamore, Oregon ash, western dogwood, and, occa- 
sionally broadleaf maple. 

CiiMATic Conditions. — Similar to those of Oregon ash. 

Tolerance. — Endures groat deal of shade throughout life, but requires moderate over- 
head light for best height growth ; dense side shade clears and produces long stems. 

Reproduction. — Abundant seeder in open stands on stream borders, where crowns are 
large ; much less prolific in dense stands. Reproduction frequent and best in moist or 
wet sand, gravel, or humous soil, where seedlings grow rapidly. 

Mountain Alder. 

AInus tennifoUa Nuttall. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Mountain alder has no distinctive field name, but is called simply "alder." 
The name mountain alder, here proposed, refers to the tree's high mountain 
habitat. 

Very commonly with slender, bent stems, from G to 15 feet high (in dense 
thickets), or, at best, 20 or 25 feet high, and under o inches in diameter (rarely 
with a straight trunk). The narrow, dome-like crown of larger trees is com- 
posed of slim branches which stand out and droop a little. On small trunks the 
bark is smooth, thin, and dark gray-brovv-n ; on larger trunks it is lightly seamed, 
with thin scales, and brown tinged with red. Season's twigs, with clear red, 
very minutely downy buds, are laale brown, tinged with purple-red, shading 
into gray lower down. Mature leaves (fig. 117), about 2i to oA inches long, or 
4 to 4i Inches long on strong shoots, are deep grass-green and smooth on their 
upper surfaces ; beneath they are very light yellowish green, usually smooth, but 
sometimes minutely downy ; leaf stems and midveins, yellow. Borders of leaves 
cut into coarse teeth which are themselves finely and sharply toothed, the teeth 
pointing forward. Mature cones, about one-half to five-eighths of an inch long ; 
ends o-f cone scales very thick and with about 4 minute rounded lobes, or sub- 
divisions- — ends sometimes without these and -squarish. Seeds with very nar- 
row, very thin borders (fig. 117, a). Flowers open in early spring, when the male 
clusters become 2 to 3 inches long and about three-sixteenths of an inch thick. 
■\Yood, light brown. Of no commercial use on account of the small size of the 
tree. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. Stems from 2 to 5 inches in diameter 
are from 14 to 37 years old. 

Important as a member of the foi'est on account of the protection it affords 
the headwaters and lower courses of mountain streams and springy slopes. 



FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



267 



Prom Yukon Territory (Francis Lake) and British Colnmbia fsoutli to lower Fraser 
River) through the Rocky Mountains to northern New Mexico and Lower California. 




# a 6 



Fig. 117. — Alniis teiuii folia: a, seed. 



West to eastern Washington and Oregon and headwaters of streams of western slope 
of Sierras at 0,000 to 7,000 feet. 



288 FOKEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Characteristic on heads of mountain streams, springy and boggy slopes, gulches, bor- 
ders of high meadows and lakes, in wet, mucky, but usually rocky soils ; abundant water 
(saturation) in soil essential. 

Forms large, dense, pure thickets with adjacent lodgepole pine, mountain and vine 
maples, black Cottonwood, willows, and aspen. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of lodgepole pine (at high elevations). 

Tolerance. — Appears to endure much shade in seedling stages, but seeks full top 
light later ; probably less tolerant than red and Sitka alders. 

Refroduction. — Plentiful annual seeder. Seedlings rather abundant in wet or moist 
.muck and litter, in shade or in open. 

• Bed Alder. 

Alnus oregona Nuttall. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Red alder is one of the two largest Pacific alders ; it reaches a height of 
from GO to 90 feet, and a diameter of 18 to 30 inches — occasionally a little 
larger ; usually 35 or 40 feet high and from 10 to 15 inches through. The trunks 
are straight, giving off rather slim branches which droop in a narrow, long, 
dome-like crown. The thin-barked, smooth-looking, light ashy gray and whitish 
trunks are clear of branches for one-half or two-thirds their height. Large 
trunks have distinctly but very shallowy seamed bark, the thin ridges being flat, 
narrow, and occasionally connected by smaller side ridges. Season's twigs 
are clear, shiny, mahogany-red, with numerous light-colored dots, and are 
sometimes slightly or considerably hairy, especially toward their ends ; deep 
red buds covered with a light-colored scale-like down. Mature leaves (fig. 118) 
are smooth and deep yellow-green above, sometimes with minute sparse, white 
hairs ; paler beneath and coated with very short, i-ust-colored hairs — often heavi- 
est on the yellowish veins; large leaves of vigorous shoots are least hairy. 
Ordinarily leaves are about 3 to 5i inches long, but are from 6 to 10 inches on 
strong shoots. The toothed borders of the leaves are very slightly curled 
toward the under surface. Tassel-like male flower clusters are from 5 to 6 
inches long, and about one-fourth inch thick. Mature cones (fig. 118), which 
shed their seed in autumn, vary in length from about one-half inch to 1 Inch ; 
seeds (fig. 118, a) have very narrow, thin, wing-like margins. Ends of cone- 
scales, very thick and blunt — squarish. Wood. i)ale reddish-brown, brittle, and 
light when dry ; newly cut the surface of the whitish sapwood soon becomes 
stained a red-brown. One of two Pacific alders which are large enough to 
furnish saw timber. The cherry-like, fine grain is attractive when finished, 
making the wood suitable for cabinetwork, for which it is used to some extent. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. Grows rapidly during first 20 or 30 years. 
Trees from 10 to 18 inches in diameter are from 28 to 55 years old. 

RANGE. 

From Sitka, Alaska, through islands and coast ranges of British Columbia, western 
Washington, and Oregon to California (coast ranges to Santa Inez Mountains, near 
Santa Barbara). - 

OCCURRENCE. 

Borders of streams and adjacent moist bottoms, benches, and gentle slopes ; in fairly 
well-drained, rich, humous, rocky, or gravelly soils. Largest In Puget Sound country. 
Abundant soil moisture and rich soil requisite for best growth. 

In extensive belts (at north), patches, and lines of pure growth, or sometimes mingled 
with Nuttall and other willows, black cottonwood, grand flr, broadleaf and vine maples, 
and western dogwood. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



269 



Climatic Conditions. — Similar to tliose of grand fir and Douglas fir. 
Tolerance. — Appears to be the most tolerant of tree alders, especially in youth. 




Fig. 118. — Alniis orc(joiui: a, seed. 



Repkodihtiox. — Moderately abundant seeder; seeding habits not fully determined. 
Seedlings abundant in rather dense and partial shade, in litter, and in exposed soil. 

15188—08 18 



270 FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Sitka Alder. 

Ahius sltcheusis (Kegel) Sargent. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARxVCTERlSTICS. 

From lack of field knowledge, Sitka alder, a uniquely distinct species still 
little known to lay people, has remained in comparative obscurity from 1832 
until recently. Its habitat and range are yet imperfectly known. Its field name 
is " alder," and it is probably not distinguished by laymen from other alders 
of its range. 




Fig. 119. — AIiiiis sitchensis. 

A slender shrub from 4 to G feet high (in large thickets) or occasionally a tree 
from 20 to 30 feet high and from 4 to 8 inches through. Usually crowded in 
shady places, its crown of nearly straight, horizontal branches is narrow and 
open. The trunk bark is smooth, thin, and dull gray, with a bluish tinge. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



271 



Season's twigs, minutely hairy when young and thickly glandular-dotted, are 
clear, shiny, yellowish brown, and marked with rather large light-colored specks. 
Mature leaves (figs. 119, 120)— when young notably sticky, with numerous 
glandular specks— thin and papery, smooth, yellowish green on their top sides; 




Fit;. 120. — Alnus sHrhmsis: a. seed, natural size and enlariied. 



much lighter yellow-green and shiny l)eneatli, somewhat as if thinly varnished, 
or sometimes minutely brown-hairy on the midveins and in the corners of the 
side veins. Male flower clusters about 3 to 5 inches long and one-third of an 
inch thick. Mature cones (fig, 120), from five-eighths to three-fourths of an 



272 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

inch long and about three-eighths to seven-sixteenths of an inch through, have 
scales with blunt thick ends and minute gauze-winged seeds (fig. 120, a). The 
thin seed-wing is a very distinctive character. 

"Wood : Nothing is known of the characteristics of the wood, which is prob- 
ably very much like that of the mountain alder (Ahius touiifoUa) ; not known 
to have any economic use, but, when large enough, suitable for charcoal and 
fuel. The tree is useful as a forest cover for its firm thickets, which protect 
lower mountain stream and springy slopes at lower elevations than those at 
which the mountain alder grows. 

Longevity. — No records of age are available. 

RANGE. 

Northwest coast from Alaska to Oregon and to west slopes of Rockies in Alberta and 
Montana. From sea-level to 3,000 and 4,000 feet (timber line) in Alaska, and chiefly 
above 3,000 feet in British Columbia and United States. Of tree size mainly in Alaska. 
Range imperfectly known. 

OCCURRENCE. 

In moist bottoms, lower courses of mountain streams, and marshy flats, in humus- 
covered, rich, rocky, or gravelly soils. Forms pure stands over limited areas, or mingled 
■with willows (at north), occasionally with western red cedar and broadleaf maple. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar in part to those of western red cedar. 

Tolerance. — Endures considerable shade, especially in early life, but requires over- 
head light in later stages. Seeding habits and reproduction undetermined. 

Family CUPULIFER.ffi. 

A very imix.rtant family of most useful hardwood timber trees, which includes 
chestnuts, l)eeches, hornbeams, and oaks. A characteristic of their fruits, 
which are nuts, is that they are wholly or partly inclosed by a usually woody, 
separable covering, as in the prickly "burs" of chestnuts and beeches and the 
scaly or bristly cups of acorns. Flowers, male and female, are each borne 
on different parts of the same tree, often on different parts of the same 
branch, usually greenish or yellowish, and, with one or two exceptions, incon- 
spicuous and uxilike in appearance the showy flowers of cherries, magnolias, 
and many other groups of broadleaf trees. The fruits of some members ripen 
in a single season, while those of others require two seasons to complete their 
development. Fruits of all are heavy, falling only beneath the mother trees 
and depending for their distribution upon flood waters and streams, or upon 
birds and mammals which carry or store them away for food, and thus, when 
they do not eat them, help to spread and propagate them. The leaves, mostly 
shed in the autumn of each year, but evergreen in one division of the family, 
are produced singly,- never in pairs. 

CASTANOPSIS. CHINQUAPINS. 

Members of the chinquapin grouji, as the name indicates, are chestnut-like 
in some of their characters, and are closely related to the chestnuts on one side 
and to the oaks on the other. Some of them have hard, heavy, strong wood, 
while others pfDduce lighter and softer, brittle wood, unlike that of either 
chestnut or oak in appearance, but like that of both in containing tannin. The 
bark also contains tannin. Smooth twigs with scaly buds. They are character- 
ized by their thick, evergreen leaves and (in our species) by their prickly fruit 
burs, which, though smaller outwardly resemble somewhat the burs of the 
common chestnut. The fruit (burs) require two seasons iu which to mature 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACTFIC SLOPE. 273 

and contain from 1 to 4 thin-sbelled nuts, \Aliich (in our species) are released 
l)y the opening of the bur. Male and female Howers minute (male much more 
numerous than female), 3 in a minute cluster, arranged on cylindrical, long, 
upright stems. The male clusters grow from the bases of leaves produced that 
season, while the female flowers, also borne in 3-flowered minute clusters, are 
arranged on the base of the stems bearing male flowers (fig. 121). Flowers 
depend entirely upon the wind for carrying pollen from the male to the female 
flowers, and for this reason male flowers are much more numerous than female 
ones. Like the chestnuts and oaks, the trees of this group have large, long 
taproots. One species only, a native of the Pacific region, occurs within the 
United States. 

Western Chinquapin. 

Castanopsis chrysopJiyUa (Hook.) A. do Candolle. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

The field name of western chinquapin is simply " chlnciuapin," probably from 
the close external resemblance of the fruit burs to those of the eastern chinqua- 
pin {Castanea piimila). Sometimes it is called " goldenleafed chestnut," in 
reference to the yellow under surface of the leaves. 

Under the conditions most favorable for growth it has a straight trunk from 
80 to 100 feet high and a diameter of from 3 to 4 feet, while authentic records 
show that it may attain a height of 150 feet and a diameter of from 5 to 10 feet. 
Such trees are very rare or probably not in existence now. Ordinarily it is 
from 30 to 50 feet high and from 8 to 15 inches through. (The high mountain 
form is a low shrub, with slender, half-prostrate stems, and has been distin- 
guished as Castanopsis chrysophylla minor.) Large trees have fluted trunks 
and are clear of branches for from one-half to two-thirds of their length. The 
big limbs of young trees stand out in a close, pyi-amidal crown, while in old 
trees they form a dome-like crown. The bark of young trees is thin, smooth, 
and ilark grayish, but that of large trunks is from three-fourths inch to 1^ 
inches thick or more, deeply seamed, and composed of verj^ wide plates, which 
are reddish brown externally and brilliant red within. The evergreen leaves 
(figs. Vl\, \-'2), those of each season's growth persisting about three years, are 
thick, leathery, deep shiny yellow green on their upper sides, while beneath they 
are coated with minute golden yellow scales, as are the leaf stems. They ai"e from 
2i to 34 inches long, or on vigorous shoots from 4 to 6 inches long. Flowers 
open in early sunnuer, but not uncommonly continue to open throughout this sea- 
son and into midwinter. The fruit matures in the autumn of the second season, 
when the spiny burs (fig. 122), about 1 to IJ inches in diameter, split open 
irregularly by 4 divisions, liberating the edible nut, which is shiny, yellowish- 
brown, sweet, and usually single. Wood somewhat brittle, fine-grained, rather 
soft, pale reddish brown. Excellent saw timber is furnished bj' large trees, 
and the wood is suitable for agricultural implements. The region of large 
growth, though comparatively small, is one in which commercial hardwoods are 
scarce, so that this timber is of very considerable ec*onomic importance. 

Longevity. — Very little is known concerning the age, which in large trees is 
believed to exceed 500 years. Trees from 18 to 25 inches in diameter are from 
145 to 190 years old. 

RANGE. 

Southwestern WnfshinKton to Rontliern ("alifornia. Cascades, from Skamania County, 
Wash., southward through those of Oregon (chiefly on west slope) and coast ranges and 



274 



FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



Sierras of California to San Jacinto Mountains. Slirubby thiroughout its range, except 
in Oregon Cascades and in coast mountains of nortli western California." 

Washington. — At Moffat's Springs, Skamania County, the only station now known. 

Oregon. — Valley of Columbia River, in vicinity of the Cascades, and southward over 
western slope of latter range, often crossing to east slope, as at Mount Pitt, and extend- 
ing eastward to Klamath-Deschutes Divide; generally at 2,000 to 5,000 feet elevation; 
also in Siskiyous and westward to southern coast mountains of Siskiyou National Forest. 
Locally noted at Dalles of Columbia, on Mount Hood, near rim of Crater Lake and at 
Port Orford. 




Vj 



Fig. 121. — Castanopsis chnjsophyUa, flowering branch. 

Califokxia. — Lower mountain slopes throughout northern part, from seaward coast 
range, eastward to Mount Shasta, and southward on both slopes of coast ranges, and 
mainly on west slope of Sierras, to San Jacinto Mountains ; generally at 3,000 to 6,000 
feet, in north, but at 8,000 to 10,000 feet in south. High ridges of Klamath and Trinity 
National forests (as chaparral), but also below 3,500 feet and under Douglas fir, espe- 



" The shrubby form of eastern California has been descriljed as C. sempervirens (Kell.) 
Dudley, and that of the southern coast ranges has been separated as C. chrysophylla 
minor Benth. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



275 



cially on South Fork of Trinity River ; locally noted on South Fork Mountain and on Can- 
yon Creek. In yellow pine belt, at 3.000 to 6.000 feet in Mount Shasta National Forest, 
being locally noted west of McCloud. In Plumas, Diamond Mountain, and Lassen Peak, 
Yuba, Tahoe, and Stanislaus National forests, at from 2,000 tc 6,000 and 6,500 feet ; 




Fig. 122. — Casianopsis chrysophyUa. 



in Stanislaus Forest, at 8.000 feet. Locally noted at Glacier Point, Yosemitc Valley. In 
Sierra National Forest, st'uerally between 6,000 and 8,000 feet ; locally noted on South 
Fork of Kinss Uiver from Millwood to Bubbs Creek, on Kaweah River and North Fork 
Of Kern in Jeffrey pine belt ; detected on east slope of Sierras, at point opposite Reno, 



276 FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Nevada, in the yellow pine belt, at elevations of from 6,000 to 7,500 feet, and also oppo- 
site Lone Pine, at 9,000 to 9,500 feet ; probably occurs at many other points on this 
slope. Abundant in northern coast ranges, especially near coast. Frequent about San 
Francisco Bay, as on Mount Tamalpais, Oakland Hills, and Mount St. Helena; as also 
on seaward range south of San Francisco, in Santa Cruz Mountains, and at Monterey 
on north side of Huckleberry Hill. Probably also in Mount Hamilton Range. Rather 
scarce in Santa Lucia, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, and San Gabriel National for- 
ests, but frequent in San Bernardino National Forest, where it forms an important part 
of chaparral at 8,500 to 10,000 feet elevation, while in San Jacinto National Forest it 
grows at from 8,000 to 10,800 feet. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Mountain slopes, sheltered ravines and valleys, slopes of canyons and gulches ; in 
rather dry or extremely dry rocky and gravelly soils. Largest in valleys of northwest 
California ; small or shrubby at high levels elsewhere. 

In dense pure-growth thickets over large areas in latter regions, interspersed with 
low forms of canyon live oak, western juniper, scrubby Jeffrey pine, scrub oak and cha- 
parral ; but often scattered among redwood and Douglas fir. 

Climatic Conditions. — Combine those of white fir and Jeffrey pine (at high levels) 
and of Douglas fir and redwood (at lower levels). 

Tolerance. — Very tolerant of shade ; in later life endures side shade but requires 
overhead light for best height growth, clearing its long trunks well in close stands. 

Reproduction. — Abundant seeder, but less §o in mixed stands, where seedlings are only 
fairly frequent ; more plentiful at higher levels, where washing covers seed in crevices and 
pockets in shade of seedlings and other plants. Much seed eaten by rodents. 

QUERCUS. OAKS. 

The oaks form a large group, composed almost entirely of trees, some of 
which are the most important timber trees of North America. They are world- 
famous trees, which through their powerfully built trunks, branches, and roots, 
have earned the reputation of the greatest physical sturdiness. The great 
strength and other useful commercial qualities of their woods, together with 
the fact that many of the species occur over large areas in nearly pure forests, 
render these trees of the highest economic value. Most of them are long-lived 
and very aggressive in their persistent efforts to maintain themselves, through 
seed and sprout reproduction, against fire and the ax, and against other forest 
trees and to extend their domain. With some exceptions they grow rather 
slowly and require several centuries to produce the high-class saw timber 
which our virgin oak forests once furnished in great quantities, but which now 
is rapidly disappearing. They are cosmopolitan, and adapt themselves to dry, 
sterile soils, as well as to moist, fertile ones, and to cold as. well as to temperate 
and tropical climates. They prefer, however, temperate regions, in which the 
number of species is greatest. In altitudinal range they are equally unre- 
stricted, for they push their sturdy ranks from near the sea far up mountain 
slopes and canyons to nearly lO.(KX) feet elevation. 

The two broad classes of our oaks — the white oaks and the black oaks — are 
popularly distinguished by the color of the wood and bark. Technically they 
are based upon different habits of pi'oducing fruit (acorns). The white oaks 
produce their acorns in one season ; the black oaks produce theirs in two 
seasons. There are four exceptions which do not fit these classifications, 
namely, two Pacific oaks, which have wood resembling that of white oaks but 
which require two seasons to mature their acorns, and one Atlantic and one 
Pacific oak which have the darker wood and bark of black oaks but which 
mature their acorns in one season. 

Many oaks have massive and straight trunks : most of them have furrowed 
and scaly bark and particularly large, powerful branches which often form im- 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 277 

mensely wide but storin-firui crowns. The hard, characteristically porous 
wood (pores occupying mainly one portion of the annual layer) is exceedingly 
strong in some oaks, and, with the bark, is astringent, due to the presence of 
large amounts of tannin. 

The leaves of oaks occur singly on the In-anches — never in pairs, one opposite 
another. The winter buds, rounded, angled, or pointed, are formed of overlap- 
ping scales. Some oaks shetl their leaves in autumn of each year ; others, 
have evergreen leaves, which are shed the second or third year. 

Male flowers, minute, arranged singly on thread-like stems, hang down in loose, 
tassel-like clusters from buds on twigs of the previous year's growth. Female 
flowers, minute, very inconspicuous, biid-like bodies, are produced singly or 
several in a stemmed cluster, from the bases of young growing leaves of the 
spring; they develop into a nut-like fruit (acorn) in one or two seasons. 
A notable exception to this arrangement of flowers is found in a section of the 
genus QitcrcKs Pamtiia (treated by some authors as a distinct genus). In these 
oaks, from 3 to 5 male flowers occur together, the groups are scattered along up- 
right stems and grow singly from the bases of yoimg leaves of the season (some- 
times from the bases of the leaves of the previous year). Single female flowers 
are also borne at some of these leaf-bases, usually at the uppermost ones. 

Flowers of all oaks are fertilized by the wind. The acorns which mature in 
a single season grow steadily to full size during that period, while those which 
mature in two seasons develop only very slightly the first summer (appearing 
as miniature acorns), and begin to increase perceptibly in size only at the open- 
ing of the second season. Mature acorns of annual-fruiting oaks are therefore 
found on twigs of the year, while those of biennial-fniiting oaks are attached to 
2-year-old twigs. By inspecting the biennial oaks in autumn or winter it 
may always be determined whether or not they are to bear seed the following 
season. Seed production is more or less periodic, at intervals ranging from 
one to three years; but occasional trees bear fruit for several consecutive 
seasons. 

The fruits, called acorns, are distinctive in having a separable, scaly — some- 
times bristly — cup partly or almost wholly inclosing the smooth, thin-shelled nut. 
Seed of the white-oak acorns is usually whitish, sweetish, and palatable, while 
that of black-oak acorns is yellowish and bitter with tannin. In autumn, 
when the nuts are mature, either the nuts fall from the cups or, in the less 
easily separable fruits, both nuts and cups fall together. 

Under favorable conditions acorns may germinate in autuum, Imt they com- 
monly do not germinate until spring. The seed, or firm, inner body of the 
acorn, consists of two seed-leaves, seiiarated down the centei", and from between 
these, as germination proceeds, grow both the root, or radicle, and the main 
stem of the little oak. Unlike those of some other trees, the seed-leaves of the 
oaks do not form the first green, leaf-like organs, but remain in the split shell 
and furnish nutriment to the growing stem and root until their supply is 
exhausted, when they become black and later fall from the stem. A character- 
istic of the seedling is the production of a very large, long taproot. This grows 
for the first one or two years at the expense of the stem, which gains but little 
in height meantime. It enables seedlings repeatedly to survive ground fires 
which kill the short stem. A new shoot may be formed many times and the 
little tree finally establish itself. 

Acorns are disseminated entirely through the agency of flood waters and 
animals. Mammals and l)irds eat them in large numbers and so reduce the 
chances of reproduction, but by burying or otherwise storing them for winter 
use they virtually plant them. 



278 FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Oaks are of ancient origin, remains of them found in the Cretaceous and 
Tertiary periods showing that they once occupied a much more northern 
habitat than their existing descendants do now. 

Approximately 300 species of oaks are known in the world. About 53 species 
occur within the United States, and all except 3 or 4 of these are trees. Four- 
teen tree oaks inhabit the Pacific region. All of these enter or belong wholly 
to California, while one or two of them extend into the southern Rocky Moun- 
tain region. This enumeration of species does not include numerous varieties 
of oaks, nor hybrids, of which a good many have already been described. Others 
are likely to be discovered. 

Valley Oak. 

Quercus lobata Nee. 

DISTIXGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Valley oak, so called because it grows chiefly in open valleys, is the largest 
of western oaks. A striking characteristic is its scattered occurrence. Massive, 
short-trunked individuals, with enormously broad, often symmetrical, round- 
toped crowns, grow naturally far apart, forming picturesque vistas through 
their open ranks. The huge trunk, with grayish, deeply furrowed bark, gives 
off very large, rough-barked, arching limbs at from 8 to 25 feet from the ground, 
the drooping lower branches sometimes reaching the ground. Occasional trees 
have tall, undivided trunks, with small spreading or drooping short branches 
in a narrow, dome-like crown ; generally, however, there is not more than a single 
length of clear saw timber in the trunks. Height, from 60 to 75 feet, sometimes 
80 or 100 feet, with a diameter of from 30 to 40 inches or more. As it straggles 
up narrow valleys into the foothills it becomes small, often under 30 feet in 
height and 1 foot through. Mature leaves (fig. 123), shed in autumn, are 
variable in size and form on the same tree ; deep green and minutely hairy 
(star-shaped hairs) on their top sides, lighter and minutely hairy beneath; 
leaf stems also haiiy. Acorns (fig. 123), matured in one season and sometimes 
produced in very large quantities.a are also variable in size ; bright chestnut 
brown when ripe. Wood, pale dull brown, very brittle, firm, often cross-grained 
and difficult to split or work. On account of its poor timber form the trees are 
rarely if ever cut for anything but fuel, for which, however, they are much 
used. 

Longevity. — Nothing is known of the extreme age attained, but it is believed 
to reach at least from 300 to 400 years. One tree 21i inches in diameter showed 
an age of 57 years. 

RANGE. 

WESTERN" Califorxia. — Interior plains and valleys of coast ranges and western foot- 
hills of Sierras from below mouth of Pitt River on upper Sacramento River, at the north, 
where it grows from sea level to 2,000 feet, southward to Tejon Pass, Tehachapi Valley, 
Antelope Valley (west end of Mojave Desert), and across southern coast mountains; 
here growing at elevation of 100 to 4,500 feet, and reaching its southernmost limits in 
Santa Monica and Lamanda Park (within the city of Los Angeles). Abundant in Sacra- 
mento Valley, extending northward to Anderson on the river and Shasta (town) in 
western foothills (Shasta County), reaching also valleys of lower Sierra foothills. Both 
sides Sacramento River and tributaries in Tehama, Glenn, and Butte counties. Northern 
coast ranges noted in Stony Creek National Forest northward to Gravelly Valley and 
other streams ; in Mendocino County northward to Round Valley, Cahto, and Laytons- 

" In some parts of the tree's range the sweet acorns are gathered and fed to swine in 
lieu of grain. 



FOKEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



279 



ville (headwaters of Eel River, Mendocino County) ; westward to Cahto, Russian River 
Valley at Willets and Ukiah (Mendocino County), and down river into Sonoma County, 
where west limits are Forestville (west edge of redwood belt), and farther south. Green 
Valley and Camp Meeker ; southward to Ignacio, San Geronimo Valley, and north base 




.—Quercus lobata. 

Mount Tamalpais (Marin County) to ShellvfUe (Sonoma Creek, Sonoma County). Lake 
Count!/: In south at Middletown. Coyote, and Wennok Lake valleys and I'utah Creek; 
about Clear I-ake, and Ciiche Creek from Lower Lake to Sacramento Valley ; east side 
of Clear Lake northward on shore to east of Lower Lake ; north side of Sulphur Bank 



280 FOREST TREES OP THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Arm and on Ellem Island -(east end of Sulphur Bank Arm) ; west side of Clear Lake to 
Lakeport, Kelseyville, and Soda Bay. East of Clear Lake to North Fork of Cache Creek 
and to head of Long Valley. Colusa County: Common on Sacramento River, north and 
south of Colusa ; also in west Colusa County in most watered valleys ; abundant in 
Cortena Valley and between Cortena and Bear creeks, also throughout Bear Creek 
country ; westward in all valleys from Sites to Stony Ford ; west of Stony Ford, sparingly, 
to near foot of Snow Mountain. Yolo County: Knights Landing to Woodland and Davis; 
throughout Capay Valley, up Cache Creek into foothills to Clear Lake ; east side of 
Southern Pacific Railroad between Yolo and Zamora ; from Madison westward on Cache 
Creek to Esparto ; between Davisville and Swingle Switch. Sutter County: Sacramento 
River and adjacent sloughs between Colusa and Marysville buttes ; north of buttes, in 
narrow belt (1 or 2 miles wide), but east of buttes, reaching to Marysville on Feather 
River. Xapa County: Throughout Napa Valley to Calistoga and lower slopes of Mount 
St. Helena. Butte County: East to vicinity of Chico and Durham; recedes at Durham 
toward the Sacramento, reappearing at Biggs, thence going southward in Sutter and 
Yuba counties to Marysville Buttes and to Yuba and Feather rivers ; Honcut Creek 
between Butte and Yuba counties ; Feather River to beyond Bidwell Bar and down river 
nearly to its mouth ; Yuba and other tributary rivers from Sacramento to foothills ; 
noted at Dry Creek crossing and 2 miles east of Oregon House (between Marysville 
and Camptonville). Placer County: Sacramento Valley to a little above Clipper Gap. 
Sacramento County: Sacramento River, American River (very abundant), Cosumnes 
River, Deer Creek, and about Gait. San Joaquin County: Sacramento River, Stockton, 
Lodi, and eastward to foothills ; Mokelumne River from Lockefoi-d to Wallace. Eldorado 
County: Consumnes River between Nashville and Plymouth, and from Nashville to 
Eldorado ; at about 2,000 on ridge between North and Middle forks of Cosumnes ; 
North Fork Cosumnes River ; and Middle Fork between Pleasant Valley and Oleta ; 
also a little west of Mount Orcum ; near Smith Flat (east of Placerville) ; Stanislaus 
National Forest, at 500 to about 2,000 feet, and near Green Valley, Shingle Springs, 
Pleasant Valley, Calaveras River at Jenny Lind, Bear Creek Valley (west side of Bear 
Mountains), Garden Valley, vicinity of Coloma, Lotus, Indian Diggins, Coyoteville, 
West Point, Glencoe, Railroad Flat, and Sheep Ranch. Amador County: Jackson and 
Sutter creeks and between lone and Forest Home ; Buena Vista and throughout Jack- 
son Valley ; foothills for 3 or 4 miles east of Jackson ; apd between Jackson and Ply- 
mouth and between Plymouth and Oleta ; Deadmans and Dry creeks, at point about 3 
miles southeast of Oleta, and midway between Volcano and Pine Grove ; reservoir 4| 
miles west of Pine Grove. Calaveras County: West part, particularly on Mokelumne 
River; on flat 2 miles east of Valley Springs (road to San Andreas), and between latter 
and Mountain Ranch ; also near Wiggin's sawmill (between Mountain Ranch and Rail- 
road Flat) ; common on Mokelumne River below Mokelumne Hill, and between latter 
and West Point ; lower edge of western yellow-pine belt below canyon of South Fork 
Mokelumne River. Tuolumne County: West part and on lower Stanislaus River and 
between Sonora and Murpheys ; east of Sonora to Soulsbyville and Carters ; Big Creek 
(northeast of Groveland), and eastward several miles; also on Deer Flat (north of Big 
Oak Flat). Mariposa County: Eastward from Mariposa 3 or 4 miles in lower edge of 
western yellow pine (3,000 feet) ; on a branch Chowchilla Creek (below Chowchilla 
Hill). Merced County: Merced River above and below Falls and between latter and 
Snelling. Madera County: Cold Springs to Miami Sawmill and southward over Crane 
Valley, at Fresno Flats, about North Fork (town), between Raymond and Wawona 
occurring up to Wassama Valley at Ahwahnee, also in Chowchilla Canyon : between 
Wassama and Fresno Flat, and from latter to Coarse Gold Gulch ; between O'Neil and 
North Fork. Fresno and King counties: San Joaquin River Canyon in most gulches 
and basins; Toll House (1.000 feet); north of Kings River in Burrough and Watts 
-\ alleys and on Sycamore Creek; south of Kings River, in Squaw Valley and Mill Creek 
Valley, where it goes beyond Dunlap ; Mill Creek to Badger and Eshom Valley ; Kings 
River, site of old Kingston, a few miles north of Tulare Lake (Kings County) ; south- 
ward on Kings River to within about 2 miles of Hanford and to a point about 4 miles 
north of Lemoore ; between Armona and Hardwick belt on Kings River goes southward 
about 5 miles and northward about 3 miles, being 7 or 8 miles wide ; northward near 
Cando Switch and at Lillis. Tulare County: Vicinity of Visalia and to Venice Hills; 
from region of Visalia toward Tulare Lake as far as Waukeena (20 miles i ; eastward to 
near Exeter and into foothills as on the Kaweah River and road to Aukland, going well 
into mountains ; about " Lemoncove " and up Kaweah River to beyond " Redstone," 
and to Whitney Power and Light Company's plant (East Fork Kaweah River), and 
probably to within 2 miles of west boundary of Sequoia National Park. Abundant In 
southern Coast Range valleys. Alameda and Contra Costa counties: Pleasanton Valley 
and northward to San Ramon and Walnut Creek; eastward to Mount Diablo (in canyons, 
on both sides, cutting the basal slopes) ; east side of Mount Diablo, on Marsh Creek, 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 281 

almost to Brentwood. Santa Clara County: Santa Clara Valley southward to Gilroy ; 
also on lower slopes of Mount Hamilton. San Mutro and Santa Cruz countira: Between 
south end of San l-"rancisco Bay and base of the Santa Cruz Mountains ; east base of 
hills west of I'alo Alto and southward. >S'o« licnito County: San Juan Valley, particu- 
larly borders and foot of surrounding hills ; common in San Benito and Bear valleys 
from San Benito southward; also in Ury Lake Valley. Monterey County: Not In Monte- 
rey region nor on coast ; nor in lower part of Salinas Valley below Kings City, and prob- 
ably not for some miles above Kings City, but common in hot interior valleys ; Santa 
Lucia Mountains (Monterey National Forest), at 500 to nearly 5,000 feet elevation on 
■watersheds of Sur, Carmelo, Arroyo Seco, San Antonio, and Nacimiento rivers ; noted in 
upper part Arroyo Seco and Reverse Canyon ; also on Milpitas Creek from foot of Santa 
Lucia I'eak southward to old San Antonio Mission and .lolon ; thence to Dani Ranch ; 
San Luis Obispo National Forest, at 400 to 2,500 feet in Carriso, Salinas, Santa Mar- 
garita, San Luis, Arroyo Grande, and Iluasna river basins ; not on dry Tulare Plains 
to east in San Joaquin Valley, except in protected localities, where it ascends a few 
Sierra foothill streams to 3,250 feet ; on basal slopes of Bear Mountain and eastward 
to Caliente ; from Caliente to Tehachapi Valley ; west end of Tehachapi Valley ; about 
the borders of Cummings Valley (west of Tehachapi*, and thence northwestward down 
mountains to plain ; at Tejon Ranch and along Tejon Creek ; in Canada de las Uvas from 
Libre Ranch to Fort Tejon (elevation, 3,l~y> feet) and to Castac Lake; also in Antelope 
Valley (east of Tehachapi Mountains), the west end of Mohave Desert. One of the 
most important oaks in Santa Bartiara Mountains at 100 to 4,500 feet, but only in Santa 
Maria, Santa Ynez. Newhall. and Klizabeth river valleys and in Ojai Valley ; vicinity of 
Los Angeles, in Chatsworth I'ark, and at San Fernando ; on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz 
Islands. 

OCCtlRREXCE. 

In low valleys (both narrow and broad) and rolling low plateaus; in fresh, rich, 
loamy soil, or, less commonly, in dry, gravelly soil. 

In pure, very open (often distantly scattered) stands; largest in deep alluvial soils. 
On borders of valleys with blue oak. 

Cn.MATic C'l.N'DiTiONS. — Similar to those of California live oak, but under less imme- 
diate influence of sea. • 

ToLER.vNCE. — Endures considerable shade in youth, and shows tolerant qualities when 
old, but essentially light needing. 

Reproduction. — Very prolific seeder at intervals of about two years. Reproduction 
exceedingly scanty, due probably to the fact that trees grow on grass-covered, pastured, 
or wheat land, the surface of which is rarely broken where the mast falls. Seed germi- 
nates readily when well covered in fresh litter or soil, but it is seldom so covered by 
natural means. 

Brewer Oak. 

Qucrcus hrciceri Engelmann. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Brewer oak, generally called "shin oak" because of its low. slirnbhy form, 
is rarely, if ever, a tree, but forius dense, continuous tliickets, in wbicli its 
slender stems are usually from 4 to 8 feet high (or, in specially favorable sites, 
from V2 to 18 feet high) and from 2 to 4 inches in diameter. The bark is 
scaly and drill gray. Season's twigs, pale reddish-brown to reddish-yellow, are 
minutely hairy. Mature leaves (fig. 124), shed in autumn, are deep, shiny 
green and rougbish with very minute (star-shaped) hairs on their top sides: 
lighter green and minutely woolly beneath; varying in. length from about li 
to 3i inches. 

Of no commercial use. but important as an effective cover for rocky slopes, 
its network of creeping roots, from which its sucker-like stems originate, 
making irresistible barriers to run-off waters. 



Californi.\. — West slopes of Sierras, at about lower edge of yellow pine growth, from 
northern border' of State southward to upper Kaweah River basins in Tulare County, 



282 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

and westward, at north, to southern Trinity Mountains, here occurring on Canyon 
Creek. Forms extensive thickets on upper San Joaquin River at about 6,000 feet, and 
to some extent also in Kaweah River valleys. 




Fig. 124. — Querciis hreweri. 



OCCUKKENCE. 



Mountain slopes in dry gravelly and rocky soils. In extensive pure growth, or in 
small patches interspersed among low chaparral brush, scrubby Kellogg oak, Fremontia, 
etc. Peculiarly even-aged stands of great density occur at north. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 283 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those in range of western yellow pine. 

Tolerance.— Slender, clean stems indicate decided intolerance of shade ; small crowns 
always in full light. Seed'mgs endure slight shade. Seeding habits undetermined. 

Repro'dlction. — A prolific, but apparently an irregular seeder. Reproduced exten- 
sively from root sprouts. 

Garry Oak. 
Quercus gar ry ana Hooker. 

DISTINGUISHIXG CHARACTERISTICS. 

Next to valley oak, Garry oak, known most commonly as " white oak," is the 
largest oak in the Pacific coast region. Occasionally from 75 to 90 feet high, but 
usually from 50 to GO feet high and from 18 to 30 inches in diameter, with a 
short, clear trunk and a broad, round-topped crown ; the large limbs tend up- 
ward; the lower ones, however, stand out straight and the sprays droop some- 
what. On high moiuitain slopes it is a small, shrubby tree and on exposed situa- 
tions along the seacoast a very low shrub. The light grayish-brown bark of 
large trunks has wide ridges and shallow, narrow furrows. Year-old twigs are 
conspicuously hairy — very much so when young — while the large buds, from 
three-eighths to one-half inch long, are thickly coated with pale rust-colored hairs. 
Mature leaves (fig. 125), shed in autumn, are thick and somewhat leathery, 
very deep, shiny green and smooth on their top sides, and pale green and usu- 
ally decidedly hairy, but sometimes only very slightly so, beneath ; leaf stems 
hairy. Leaves of some small tree or shrubby forms are thinner than those of 
large trees, but their twigs and buds are the same. Leaves range from Si to GJ 
inches in length. Acorns (fig. 125), sweet; matured in one season. Wood pale 
yellowish brown, hard, fine-grained, strong, rather tough, and durable. Similar 
in quality to that of eastern white oaks. Young open-grown trees .supply ex- 
ceedingly tough, stiff wood, suitable for wagon tongues and other similar pur- 
poses ; larger trees yield wood suitable for the same purposes as those for 
which standard grades of white oak are employed. Garry oak is the only 
timber oak of the northwest coast country, and for this reason it deserves the 
forester's careful attention. 

Ix)NGEViTY. — Little is known of the age limits, but it is undoubtedly a long- 
lived tree, probably attaining an age of from 250 to 350 years or more. Two 
trees, respectively lOJ and 27 inches through (inside of bark), were 183 and 251 
years old. 

BANGE. 

V.alleys and dry, gravelly slopes and table lands from Vancouver Island southward 
through western Washington and Oregon into coast ranges of northern and central Cali- 
fornia ; generally at elevations from near sea-level to .3, 000 or 4.000 feet. 

Britlsh Columbia. — Only on southeastern coast of A'ancouver Island, where it is large 
but rare and local. From Straits of Fuca, at some distance west of Victoria, northward 
over about one-fourth of east coast to Nanaimo, extending inward about rto miles ; on 
islands of Culf of Georgia ; an isolated grove on northwest end of Vancouver Island, on 
Quatsino Sound, and another on Fraser River (mainland) l-i miles alxjve Yale. Described 
originally from plains arouncj Vancouver, on mainland, but not seen there since. 

Washington. — Occasional slopes and prairies, in Puget Sound and Columbia River 
basins, also ascending west slope of Cascades to considerable elevations and extending to 
east slope in the Columbia and Yakima River valleys ; generally below .3.800 feet. 
Locally noted as follows: Islands of I'uget Sound; Fairhaven (Whatcom County) ; vicin- 
ity of Seattle; Steilacoom, and Roy (south end of Puget Sound, Pierce County), and 
farther south at Winlock (Lewis County) ; Satsop (Chehalis County) ; west base of 
Mount Rainier ; near Mount Adams ; Columbia River Valley eastward to The Dalles ; 
White Salmon and Bingen (southwest Klickitat County) ; Tampico (central western 
Yakima County) ; Klickitat River near Ilellroaring Canyon. 



284 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



Oregon. — Chiefly Willamette River Valley (western Oregon), ascending west slope of 
Cascades sometimes to an elevation of about 3,000 feet and into lower yellow pine 
growth ; on east slopes of Cascades at north and lower Siskiyous at the south. Not 
detected on sea side of coast ranges. Locally noted as follows : Beaverton, on Columbia 
River, and at mouth of Willamette River ; Willamette bottoms near Portland ; vicinity of 
Hood River; northeast and east slopes of Mount Hood fin T. 1 S., R. 10 E., and T. 3 S, 
R. 11 E.i, here occurring on Tygh River Valley; head of the Willamette (T. 20 S., R. 2 




Fig. 125. — Quercus garryana. 



E., and T. 21 S., R. 3 E.) ; throughout Rogue River Basin, north slopes of Siskiyous, and 
at Waldo in western Siskiyous. 

California. — Northwest part, generally up to lower edge of yellow pine growth at 3,000 
or 4,000 feet ; westward to inland slope of seaward range, and probably not as far east- 
ward as Mount Shasta (but reported in Lassen Peak National Forest) ; in Trinity 
National Forest, eastward to point between Lewiston and Weaverville, just wost of Sac- 
ramento Valley ; extends southward in coast ranges sparingly to Sonoma County — possibly 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 285 

to Marin County, and south of San Francisco to Santa Cruz Mountains. Locally noted 
on most south slopes and valleys of Trinity National Forest, such as Grouse Creek, on 
Humboldt Trail, near South Fork Mountain, at 2,500 feet, Rattlesnake Basin, at 3,800 
feet, and creek bottom near Friends Ranch, at 3,700. 

OCCURRENCE. 

In alluvi.il high bottoms, valley's, prairies ; less commonly on dry hill and (north) 
mountain slopes. In deep, fresh, humous soils (largest in west Washington and Oregon), 
and also in dry. gravelly or rocky soils (small or .scrubby). Occurs only in open mixture; 
usually with Kellogg oak and Douglas fir, but also with madrofia, western yellow pine, 
and Oregon ash. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of Douglas fir. 

ToLEUANCE. — Endures slight shade in youth. 

Reprodcction. — Prolific periodic seeder (about every two years). Seedlings rather 
scarce, most frequent on moist humous soil and litter ; unbroken, grassy surfaces where 
seed trees often grow are unfavorable for reproduction. 

Sadler Oak. 

Quercus saiUeriana R. Brown Campst. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Sadler oak — named in honor of a Scottish botanist — has no common name ex- 
cept " scrub oak." Though it is only a shrub under 6 feet in height, it is included 
here because of its value as a slope cover. It produces extensive dense thickets 
on high, dry slopes between about 4,000 and 9,000 feet elevation. The very dis- 
tinct form of its leaves (fig. 120). which are thick, deep yellow-green, smooth, 
and shiny on their upper surfaces, and white, smooth, or slightly hairy beneath, 
readily distinguish it from any other associated oaks. The leaves, though not 
strictly evergreen, remain on the branches until the next season's foliage is 
produced. Acorns are matured in one season. 

RANGE. 

Coast and Siskiyou mountains of southwestern Oregon and northwestern California. 
Oregon. — On top of coast mountains along old Wimer road; top of Siskiyous near 
Happy Camp Trail. 

California. — Crescent City Trail, Del Norte County, near Oregon lino. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Mountain slopes in dry, rocky and gravelly soil. In extensive thickets of pure growth. 

Blue Oak. 
Qiierciif! (loiif/Iasii Hooker and Arnott. 
DISTINGUISIIIXG CHARACTEIil.STICS. 

Appropriately called blue oak on account of the blue-green color of its foliage, 
but known locally also as " white oak," from its light, ashy-gray bark. Trunks 
exposed to the sun are especially light colored, sometimes even whitish, but are 
considerably darker gray in sheltered situations. 

Usually small or medium sized, from. 30 to 40 feet high and from 10 to l.j 

inches in diameter; exceptionally, from dO to 75 feet in height and 2 feet in 

diameter; larger trees occur, but very rarely. The rather thin, narrowly ridged 

bark flakes off easily. The smooth-looking trunks are short and clear of branches 

15188—08 19 



286 



FOREST TREES OP THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



for about 10 to 20 feet ; they are invariably leaning or bent, and give off short, 
thick, horizontal, contorted limbs, which form a compact, flatfish, dome-like 
crown. Year-old twigs are exceedingly brittle, dull gray to reddish brown, and 




Fig. 126. — Quercus sadlcriana. 



more or less minutely hairy. Mature leaves (figs. 127, 128), extremely variable 
in size and form ; their upper sides conspicuously tinged light blue, with minute, 
sparse, star-shaped hairs; beneath pale bluish or yellowish green, with very 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 287 

fine soft hairs; midvoins and their branches also with very fine soft hairs. 
They are shed gradually late in autumn. Acorns (^fig. 128), deep chestnut 
brown when ripe and exceedingly variable in form, are matured in one season. 



Fig. 127. — Qucnus doughisii. 

Wood, dark mottled l)rown. very dense, heavy, stiff, and brittle, very cross- 
grained and diflicult to sjilit; sjipwood. uncoraniouly thick. Large trunks are 
often unsound. It is unfit for any ordinary commercial use, but is good for fuel, 
for which it is extensively used. 



288 



FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



Longevity, — Very little is known of the age attained. Believed to be long- 
lived. Trees from 14 to 20 inches in diameter are from 17.5 to 280 years old. 
Owing to the decayed heart of large trees it is exceedingly difficult to determine 
their age. 




Fig. 128. — Quercus douglasii. 

RANGE. 

California. — Foothills of coast ranges and west slope of Sierras from Mendocino 
County and mountains south of Mount Shasta southward to Santa Ynez and Tehachapi 
mountains and to borders of Mohave Desert. In coast ranges, common on lower foot- 
hills of inner mountains and rare in valleys; extends westward and northward to east 



FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 289 

slopes of seaward ranjje at T'kiah on Russian River, becoming very abundant soutli of 
San Francisco Bay. Common in Trinity and Shasta National Forests at 500 to 2,000 feet 
elevation, on foothills south of I'itt River, on lower Sacramento, McCloud, and Trinity 
rivers, extending eastward in Trinity National Forest from beyond Shasta (town) to 
point just west of Redding, occurring also at point 18 miles northeast of Redding. 
Abundant in Stony Creeic National Forest in coast ranges on lowest hills of east slope. 
In Santa Lucia Mountains, mainly on east slopes in Carmelo, Arroyo Seco, San Antonio, 
and Nacimiento river basins at 2.50 to .3.000 feet. San Luis Obispo National Forest, 
generally distributed in Carriso, Salinas, Santa Margarita, San Luis, Arroyo Grande, 
and Iluasna river watersheds at 1,000 to 2. ."300 feet. Santa Barbara National Forest, 
only in northwestern part ; in Santa Maria and Santa Ynez river basins, where it grows 
at elevations of 550 to 4,000 feet. Elsewhere in southern coast ranges, limited to 
borders of Mohave desert on north slopes of northern Sierra Liebre Mountains and in 
San Fernando Valley at Encino (southern part of San Gabriel National Forest), the 
southern limit. On west slope of Sierras it occurs very generally and abundantly in 
foothills at 500 to 3,000 feet, southward throughout that side into valleys of Tehachapi 
Mountains; common, at north, in Lassen I'eak and Plumas National Forests up to 2,000 
feet. Abundant in Stanislaus National Forest on lowest hills between 300 and 1,500 
feet, as it is also, up to about 1,000 feet, in the Sierra National Forest. 

OCCURRENCE. 

On low foothills and their valleys ; in dry, loamy, gravelly, and rocky soils, l-'orms 
extensive, peculiarly open, pure stands, and grows with Wislizenus oak, California 
white and live oaks, and Sabine pine. 

Cli. VIATIC Co.xDiTiONS. — Similar to those of Sabine pine. 

TOLKRAXCE. — Very intolerant of shade. 

REPuoorcTioN. — Prolific periodic seeder. Seedlings scarce in ground usually grazed or 
cultivated, where much seed is destroyed or has little chance of germination ; rather 
abundant elsewhere. 

Alvord Oak. 

Quercus alvordkina ° Ea.st\vood. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

So little is known now of the newly found Alvord oak that it is impossihle to 
give an adequate account of its characters.^ 

Said to he a " small tree or shruh " with " small, brittle, and easily falling 
dentate [toothed] leaves," from the texture of which it is assigned to the white- 
oak group. The acorn is smooth, except the minutely scaly cup, which has 
very fine, close, whitish down. Nothing is known of the height, the form of 
trunk or crown, the wood, or other characters. It appears to be closely related 
to Q. dumoxn, one form of which it resembles in its leaves and acorns. Careful 
field study of this oak is required to establish its characters. 

RANGE. 

Southern California. Described as occurring on " hills near the desert," and further 
as an " oak in the mountains connecting the Coast Range with the Sierra Nevada at 
the southern end of the San .loaquin Valley bordering the desert." 

Engelmann Oak. 

Quercus rnyclnuinni Greene. 

DLSTINGl LSIIIN(; ( II.\RACTER1STICS. 

Engelmann oak is a little-known tree, called " evergreen white oak " on account 
of its partly evergreen leaves, which remain on the trees fiom one spring to the 

" Named in honor of William Alvord, former president of the California Academy of 
Sciences. 

" llerbarium specimens, kindly sent by Miss Eastwood from a meager supply, are 
insufficient for an illustration. 



290 



rOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



next and begin to fall when the new leaves are being formed. It is not strictly 
evergreen. Its general aspect is that of a white oak with deeply furrowed, 
widely ridged, pale grayish-brown bark, and a big, irregular, dense, rounded 




Fig. 129. — Quercus engehnaiini ; young shoot leaves. __ 

crown. It is from 40 to .50 feet high (occasionally somewhat taller), and from 
20 to 30 inches in diameter. The large limbs stand out almost horizontally 
above a short, clear trunk. Twigs of the first season are reddish-brown and 



FOEEST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



291 



coated with very minute, short hairs, which later disappear. Mature leaves 
(fig. 130), very distinctive, are thick, very deep hlue-green. and either smooth 
or with a few star-shaped hairs on their top sides ; under surfaces and leaf 




Fig. 130. — Quercus engelmainii. 



Stems light vellowish-gi-een. and more or less coated with tawny minute hairs 
(which are sometimes practically absent, however) ; exceedingly variable in 
form and size, larger leaves occurring on vigorous shoots (fig. 129). Acorns 



292 FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

are matured in one season, and when ripe are darlc to ]iglit chestnut-brown; 
cups externally clear red-brown and minutely hairy; their scales, especially 
those at the bottom, having a thick, ridge-like projection on the back and sharp, 
hairy points. 

Wood very dark brown, exceedingly heavy, dense, stiff, and brittle ; green 
wood checks and warps badly when exposed. It has nothing to recommend it 
for commercial purposes, but locally it is likely to be of some importance for 
fuel, of which It furnishes a good quality. It is a useful desert species, and 
owing to the limited number of trees and their restricted range, attention should 
be given to its reproduction and extension. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. Judged to be moderately long-lived. One 
tree 14* inches (inside of bark) showed an age of only 3S years. This indicates 
rapid growth for a desert oak. 

RANGE. 

Southern California and northern Lower California. 

California. — Low hills in coast regions of southern part from Sierra Madre, where It 
extends from Altadena to Glendora, southward in a helt about 50 miles wide, beginning 
15 to 20 miles from sea, to mesa east of San Diego. Forms about one-third of the 
stand in Palomar Mountains and is second in abundance to Quercus califoniica. Rare 
in Cuyamaca Mountains. At Mexican line extends from Campo to Tecate Mountain, 27 
miles from coast. 

LowEK California. — Extends only a short distance from north boundary. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Low hill slopes and dry, rolling mesas, in loamy sand and gravel soils. Forms small 
groups and open pure patches, but usually in mixture with California live oak. Climatic 
conditions, silvical characteristics, and reproduction undetermined. 

California Scrub Oak. 

Quercus dumosa Nuttall. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

With the possible exception of the polymorphous Quercus undulata, of Rocky 
Mountain range. California scrub oak unquestionably varies more than all 
other oaks in the form and size of its leaves and acorns. No sort of satisfactory 
harmony can be established between the perplexing phases of its development, 
and one is likely to be hopelessly confused without a most comprehensive tield 
study of the bushes and small trees belonging to this species. At least 3 species 
and as many varieties have been singled out, but the distinctions between them 
are hopelessly confused by the occasional occurrence of their various types of 
leaf and fruit on the branches of a single individual. Unless the observer has 
a comprehensive view of all the points that seem to compel the uniting of 
these diverging forms into one variable species, and one fairly constant sub- 
species, this reduction may seem hardly proper. 

It is known as " scrub oak." for it occurs in the main, singly or massed in 
low thickets, with the fine, exceedingly stiff twigs and branches closely mingled. 
The California coast island representatives grown in sheltered places are from 
20 to 25 feet high and from S to 12 or more inches in diameter, with scaly brown 
bark; while the bark of the scrub forms is scaly and light ashy-gray. The 
twigs, so rigid as to seem thorny to one penetrating a thicket, are branched at 
very abrupt angles. No adequate statement can be made of the size or form 
characters of the leaves and acorns, types of which are figured as fully as pos 
sible in fig. 131. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



293 



The best marked variety is Quercus dumosa revoluta Sargent, to be looked 
for especially in the northern and southern ranjie of the species. It is distin- 
guished by its strongly rolled or curled leaves, more or less coated with whitish 
hairs, and with prickly borders ; the curled edges are turned toward the under 
surface of the leaf. Leaves of a season's growth adhere to the branches until 




Fig. 131. — Quercus dumosa. 

the succeeding spring, and begin to fall as the new leaves are formed. Acorns 
are matured in one season. 

Wood light brown, hard, brittle; of no commercial use. The species useful only 
in assisting, with other desert hill shrubs and small trees, in forming a protective 
oover on the too scantily clothed dry slopes. Its strong roots go deep into rocky 



294 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 

crevices and send up sprouts year after year, provided that the thin stems are 
not too severely burned. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. A single stem 4* inches through shows an 
iige of 20 years. 

BANGE. 

Central California to Lower California. Chaparral belt of foothills from central 
Sierras and of coast ranges in Mendocino County and Trinity Mountains, southward to 
northern Lower California ; also on islands off southern California, here, only, becoming 
a tree of any considerable size. 

California. — Common scrub oak of southern coast ranges, the type definitely known 
northward on seaward mountains only to San Mateo County, and on Mount Hamilton 
range to southern Alameda County ; eastward in southern California to desert slopes of 
San Gabriel, San Bernardino, San Jacinto, and Cuyamaca mountains. Common in Santa 
Lucia and San Luis Obispo mountains between 1,000 and 4,000 feet elevation, in Sur, 
Carmelo, Arroyo Seco, San Antonio, Nacimiento, Carriso, Salinas. Santa Margarita, 
San Luis. Arroyo Grande, and Huasna river basins. In central Sierras the species is 
often more common than its variety revoluta. Locally noted in Butte County on foot- 
hills along Chico-Sterling Road; foothills on Sweetwater Creek (Eldorado County) ; in 
Stanislaus National Forest, forming small thickets near bottoms of canyons at 2,500 
to 3.000 feet, on headwaters of Esperanza Creek (tributary North Fork Calaveras River), 
and on San Antonio and Indian Creek (tributaries of South Fork of latter river) ; also 
at Sherlock and West Point. In Sierra National Forest, reported on canyon sides of 
East Fork of Tule River, below Nelson's ranch, at about 5.500 feet elevation and on 
Greenhorn Mountains up to 5.000 feet. Very abundant in southern mountains. Its 
lowest altitude in Santa Barbara National Forest is 1.400 feet, while it goes up to 5,000 
and sometimes 7,000 feet ; in watersheds of Santa Maria. Santa Ynez. Santa Barbara, 
Matilija. I'iru-Sespe, Newhall, and Elizabeth rivers. In San Gabriel Mountains, on south 
and north slopes facing desert, growing on foothills south of .\ntelope Valley (western 
extremity of Mojave Desert), and on Liebre ranch ; abundant on both sides of Cajon Pass, 
and farther west, at west end of Antelope Valley, common on hillsides facing desert ; 
thence southward through Cafiada de las Uvas. In San Bernardino Mountains east- 
ward to canyons facing desert. Abundant in chaparral belt of San Jacinto National 
Forest up to 5,000 feet on mountain sides, and often among pines at higher elevations 
on south side. On Santa Ana Mountains, nearer coast, in scrub growth on tops of range 
at 1,600 feet. Occurs in San Diego County on mountains from near sea (Temecula 
Canyon, near San Diego, and near mouth of Tia Juana River, on Mexican boundary) 
eastward to Coast Range ; here, in Palomar, Balkan, and Cuyamaca mountains, reaching 
east slopes ; on Mexican boundary, down to about 2,54.3 feet on east slope, at Wagon Pass, 
going to about 4,000 feet, and at Jucumba Hot Springs down to 2.S22 feet elevation. 

The form " in Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa islands, off the southern mainland coast, 
usually with rather large lobed leaves, is exceptional in representing the principal tree 
growth of this species. Its size and larger foliage are believed, however, to result from 
its protected habitat in these island canyons. 

Lower Califorxia. — Southward on foothills of Mount San Pedro Martir to Telmo, 
about latitude- 31°. 

The range of Qiiercus dumosa revoluia, which is within that of the species, is imper- 
fectly known. Foothills of central Sierras and of coast ranges chiefly north of San 
Francisco Bay. In Sierras recorded only from Stanislaus National Forest, where it 
forms occasional dense thickets ; locally noted near Volcanoville and Georgetown. Occurs 
rarely in Coast Mountains southward to Santa Lucia Mountains, but replaces species 
apparently only north of San Francisco Bay ; abundant to Mendocino County and Napa 
Valley, and probably with species in Stony Creek National Forest, north of Clear Lake, 
and in Trinity Mountains (Shasta National Forest) : locally noted in Lake County, 
Knoxvllle Grade, Napa River Basin, and in Upper Conn Valley. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Low mountain and foothill slopes and sides of desert hill canyons, in the poorest 
and driest gravelly soils, often so sterile as to support little else. 

In scattered, thick clumps and patches of pure growth, more or less interspersed with 
Christmas berry, mountain mahogany, ceanothus brush, manzanitas and other chaparral, 
of which it is essentially a part. 

Climatic Coxditioxs.— Similar to those of gray pine. 



Quercus macdonaldi Greene. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 295 

Tolerance. — Appears to be tolerant of but little shade. 

Reproduction'. — Abundant seeder ; apparently seeds nearly every year. Seedlings 
moderately abundant in exposed mineral soil of pocliets where seed is well covered by 
washing or other accidents. 

Canyon Live Oak. 

Quercus chrysolepis Liebmaiin. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Canyon live oak is an evergreen oak, with the soft, scaly trunk bark of a 
white oak. Very variable in size, from low, dense chaparral brush to a 
wide-spreading tree 30 or 40 feet high, with huge horizontal limbs and a short, 
thick, clear trunk from 30 to 60 or more inches in diameter. It develops 
the latter form as single individuals in open situations, but on narrow, 
sheltered canyon bottoms and sides it grows tall (rarely straight) and slender, 
with 15 or 20 feet of clear trunk and a small crown ; the stems have very 
little taper. 

Year-old twigs are dark reddish brown, more or less densely covered with 
fine woolly hairs, sometimes nearly or quite smooth ; very woolly when young. 

Mature leaves (figs. 132 to 134) of one season's growth are thick, leathery, 
light yellowish-green in color, and smooth on the top sides ; beneath they are 
covered by a yellowish down.. Later they lose nearly all their woolliness and 
become vei*y i)ale bluish green beneath. Leaves of each season's growth 
persist from 3 to 4 years. Various forms and sizes of leaves are produced by 
trees of different ages. Leaves of large trees usually have very few or no mar- 
ginal teeth (fig. 133), while young trees, and especially vigorous shoots, have very 
spiny-bordered leaves (fig. 1.34). Acorns are matured at the end of the second 
season — a notable exception to the rule among oaks which, like this species, 
have the sort of wood characteristic of white oak. Acorns (figs. 1.32, 1.33). with- 
out visible stems or with very short ones, vary exceedingly in the size and form 
of their nuts and cups, but agree more or less in having nuts of a pale chestnut 
color (downy at the point). The cups, rather thin (figs. 1.32, 133) or very 
thick, are densely covered with a whitish or yellowish short wool, which is 
so dense in some instances as to obscure the cup scales. This yellow coating 
has given the tree the name of " golden-cup oak " in parts of its range. 

A well-marked variety is Quercus chrysolepis pahneri Engelmann. of the 
southern boundary of California. This has very thick, stiff, wide leaves, circu- 
lar in outline (fig. 135, a), with prominent, large, spine-pointed teeth; acorns 
usually sharply conical, often rather long stemmed, and with very shallow, 
thin, sometimes thickish cups (fig. 135, a). Commonly it is shrub-like, from 10 
to 20 feet high, and forms dense thickets. The remarkably distinct form of this 
variety's acorns, together with the fact that the female fiowers are often borne 
on a long stem, indicate that this tree should be considered a distinct species. 

Another distinct variety is Quercus chrijsolepis vacciiiifolia (Kellogg) 
Engelm., a low-massed shrub of very high altitudes, commonly called " huckle- 
berry oak," from the resemblance of its small (three- fourths of an inch to 1 inch 
long), sparingly or indistinctly toothed, usually smooth leaves (fig. 135, 6). 
Acorns are from five-eighths to seven-eighths of an inch long, pointed, and with 
very thin, shallow cups. This variety is exceedingly important for the effective 
low chaparral cover it produces on the highest slopes and ridges of the Sierras. 

Wood of canyon live oak is of better commercial quality than that of any 
other species of oak in its range. It is of a light brown color, variable in grain 
from fine to coarse, very heavy, stiff, and exceedingly tough and strong. Its 
strength is well known to mountain freight teamsters, who prize wagon tongues 
and whiffle-trees made from it very highlj'. The wood is suitable for wheel 
stock and the woodwork of farm implements. 



296 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



Longevity. — Not fully detei'mined. Undoubtedly a long-lived tree, probably 
reaching an age of at least 250 to 300 years. Trees from 10 to 18 inches in 
diameter (canyon growth) are from 98 to 156 years old. 




FiG. lo2. — Quf^ii:us (.hi i/sulcpi^. 



RAXGE. 



Southwest corner of Oregon and southward throughout mountains of California, except 
east side of Sieri-as and southeastern desert, to northern Lower California ; eastward through 
mountains of central and southern Arizona, northern Sonora, and southwestern New 



FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



297 



Mexico; in north, at elevations of about 1,000 to 5,000 feet, and in south, at 2,.500 to 
9,000 feet. Reported from southern Utah and Nevada, but authentic records of its exist- 
fcnce there are lacking. 

Obegon.— Coast mountains south of Cow Creel< Valley (tributary Umpqua River, lat. 42 
50'), and only as a shrub on streams and in canyons. 




Fig. 133. — Quercus chriisolepis 



CALiFnRN-i.\.— Throughout upper foothills, canyons, and summits of coast ranges and 
west side of Sierras, at elevations- of 2.000 to 6,000 feet, altitudes at which it occurs 
generally throughout northern part of State, going westward probably to upper sea slope 



298 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

of Coast Range and eastward to about longitude of Mount Shasta, but not on that 
mountain. In Klamath National Forest, reaching yellow pine belt ; in Trinity Mountains, 
extending eastward nearly to Redding ; in Shasta National Forest, chiefly on canyon 
slopes at 2.000 to 3.000 feet and in lower part of yellow pine belt up to about .5.000 feet ; 
common among foothill trees in Lassen Peak and Plumas National forests. Abundant in 
Sierras throughout higher foothills, generally to 6,000 feet, but very often ascending to 




Fig. 134. — Quercus chrysolcpis. 



8,000 or 9,000 feet. In west border canyons of Tahoe National Forest ; in all principal 
canyons of Stanislaus National Forest, at 1,500 to 6,000 feet, occasionally spreading over 
high "broad valleys, where large trees grow between about 3,000 to 8,000 feet elevation. 
Abundant in valley bottoms of Sequoia and Yosemite National parks. In Sierra National 
Forest it grows in canyons and gulches far below pine belt as well as up into it. 
Locally noted in tliis region as follows ; Merced River, south of Wawona ; Fresno River, 



FOKEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



299 



north of Cold Springs ; Middle Fork Kings River, near Tehiplti Dome, and at mouth of 
Crown Creek; on the South Fork, also in head basin of this and on Bubbs Creek; Middle 
Tule River, at Soda Springs ; East and South Forks of Kaweah River ; South Fork of 
Kern River (opposite Weldon) in region of Cottonwood Creek, at G,200 feet elevation, 




Fig. 135. — Quercus chrysolepi« pnhucri (a). Qiicrcus chrysolepis vacciiii folia th). 



Tehachapi Mountains (south end of Sierras), in such canyons as Canada de las Uvas. 
Common in northern coast ranges; throughout Stony Creek National Forest, but most 
abundant in canyons and brushy slopes of Eel River tributaries, shrubby forms often 
ascending highest summits to 0,000 or 7,000 feet, as on St. Johns, Black Buttes, San- 



300 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 

hedrin, and Bald mountains, but a tree in west side canyons. Rare in San Francisco 
Bay region, and of small size on higher mountains, such as Monte Diablo, Mount Tamal- 
pais. and in Coast Range canyons. South of Monterey, in Santa Lucia Mountains of 
Monterey National Forest, one of commonest trees at l.i500 to 5.000 feet elevation, in 
Sur, Carmelo, Arroyo Seco. San Antonio, and Nacimiento river watersheds. Farther 
south, in San Luis Obispo National Forest, an unimportant tree, in Arroyo Grande water- 
shed, at 1,250 to 3,500 feet. Very common in Santa Barbara, San Gabriel, San Bernar- 
dino, and San Jacinto National forests, often associated with Pseudofsuga macrocarpa up 
to about 6.000 feet. In Santa Barbara National Forest, on watersheds of Santa Maria, 
Santa Ynez, Santa Barbara, Matilija, Piru-Sespe. and Newhall rivers, at elevations of 
1,000 to 6.700 feet. Abundant in all canyons of San Gabriel National Forest, above 
2.500 feet, as it is also in San Bernardino National Forest, occurring here on Santa Ana 
River (a mile below Seven Oaks) at 5.000 feet, and farther upstream, at 5,200 feet. 
Frequent in San .lacinto National Forest, throughout mountains, up to 6.000 feet, but as 
a shrub, at head of Strawberry Valley, and on Tahquitz Ridge, at 7,000 feet elevation. 
Abundant also in Santa Ana range (Orange County), near coast, where it grows in can- 
yons, and as a shrub on summits ; while farther south it is a frequent tree in seaward 
basins of San Diego County, such as of Palomar, Balkan, and Cuyamaca mountains. 
Reported on Providence Mountains (eastern San Bernardino County) near the Colorado 
River. 

Lower California. — Commonest oak on Mount San Pedro Martir, above 4,000 feet 
elevation, and as a small tree above 6.000 feet on both sides of Hanson Laguna range 
(to north). 

The detailed range of this oak east of the Pacific region will be described in 
a later publication. 

Quercus chri/solepis pahneri on foothills and plateaus near southern boundary of 
California, forming large thickets. Noted locally in this region at point 80 miles east 
of San Diego, at Larkens Station, and at Las Juantas. In Lower California, from north 
boundary southward a short distance. 

Quercus cJirysolepis vaccinifoUa occupies higher range of Quercus chrysolepis, forming 
extensive low thickets in Trinity Mountains and Sierras of California ; probably also in 
other parts of the latter tree's range. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Commonly in narrow canyon bottoms and their steep slopes and in coves, sheltered 
depressions, in dry sandy and gravelly soils ; or on exposed slopes, in broken rock and 
crevices. Largest in richer humous soils of sheltered canyon bottoms. 

Sometimes in small pure clumps or patches, but usually in mixture with California 
black and live oaks, highland live oak, bigcone spruce : occasionally with western yellow 
pine and incense cedar. 

Climatic Coxditioxs. — Similar to those of California black oak. 

ToLERAXCE. — Endures considerable heavy shade, especially in youth, but later seeks 
top light, in dense stands producing tall, slender stems with narrow crowns, either in 
partial or full light. Great tolerance is shown by open-grown trees in their heavy, deep, 
leafy crowns. 

Reproductiox. — Prolific seeder at irregular intervals, bu*- reproduction scanty, appar- 
ently as frequent in open as in sheltered sites, thick leaves preventing seedlings from 
suffering in latter places. Silvical requirements not fully determiLcd. 

Quercus tomentella Engelmann. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

No field name appears ever to have been applied to Quercus tomentella, a 
little-known evergreen oak. It is from 30 to 40 feet high and from 12 to 18 
inches in diameter. Somewhat larger ti'ees are reported, and it is likely that 
still larger trees once grew in the sheltered canyons o-f the coast islands, to 
which it is confined. Nothing is known of its trunk and crown form. The trunk 
bark is thin, with broad, closely attached scales, which are brown, tinged with 
red. 

Mature leaves are thick, Itatherj-, deep green, smooth and shiny on their top 
sides, and beneath coated with star-shaped and jointed hairs, as are the stems ; 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 301 

.they remain on the branches about two years before falling (figs. 13G, 137)- 
Margins of the leaves curled toward the under surface. Acorns, matured in 



Fig. 13G. — Quercus tomentclla. 

autumn of the second year, are al)out 1^ inches long and three-fourths of an 
inch thielc, the shallow chestnut-coloi-ed cups covered with a tawny or whitish 
15188—08 20 



302 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

wool (fig. 137). Wood hard, fine-grained, and light yellowish brown. So little 
is known of this oalv now that nothing can be said of its economic qualities. 
Probably too rare and of too limited supply to be of any importance commer- 
cially. 



Fig. 137. — Quercus tomenteUa. 

Longevity. — Probably moderately long-lived. One tree 4i inches in diameter 
(inside bark) showed an age of 44 years 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 303 

RANGE. 

Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz (south of Santa Barbara), Santa Catalina, and San Clemente 
Islands, south of Cape Vincent, off coast of California ; Guadalupe Islands, off coast of 
Lower California. 

OCCURRENCE. 

In narrow canyon bottoms and on exposed slopes, in rocky or gravelly soils. Climatic, 
silvical, and other requirements undetermined. 

California Live Oak. 

Quercus (igrifoUa Nee. 

DISTINGUISHIN G CHARACTERISTICS. 

California live oak is one of the commonest, best known of southern Cali- 
fornia oaks, as well as one of the first to attract the attention of early explorers, 
who called it " holly-leaved oak." from the resemblance of its leaves to the large 
American or European evergreen holly. 

It has a short, clear trunk and a narrow or very broad, dome-shaped, dense 
crown, according to whether it is crowded or in the open. It usually grows In 
the open. Occasionally it is only a low, shrubby tree. It is ordinarily from 
25 to 50 feet in height and from 1 to 2 feet in diameter. Very old trees in the 
open are from 60 to 75 feet high and from 3 to 3^ feet through. Very long, 
thick, crooked limbs are given off from the short, clear trunk (which is often 
only from 4 to 8 feet long), forming with numerous fine twigs a dense, exceed- 
ingly broad crown, sometimes reaching the ground : trees in crowded stands have 
rather slender branches. Small trees and tiie large limbs of big trees have 
smooth, light grayish-brown bark, with frequent ushy-wbite areas, while large 
trees have very thick, hard, blackish or very darlt brown, roughly furrowed 
bark, with wide ridges. Season's twigs, dull gray to reddish brown, with 
pale thestuut-colored buds, are somewhat downy, with very short, whitish hairs.. 

Mature leaves (figs. 138 to 140) are more or less conspicuously curled on 
their prickly-toothed or entire edges and are usually dark (but often light) 
shiny green on their convex upper sides — sometimes coated with light-colored 
minute, star-shaped hairs, while beneath they are paler green, smooth, some- 
wliat shiny, and with brownish hairs in the angles of the veins, or, again, the 
entire under surface is downy with minute, dense hairs. The leaves are thinnish. 
but peculiarly stiff and brittle. The foliage appears to be evergreen, but 
remains on the trees only until the succeeding spring, usually beginning to fall 
before or a short time after the new leaves are formed. Flowers appear mainly 
in early spring, the acorns (fig. 140) maturing in the autumn of that season; 
occasional trees produce flowers in the fall and small immature acorns which 
drop from the trees by spring. The cups of acorns are peculiar in having their 
scaly edges turned in. Wood, brittle, hard, heavy, exceedingly fine-grained, 
reddish brown ; sapwood very thick and darker than heart. It has economic 
value only for fuel, since the tree has a very poor timber form and the wood 
checks and warps badly in seasoning. Bark of this species is extensively used 
to adulterate the similar but much more valuable tanbark obtained from the 
California tanbark oak. 

Longevity. — Few records of the age attained are available. It is judged 
to be exceedingly long-lived. Trees from 12 to 25 inches through are from ?G to 
about 05 years old. 



304 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



KANGE. 

California and Lower California. Valleys and lower foothills of California coast 
ranges, inland through fog belt and southward from Mendocino, Mendocino County, to 
Mount San Pedro Martir, Lower Californfa. Not in great interior valleys of California. 




California. — Not common north of San Francisco Bay. but very abundant in valleys 
about and south of the bay. Plentiful also in southern California between mountains 
and sea, and also on coast islands. Going southward, it extends inland from sea to 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



305 



Monte Diablo. Oakland hills, Santa Clara Valley, to valleys east of Santa Lucia and San 
Luis Obispo Mountains, to southern slopes of Santa Barbara, San Gabriel, eastern slopes 
of San Bernardino to San Gorgonio Pass, at 2,800 feet elevation, and to ranges in San 
Diego County. Locally noted about Inverness and Xicasio (Marin County) and at 
Berkeley; Santa Clara Valley and up western foothills; Big Basin (Santa Cruz County), 
on Flea Protrero, at Monterey. Del Monte, Point Pinyos, and Carmel Bay. In Santa 
Lucia Mountains of Monterey National Forest, an important tree in Sur. Carmelo, Arroyo 
Seco, San Antonio, and Nacimiento river watersheds, ranging throughout this Forest from 
sea level to 3,000 feet on hillsides and in canyons. Locally noted in this region from 




Fig. 1^9. — Quercus ngrifolia. 



near King City to .lolon, and at a point 5 miles north of Danis Ranch (Monterey County). 
Widefy distributed in San Luis Obispo National Forest from sea le%el to 2,500 feet in 
watersheds of Carriso, Salinas. Santa Margarita. .San Luis, Arroyo Grande, and Huasna 
river basins. Common in valleys and foothills of Santa Barbara National Forest from 
sea level to 4,500 feet, in watersheds of Santa Maria, Santa Ynez, Santa Barbara, Ma- 
tilija, Piru-Sespe, Newhall, and Elizabeth rivers. Locally noted at Nordhoff (750 feet), 
Piedro Blanco Creek, Coopers ("anyon at 200 feet (14 miles west of Santa Barbara). 
Abundant in San (Jabriel National Forest from Oak Knoll into Sierra Madre Range; 
here locally noted from lower hills to 1,000 and 3,200 feet at Pasadena (1,000 feet), 4 



306 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



miles northwest of Pasadena, Long Canyon, and at point IJ miles southwest of Straw- 
berry Pealj, at 3,200 feet. Frequent in Trabuco Canyon National Forest (Orange 
County), in nearly all canyons, except at highest elevations. Occurs on a number of 
coast islands, probably on all except San Clemente. Southward it grows in a belt about 
50 miles wide, extending westward to within 15 or 20 miles of coast, and eastward to 
west slope of mountains, but probably not reaching San Jacinto Mountains, though oc 
curring in Palomar and Balkan mountains, and widely over Cuyamaca Mountains ; here 
going eastward to Jacumba Hot Springs (2,822 feet elevation.) Locally noted near 
Mexican boundary in San Diego County at Alpine, 2,275 feet elevation, and Pine Valley, 
at 4,200 feet. 

Lower California. — More or less common in low canyons on west side of Mount San 
Pedro Martir ; occurs here in Encinas Canyon (near San Tomas) and at San Antonio, 
at 3,000 feet, and on Santa Cruz Creek. 




Fig. 140. — Quercus agrifolia. 



OCCURRENCE. 

Characteristic on low hills and open valleys, slopes of higher foothills, shallow canyons, 
in dry loamy or gravelly soils ; also (but stunted) on exposed seashore. 

Forms extensive, pure, open forests, and is also mixed with valley oaks, blue oak, 
Wislizcnus oak, and big-cone spruce, and occasionally with canyon live oak, California 
sycamore, and white alder. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of Monterey pine. 

Tolerance. — Very tolerant of shade throughout life. 

Reproduction. — Prolific periodic seeder, but reproduction generally scanty. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



307 



Wislizenus Oak. 

Qvercns icislizeni A. de Candolle. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Wislizenus oak is not known by tliis name. It is hoped, liowever, that this 
name may be used in preference to "live oak," the present field name, which is 
applied to several other oaks with evergreen foliage. 




Fig. 141. — Qucrcus icisli~eni. 

Very similar in size, general form, and appearance of the bark to the pre- 
ceding species, with which it is often associated and with which, when young, 



308 FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

it may be easily confounded. It does not have such broad crowns nor such 
enormous limbs as the California live oak. Its similar, but very much thicker, 
leathery, shiny, perfectly smooth leaves (figs. 141, 142) are flat (never curled), 
deep green on their top sides and light yellow-green beneath. The leaf stems 




Fig. 142. — Quercus wisUzeni. 



are generally very minutely and plentifully (sometimes sparsely) hairy. Unlike 
those of the California live oak. the leaves of this tree remain on the branches 
for about two seasons and begin to fall during the second summer or autumn. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 309 

Acorns (fig. 142) mature in two seasons and are ripe in late fall. The cup 
scales are long and reddish brown. 

Wood similar in color and character to that of the preceding, but its thick 
sapwood is whitish. It is of no economic use, except for local supplies of fuel, 
for which it is very highly esteemed and extensively used in some parts of the 
tree's range. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. It grows slowly and persistently and is 
exceedingly tenacious, even where storm-beaten or pounded in the sandy and 
gravelly washes of streams. Trees from 8 to 15 inches in diameter are from 
40 to 75 years old. 

K.\NGE. 

Northern California to northern Lower California. Foothills and valleys from near 
lower southern slopes of Mount Shasta (Sacramento River Valley) southward in Cali- 
fornia coast ranges and Sierras to Mount San I'edro Martir, northern Lower California. 
Shrubby on high summits at south. 

California. — Valleys and foothills in coast mountains, particularly away from coast, 
northward and westward to Ukiah (on Russian River), Mendocino County; northward. 
In great central valley of State, to foothills of southern Shasta National Forest ; thence 
southward on lower foothills, usually at somewhat higher elevations than Qucrcus 
douijlasii, but not in chaparral belt to any extent. In chaparral and lower canyons 
of Stony Creek National Forest on west side of ranges, especially on Kel River. Sierra 
Xevada: Common in foothills of Lassen I'eak and Plumas National forests, at 2,000 
to 2,800 feet. In Stanislaus National Forest, up to 2,000 feet elevation ; confined to 
west border, in ravines, gulches, and canyons, and is most abundant in region of Bear 
Mountains, Gopher Ridge, and Bald Mountain ; grows sparingly in creek canyons from 
Garden Valley southward to canyon of South Fork of American River, near Coloma and 
Lotus; also on Ilangtown and Webber creeks (west of Placerville), but ceasing about 1 
mile east of latter place ; in Pleasant Valley southward, and in canyons from Indian 
Diggins westward to Coyoteville and Oleta. Common in southern Sierras on foothills 
and southward to Fort Tejon, in Tehachapi Mountains. In coast mountains abundant 
around San Francisco Bay and southward. Frequent in Santa Lucia Mountains of 
Monterey National Forest, in Sur, Carmelo, Arroyo Seco, San Antonio, and Nacimiento 
river basins, at 1,2.50 to 5,000 feet elevations, but shrubby above 2,700. In chaparral 
between 1,500 and 3,000 feet, in San Luis Obispo National Forest (T. 29 S., R. 16 E.). 
Generally distributed in Santa Barbara National Forest, at 1,750 to 6,200 feet, being espe- 
cially common along north border on northern slopes of Cuyama River. Not In Santa 
Monica Mountains, but abundant on coast side of Sierra Madre Range on Mount Lowe, 
Mount Wilson, both slopes of Sierra Liebre Range northward to Gormans Station ; in 
chaparral on summits of Santa Ana Range, at 1,600 feet. San Bernardino and San 
Jacinto mountains, here occurring in Spencer Valley at head of San Diego River, and 
elsewhere. Cuyamaca Mountains, near Jamacha, and at Mexican boundary, only on 
Hanson Laguna range. On Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands. 

Lower Califokxia. — North end of Mount San Pedro Martir. 

OCCtrBBENCE. 

On foothill slopes and their open valleys, in dry river bottoms and washes, and desert 
mountain canyons, in moderately rich, dry, loamy soils, or in poor, dry, gravelly, or 
rocky soils. Largest in sheltered sites, with somewhat fresh, good soil ; stunted and 
shrubby on hot, gravelly slopes or stream bottoms. 

In small, pure groups or patches, but more often mixed with scrub oak and chaparral ; 
less frequently with blue oak and California live oak. 

Cli.matic CoxDiTioxs. — Similar to those of California live oak, as is also its repro- 
duction. 

Tolerance. — Very tolerant of shade. 

Price Oak. 
Quercus pricei « Sudworth. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Very little is known of the Price oak, and that only from a hurried exami- 
nation of a few trees found by the writer in October, 1904, on the banks of a 

"Named in honor of Mr. Overton Westfeldt Price, Associate Forester, Forest Service; 
Forestry and Irrigation, vol. 13, p. 157. 



310 



FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



small stream in Monterey County, Cal., on a property known as " Dani's Ranch." 
The trees were closely mingled with Quercus agrifolia, for which they were 
mistaken at a distance. In general form they I'esemble that tree, especially 
the small branched trees of the latter grown in close stands. They were from 
25 to 30 feet high and from 8 to 12 inches in diameter. At the base of the trunk 




Fig. 1-1.3. — Quercus pricei. 



the bark is blackish, very hard, and roughly and irregularly broken ; 3 or 4 
feet higher up it is dark ashy-gray and smooth. Mature leaves (fig. 143), 
which probably remain on the trees two summers, are flat, smooth throughout, 
and a deep shiny yellow-green on their upper surfaces and paler yellow-green 
beneath. The flowers are not known. The acorns mature in the autumn of 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 311 

the second year, for in addition to ripe acorns, immature ones were found on 
the season's smooth, reddish-brown twigs. Mature acorns (fig. 143), regarded 
as the most distinctive character, were invariably of the same form on all of 
the trees seen. The sharply pointed nut is smooth, somewhat lustrous, and a 
dull light brown, while the uniformly very shallow cups — on short stems — have 
very close, smooth, pale brown scales. 

Wood, not examined, but judged to be essentially like that of Quercun icisli- 
zeni. Nothing is now known of the age attained. 

The affinities of this oak place it between Qurrciis agrifolia and Q. irislizeni, 
and nearer to the latter. The writer has not seen the bushy trees Prof. C. S. 
Sargent has described and figured (Silva, VIII, PI. CCCCVI, f. 6), occurring 
in Snow Creek Canyon at the base of Mount San Jacinto, which, as nearly as 
can be judged from the note and figure, is Quercus pricei. Professor Sargent 
considers this shallow-cupped oak (not seen elsewhere) a form of Quercus 
wisUzeni. The trees found at Daui's Ranch gave every promise of later becom- 
ing very much larger. 

OCCUBRENCE. 

Dry, gravelly banks of streams, within reach of deep soil moisture. 
Forms small, pure groups. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to Wislizonus oak. 
Tolerance. — Very tolerant of shade. 

Reproduction. — At least an abundant periodic seeder, but fruiting habits and repro- 
duction undetermined. 

Morehus Oak. 

Quercus morehus Kellogg. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Morehus oak is a rare and little known California tree of the black oak 
group. It was first found about 18G.*>, and since then many new stations for it 
have been and are still being discovered. It is held by some authors to be a 
hybrid from Quercus irislizeui and Q. ealifornica. Its acorns bear a strong 
resemblance to tho.se of the first oak, while its leaves (fig. 144) are similar in 
texture to those of the latter oak. The remarkably uniform shape (within rea- 
sonable limits) of the leaves borne by widely separated individuals, and the 
fact that the parents suggested are by no means always within the same 
locality ^-one or the other, sometimes both, often very far distant from the sup- 
posed offspring — has led the writer to treat this oak as a species. Generally 
from 10 to .■^>5 feet high and 3 to 8 inches in diameter, with smooth, dark ashy- 
gray bark. The branches of small, shrubby trees often trend upward, while 
those of the larger trees stand out horizontally from the trunk, which is free 
of limbs for about one-third of its length. The leaves, which are shed from 
midwinter to spring, are dark yellow-green and smooth on the upper sides and 
light yellow-green and smooth or more or less covered with fine star-shaped 
hairs beneatli. The acorns, maturing in the autumn of the second year, are 
usually from 11 to H inches long. The light reddish-brown cui)s inclose from 
about one-third to two-thirds of the nut. which is somewhat thicker than that of 
Q. uislheiii. Wood similar in general appearance to that of Q. califoniiea. but 
the thicker, whitish sapwood is considerably tougher ; not fully investigated. 
Of no economic importance and of slight Interest to the forester, because of the 
tree's rare occurrence. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. Believed to be rather long-lived. A single 
tree, 12* inches in diameter, showed an age of 04 years. 



312 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



California. — Occurs as scattered Individuals and detached thickets in northern coast 
ranges and Sierra foothills. Coast ranges: A single tree at Clear Lake, and several at 
Sulphur Bank (Lake County) ; group at north base of Mount Tamalpais (Marin County) ; 
thicket on crest of Coast Range back of Berkeley, and a single tree farther north in 
Berkeley Hills near upper San Pablo Creek ; canyon of Big Sulphur Creek between 
Geysers and Cloverdale (Sonoma County) at point about 3 miles below bridge; also 
at point 2 miles south of Ridgewood Summit (north of Ukiah, Mendocino County). 
Reported in Santa Lucia Mountains in Sur, Carmelo. and Arroyo Seco river basins. 
Sierra foothills: In a belt north of Yuba River (Yuba County), running northwest from 




Fig. 144. — Quercus morehus. 



Red Bluff and lower part of Dry Creek into Butte County ; west foot of Stanfield Hill 
grade (about 21 miles northeast of Marysville) : near Newcastle (Placer County) ; 
Eldorado County, on a head branch of Canyon Creek (tributary Middle Fork American 
River) 2 miles northeast of Georgetown; North Fork of Cosumnes River (near Nash- 
ville), Middle Fork of Cosumnes (between Pleasant Valley and Oleta) ridge between 
North and Middle Forks Cosumnes (about 6 miles east of Nashville, elevation about 
2,000 feet) ; Sacramento County; near Folsom ; Amador County, near Plymouth, on head 
of Indian Creek (branch Cosumnes River), near Oleta (Sutter Creek road), and at 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 313 

several points on Rancheria Creek — lowest station about 3 miles from Sutter Creek, 3 
mik'.s north of lone on low hill near Clay pit (leaves much toothed), with blue oaks, 
Mgkelumne River west of West Point ; Ca!averas County, several thickets in Bear Creek 
Canyon (branch Calaveras River on west side of Bear Mountains), on head of Murray 
Creek (tributary Calaveras River) 2 miles north of Mountain Ranch, on San Domingo 
Creek (branch South Fork of Calaveras River) 2 to 3 miles north of Murphy, road be- 
tween Mountain ranch and Railroad Flat (elevation 2,450 feet) at two points on South 
Fork of Mokelumne River between Railroad Flat and West Point ; Tuolumne County, 
between Sonora and Tuolumne River, at two points (little north of Tuolumne Canyon) 
on road from Carters to Big Oak Flat, near bead of Deer Creek— south side of Tuolumne 
on same road. At several places in gulch few miles north of Coulterville (Mariposa 
County) on road between Coulterville and I'riest, with Kellogg oak and highland live 
oak; frefjuent from Cold Springs Station (Mariposa County) to Fresno Flats and North 
Fork (Madera County), especially in Crane Valley. Abundant also near Badger (Tulare 
County) ; very abundant on road from Raymond to Yosemite, especially within G or 
7 miles of Raymond and eastward in edge of western yellow pine belt beyond Wassama ; 
2 miles west of latter is large tree at Potts's house, also one few rods north of 
Ahwahnee road house, and many others in vicinity among Kellogg oaks. At point 2 miles 
west of Eshom Valley, near east end of Burrough Valley (Fresno County). Range still 
imperfectly known. 

OCCUBBENCK. 

Foothill slopes and ridges, in dry gravelly soils. 

In groups and patches of pure growth interspersed with California black oak, Wisli- 
zenus oak, Fremontia, and occasional blue and valley oaks. Nowhere abundant. 

Climatic Conditio.ns. — Similar to those of gray pine. 

Tolerance. — Evidently very tolerant, its evergreen leaves being retained in dense shade. 

Rephoddction.— Imperfectly known. Appears to seed at irregular intervals at rather 
early age, and but sparingly. Owing to the tree's supposed iiybrid origin, the fertility 
of acorns requires testing. 

California Black Oak. 
Quercus californica (Torr. ) Cooper. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

California black oak is very distinct in appearance from all other Pacific 
oaks. It more nearly resembles the eastern black oak (Quercus vclutina) than 
it does any othe'- species. Commonly from .50 to 75 feet high and from 1.5 to 
30 inches in diameter, but at high elevations it is shrubby and often under 1.5 
feet in height. Old trees are sometimes 80 or 85 feet liigh and from .3(5 to 40 
inches through ; such trees, as shown by their decayed, hollow trunks, often 
broken at the top, have long since passed maturity. The trunks are rarely 
straight and are often bent or leaning. They are clear of branches for from 
10 to 20 feet, and then give off large limbs which form irregularly open, broad, 
rounded crowns. Except on young trees and large limbs (where it is smooth 
and dull grayish brown), the bark is blackish brown, sometimes with a reddish 
tint or, superficially, a weathered gray brown ; it is very hard and is roughly 
and rather deeply furrowed on the low part of the trunk, while higher up the 
shallower seams fade into the smooth bark of large limbs. Year-old twigs are clear 
red to red-brown and usually smooth, but often minutely hairy or with a whitisli 
tint ; the prominent, scaly, light chestnut-colored buds are hairy, especially on 
their ends. Mature leaves (figs. 145 to 147), variable in form and size (about 
4 to 6* inches long), are thickish, a shiny deep yellow-green, and smooth on 
their upper sides (sometimes with star-shaped hairs) ; paler green beneath, 
smooth or minutely hairy. Small trees at high altitudes (and elsewhere also) 
very frequently have leaves and stems (fig. 147) conspicuously coated with 
minute, whitish, star-shaped hair.s. Leaves are shed in autumn. Acorns (fig. 
145), mature at the end of the second season, are borne on thick, short stems 



314 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



and are about 1^ to 1^ inches long. The nut is pale chestnut colored, downy 
neai and at the top end. and often indistinctly striped ; the tawny brown cup 
has shiny scales which are thin, but often nuich thickened at the bases of the 
cup. 







Fig. 145. — Quercus californica. 



Wood, fine-grained, very porous, pale but distinct red, exceedingly brittle, 
firm, rather heavy, with large pith-rays, and having a strong odor of tannin, 
with which both the wood and bark are heavily chai'ged. Large trunks are 
rarely sound and afford but little clear timber, and even this is inferior on 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 



315 



account of its very porous, brittle structure. In some sections of its range 
the tree is important and ninch used for fuel. Its rather frequent occurrence 
in continuous patches renders it wortliy of attention for this purpose. 

Longevity. — Age limits are not fully known. Probably moderately long- 
lived. Trees from 16 to 25 inches in diameter are from 170 to 275 years old. 
It is doubtful if this oak attains a greater age than 350 years, and it probably 
reaches maturity in about 175 years. 




Fig. 14G. — Quercun culifoniica. 



Central Oresjon, in mountains, soutliwartl tliroiiRli California, in coast ranges and 
west slope of Sien-ns, nearly to Mexican boundary. On mountain slopes, low summits, 
elevated valleys and canyons, but not on plains nor near sea ; in north, usually at 
1,500 to 3.000 feet elevation, and in south, at 4.000 to 7.000 feet. 

Oregon. — Very abundant in valleys of central and southern part, west of Cascades, 
from McKenzie River (lat. 44° 1.5') southward; on mountain slopes considerably above 
2,000 feet, entering lower part of yellow pine belt, and being especially frequent on 



316 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



streams in seruiarid sections of lower Cascade and Siskiyou slopes. Locally noted on 
upper Rogue River, in depressions between western spurs of southern Cascades and 
northern spurs of Siskiyous, and also on North Fork of Applegate Creek in Siskiyous. 

California. — Throughout northern part in lower part of j'ellow pine belt and upper 
range of Sabine pine ; generally at 2,000 to 5,000 feet, probably going westward to 
inland border of coast redwood belt, and eastward at least to longitude of Mount Shasta, 




Fig. 147. — Qucrcus callfornica. 



around base of which it occurs (in Shasta National Forest) up to 4,500 feet on south 
and west sides ; rather common in McCloud River valley, but more so about Sisson, 
being especially abundant northward to south end of Shasta Valley ; frequent areas 
at elevations between 2,000 and 3.500 feet on Squaw Creek, while large pure stands 
occur on lower McCloud, Pitt, and Sacramento rivers. Abundant on west slope of 
northern Sierras in canyons within yellow pine belt, at 3,000 to 5,000 feet elevation, 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 317 

but in Stanislaus National Forest ranging between 1,500 and 6,500 feet. Locally noted 
in Yosemite Valley, at 4,000 feet. In pure growth west of Camptonvllle. In Yuba County, 
and vicinity of Lake Tahoe. In southern Sierras, generally at 4,500 to 7,000 feet, 
where it occurs as follows: North Fork of Kings River: Bublis ("reek (head tributary 
South Fork Kings) up to Bubbs Dome; Frazier Mountain; East Fork of Kaweah River, 
at 4,900 to 7,200 feet, from Bigtree Canyon to point about 4 miles below Mineral King ; 
■White River (Tulare County) ; on crests and west slopes of Greenhorn Mountains (in 
T. 20 S., R. ."^O and 31 E.), at 5,900 and 4.750 feet, and on Little Posey Creek, at 4,700 
feet, in depression between east and west ridges of these mountains (Kern County). 
On east slope of Sierras, at Independence. Very abundant on southern terminal ranges 
of Sierras, as on Mount Breckenridge. above 4.000 feet, and probably also on Piute 
Mountain. Not reported from Tehachapi Mountains. In northern coast ranges, com- 
mon in Trinity National Forest eastward to between Lewiston and Weaverville (west 
border of Sacramento Valley i : locally noted on Grouse Creek Canyon near South Fork 
Mountain, at 2, .300 and 2,500 feet. Southward in Stony Creek National Forest, very 
abundant in yellow pine belt at 3,000 to 6.000 feet, particularly in western part of 
forest on headwaters of Eel River. In vicinity of Bay, only on higher summits, such 
as south slope of Mount St. Helena, north base of Mount Tamalpais, upper San Pablo 
Creek, and east side of westmost coast range of Santa Clara Valley ; not on Berkeley 
nor Oakland hills. Plentiful in southern coast ranges, especially in Santa Lucia Moun- 
tains of central and northern parts of Monterey National Forest, where, on both sides 
of range, it occurs at 2,000 to 5,000 feet elevation in Sur, Carmelo, and Arroyo Seco 
river basins. Not common in Santa Barbara National Forest, but widely distributed at 
3,500 to 6.200 feet in watersheds of Santa Maria, Matilija, Piru-Sespe, and Elizabeth 
rivers, being abundant on Pine Mountain and in pure stands on summit of Liebre Moun- 
tain. Range in San Gabriel Mountains not fully recorded, but probably not there to any 
extent. Common in pine belt of San Bernardino Mountains ; here locally noted near 
head of Waterman Canyon at 3.000 feet — a low altitude ; on City Creek road off I'lunge 
Creek, at 4,400 feet, and in Little Bear Valley, at 5.000 feet. Very common in pine 
belt of San Jacinto Mountains on west and south sides, at 5,000 to 9,000 feet ; also in 
Strawberry Valley, at 5,200 feet ; rare in Tahquitz Valley, and not detected on north side 
of mountains. Southward, the nio.st prominent oak in I'alomar Mountains, forming nearly 
half of the mixed stand on upper slopes, but in Cuyamaca Mountains less abundant 
than Qucrcus ayrifolia; locally noted in this region on south side of Smiths Mountain 
at 4,100 feet, and at Campbells ranch (I^aguna Mountains), at 5,496 feet. Reported 
from Hanson Laguna Mountains of northern Lower California at elevations above 
4,000 feet. 

OCCURRENCE. 

On mountain slopes, benches, valleys, in canyon bottoms and lower sides, and on 
upper foothill slopes ; in dry gravelly and sandy soils, or In very rocky places with 
scanty soil. 

Forms pure, open groves and limited stands, or mingles (at lower levels) with gray 
pine, Douglas fir (Oregon), California laurel, western dogwood, canyon live oak, and 
straggling western yellow pine. Higher up. commonly with latter pine, incense cedar, 
and occasionally with bigtree. Largest in yellow-pine belt on sheltered benches, valleys, 
and coves, and smallest on exposed high slopes. 

Cli.m.\tic Conditiox.s. — Not fully determined, but mainly like those of western yellow 
pine. 

TuLERANCE. — Endures moderate shade in early life, but requires full overhead light 
for good growth later. In mixture with yellow pine, subordinate. 

Reprodiction. — Abundant periodic seeder at 2 to 3 year intervals, but locally some 
seed is borne nearly every year. Germination scanty ; best in slight shade on exposed 
mineral or humus. 

Tanbark Oak. 

Quercus " densiflora Hooker and Arnott. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Tanbark oak is widely known in its range by this name on account of the 
extensive use of its bark for tanning on the Pacific Coast, where it is as impor- 
tant in the leather industry as chestnut oak {Qucrcus primts) is in the East. 

"Although never known to lay people as anything but an oak, for which the technical 
name Quercus stands, this tree has characters in its reproductive organs which techni- 
cally permit its separation from all other oaks of the genus Qucrcus into another 
15188—08 21 



318 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

A smooth-tninked tree from 50 to 75 feet high and from 1 to 2 feet in diam- 
eter ; trees from 80 to 85 feet, or somewhat taller, and from 3 to 4 feet in 



Fig. 148. — Quercus densiflora. 

diameter sometimes occur. Though much larger trees were probably once com- 
mon, they are now rare. At high elevations it is a shrub under 10 feet in 

genus. It is a connecting link between the oalcs and chestnuts. These minor differences 
are tliese : Its male and female flowers are borne on new shoots of the year, rarely from 
buds at the base of leaves of the previous year's growth ; the cylindrical male clusters 
are thick and erect, instead of being thread4ikf. pendulous, and developed from buds on 
year-old twigs, as in other oaks ; the female dowers are usually borne at the base of 
the uppermost male flower clusters ; the male flowers are arranged 3 in a minute cluster, 
many of these covering the erect flowering stems, instead of being solitary as in other 
oaks. (The female flowers are, however, solitary, as in other oaks.) Upon these valid 
botanical characters Oersted proposed, in 1866, that this tree be called Pasania densi- 
flora. Since then, however, it has been maintained under the name Q. densiflora, given 
to it by Hooker and Arnott in 1841. One eminent American tree botanist has recently 
taken up Oersted's name. But granting the technical grounds are good for such a change, 
it is preferable, in the writer's opinion, to still maintain this tree as a member of the 
genus Quercus by slightly enlarging the definition of the genus. In all other outward 
gross characters — foliage, fruit, wood, and habit — this tree is and always will be an oak 
to the lumberman and to the practical forester. Precedents for continuing to regard 
the tree as an oak are not wanting. Thus, box-elder (Negundo), though equally distinct 
from the true maples, is retained in the genus 4.cer. 



FOREST TBEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



319 



height, with slender upright hranches. The form varies greatly ; in close stands, 
the crown is narrow, with upright branches and a long clear trunk, rarely 
straight; in the open, the crown is broad, with big, horizontal limbs, and the 
trunk is short and thick. The trunks are smooth looking, pale brown tinged 
with red, often with grayish areas ; their thick, firm bark has deep, narrow 
seams cutting it into very wide, squarish plates ; the bark of young trees and of 
large limbs is smooth and unbroken. Young twigs are densely woolly (with 
star-shaped hairs), but the wool disapiiears after the first year, when the 
branchlets are deep brown, tinged with red, and are often covered with a whitish 




Fig. 149. — Qucnn-s dcnsipoia. 



bloom. Full grown loaves (figs. 148 to 150) are light green, smooth, and shiny 
(occasionally with woolly areas) on their top sides, and densely woolly with 
reddish brown hairs beneath ; in late summer the leaves become thick and 
leathery and the woolliness disappears except for a few hairs on the lower sur- 
face, which is then whitish with a very pale blue tint. Leaves of a season's 
growth persist for 3 to 4 seasons. Acorns (fig. 150) mature in the fall of the 
second year, when they are dull, very pale yellowish i)rown. usually smooth and 
shiny, but fre<iuently more or less downy, while the finely hairy, bristly scales 
of the cup (sometimes very woolly at its base) are pale yellow brown. 



320 



FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



The shrubby form of this oak occurring on high mountains has been 
described as a distinct variety, Quercus dcnsiflora echinoides (R. Br. Campst.) 
Sargent, but it is believed not to be worthy of separation, because it is con- 
nected with the larger tree forms by numerous intermediate ones. Its leaves 
are from IJ to 2i inches long, smooth on their upper surfaces and white-hairy 
beneath, and the margins are entire or with very indistinct teeth. Acorns are 




Fig. 150. — Quercus densiflora. 

somewhat smaller than those of the tree forms and the scales of the cups 
are also longer. These differences seem to be due to high altitude and 
exposure. Wood dense and fine-grained, very hard, firm, and somewhat 
brittle (though brittleness varies with age), light brown, faintly tinged with 
red. The quality is suitable for agricultural implements and for finishing and 
furniture lumber. It is employed more generally for firewood. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 321 

Economically a tree of the greatest importance in Pacific forests, both for 
its valuable tanbark and for the promise it gives of furnishing good com- 
mercial timber in a region particularly lacking in hardwoods. The present 
extensive practice of destroying this oak for its bark alone, without utilizing 
the wood, calls for prompt conservative action. 

Longevity. — Full i-ecords of age limits are lacking. Forest-grown trees from 
14 to 18 inches in diameter are from SO to 128 years old ; trees from 20 to 60 
inches in diameter are from 150 to 250 years old. It doubtless attains a 
greater age. 

RANGE. 

Southwestern Oregon to Southern California. From coast ranges of southwestern Ore- 
gon, northern Sierras of California, and coast ranges southward to Santa Ynez Moun- 
tains (Santa Barbara County) ; generally at from sea level to 4,000 and 5,000 feet 
elevation. 

Okegon. — Prom Umpqua River southward, probably only in coast mountains ; common 
on streams from sea through Douglas lir forest. Locally noted at Gold Beach (mouth of 
Rogue River). 

California. — Northern coast mountains ; on ridges and streams from near sea inland 
to Trinity Mountains, here growing under Douglas fir at elevations up to 3,000 feet or 
over ; on South Fork Mountain, up to about 5,000 feet, and eastward to a canyon near 
Lewiston, where a single tree has been seen; also one in canyon (at ;{,700 to 3,800 feet) 
between French Gulch and Deadwood. Not on Upper South Fork of Trinity River and 
not detected in eastern Siskiyou County nor in region between Scott Valley and Salmon 
River, but west of latter it occurs on east slope of " Salmon Summit " ridge at 2,000 to 
3,800 feet. Locally noted near Dyerville (Humboldt County) ; also in a broad belt on west 
slope of Trinity Mountain above Iloopa Valley between 2,100 and 4,000 feet ; and on 
lower slopes bordering Iloopa Valley and from Iloopa Valley westward to between Red- 
wood Creek and Blue Lake; north of Humboldt Bay. in redwoods in lower Mad River val- 
ley, but not in upper part of this valley ; lower Van Dusen River eastward to a point about 
2 miles below Valley View Tavern, and westward, abundantly in redwoods, to Bridgeville 
and llydesville ; near Ferndale and in hills south of it, also about Briceland, upper Mat- 
tole. and in Mattole gulch (South of King Mountain). Mendocino Count ij: Enters this 
county from north and is common throughout most of redwood forest ; noted at Rockport 
and frequently between Briceland (Humboldt County) and Kenny; south of Kenny, fre- 
quent on coast in and on borders of redwoods, also among California swamp pine between 
Fort Bragg and Gualala ; near mouth of Big River and about the Mendocino pine barrens; 
road between Westport and Laytonville and in canyon east of Laytonville (road to Round 
Valley) ; abundant in redwoods from pine barrens eastward en road from Mendocino to 
Ukiah, also on cool north slope (south side) at head of Big River canyon; north of 
Ukiah, at Willits and in forest north and northwest of Willits ; upper part of Redwood 
Canyon (northeast of Calpella). Sonoma Couniii: Common throughout redwoods and 
considerably east of their eastern border; hill at Sea View (east of Fort Ross) and on 
.Austin Creek, thence southward to Russian River, on which it is common from Duncan 
Mills to east edge of redwoods at Forestville ; very abundant south of Russian River from 
Monte Rio to Camp Meeker and southern edge of redwoods near Freestone, thence east- 
ward to Green Valley, where it goes to within about 3 miles of Seliastopol. Inland only 
to Napa Mountains, here occurring on streams, in north part of Napa County from ^Mount 
St. Helena southward ; common in gulches of hills west of Calisloga, not far from which 
it descends to mouth of small canyon ; mountains on east side of Napa Valley. Common 
in southwest Lake County on east side of Cobb Mountain Ridge, and also of Mount St. 
Helena (1,500 on St. Helena Creek to over 3,000 feet) ; near Adams Springs it predom- 
inates with Douglas fir. Marin Couniij: In.erness Ridge (Point Reyes I'eninsula) from 
I)oint 5 or miles south of Tomales Point southward to Olema ; east of Tomales Bay, on 
Paper Mill and Lagunitas creeks and in San Geronimo Valley, thence southward to Mount 
Tamalpais — here a tree in gulches and canyons, and shrub in chaparral of upper slopes; 
very large near Rock Springs at west end of Tamalpais Ridge; south side of Tamalpais 
in Redwood Canyon and at Mill Valley. Frequent south of San Francisco Bay on sea- 
ward coast range and on Santa Cruz Mountains; west of King Pass on road from Palo 
Alto to sea ; common from Boulder Creek to Big Basin. Northern and Central Sierras 
southward to Mariposa County in lower yellow pine growth and upper foothill forest ; in 
Lassen Peak and I'lumas National Forests, at 2,000 to 3,000 feet. Butte County, near 
.hiiiction House (road from Bidwell Bar to Quincy), probably coming from Little North 
Fork of Feather River, and to point a few miles below Berry Creek (about 1,900 feet). 
I'ubo County: East slopes of Oregon Hills and lower part of North Fork Yuba River Can- 



322 FOKEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

yon from Ruths Ranch Pass to Bullards Bar. thence eastward up Willow Creek to Camp- 
tonville and beyond to at least 4,000 feet elevation (with western yellow pine). Sierra 
County: Entered from west (on road Camptonville to Mountain House), and probably 
also on canyons of North and Middle Forks Yuba River. Placer County: About 4 miles 
northeast of Forest Hill (road to Sugar Pine Mill), Q. densiflora echinoides occurs in con- 
siderable numbers. Stanislaus National Forest, locally abundant only between 3,000 and 
5,000 feet, on west slope of Tunnel Hill, on headwaters of Alton Creek, Pilot Creek, near 
Deep and Mutton canyons, and on Big Iowa Canyon (tributary South Fork American 
River). Infrequent near southern limit in southern coast ranges, except in Santa Lucia 
Mountains of Monterey National Forest, here extending from sea level to 5,000 feet in 
watersheds of Sur, Carmelo, Arroyo Seco, San Antonio, and Nacimiento rivers ; most 
important tree on streams flowing into the ocean, as it is also, but smaller in growth, of 
higher elevations. Not about Monterey, nor on Monterey Peninsula : few trees noted in 
Arroyo Seco River canyon west of Santa Lucia Peak, and in upper part of Arroyo Seco 
Valley above junction of Willow Creek ; commoner in gulches and canyons of coast slope 
in Sur River region, and in isolated patches and groves of redwoods south of Carmel Bay. 
San Benito County: Canyon (few hundred feet below summit) on north side of Fremont 
Peak. San Luis Obispo National Forest, in basins of San Luis and Arroyo Grande rivers ; 
locally noted near Cuesta Pass at 1,500 to 2,000 feet. Santa Barbara National Forest, 
on watersheds of Santa Ynez, Santa Barbara, and Matilija rivers : Mount Pifios at 9,500 
feet ; summits of Santa Ynez Mountains, at 2,400 to 4,700 feet ; in T. 5 N., R. 21 W., some 
distance northeast of Nordhoff ; also at head of Howard Creek, and of Horn Canyon (near 
Nordhoff), which is probably its southern limit in the coast mountains. 

The variety Q. densiflora echinoides ranges from Canyon Creek (Siskiyou Mountains) 
over northern California and southward in Sierras and coast ranges to Sonoma County ; 
in Stanislaus National Forest, noted on north slope of Rubicon River, at 4,000 to 4,500 
feet elevation. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Valleys and low slopes, borders of low mountain and foothill streams, coves, and 
ravines ; in rich, moist, sandy, and gravelly soils. Sometimes in nearly pure, small 
stands, but chiefly in mixture with redwood and Douglas fir ; occasionally with California 
live oak. Largest in coast region. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of redwood. 

Tolerance. — Imperfectly known. Endures considerable shade throughout life, but 
grows best with top light ; dense side shade clears its tall trunks completely. Gives evi- 
dence sometimes of great tolerance. 

Reproduction.- — Prolific seeder and seedlings often abundant in partial shade. Sprouts 
vigorously from cut stumps, producing permanent stems. 

Family ULMACE-ffi. 

The elm family is composed maiuly of trees, with a few shrubs. It includes 
the well-known elms and hackberries. Most of these have rather small leaves, 
borne singly — never in pairs, one opposite another — and shed them each autumn. 
Their flowers combine both male and female reproductive organs, though distinct 
male or female flowers sometimes occur with the bisexual ones, on the same tree 
or branch. Fruits are matured in one year, and are (1) small, flat bodies with 
thin, papery wings (surrounding the seed body), which render them very buoy- 
ant (elm) ; (2) small nut-like wingless bodies (planer-tree) ; (3) small, berry- 
like bodies with thin, sweetish flesh surrounding hard, bony seeds, which are 
eaten (vi^ithout injuring the seed) by birds and mammals and so distributed 
away from the parent trees (hackberries). The berry-like fruits rii^en in 
autumn, but the winged fruits, with few exceptions, ripen in spring or early 
summer. The latter usually germinate that season, while the former do not 
grow until the following season. 

The wood of these trees is characteristically marked with wavy or zig-zag lines 
of minute pores, seen on cross-sections of the trunk. No other trees have this 
character, which is particularly marked in the wood of the elms and hackberries, 
the principal members of this family. 

Several membei-s of the family are large forest trees of the first economic im- 
portance, often forming the bulk of extensive forests, while others are scattered 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 323 

through forests of other trees or in the open. Their habitat includes wet, 
swampy, moist, rich soils as well as the driest and most arid ones, but all grow 
at low elevations. 

A single group only of this ffimily, the hackberries, is represented in the 
Pacific region, where its representatives are rare. Other North American trees 
of this family belong to eastern United States. 

CELTIS. HACKBERRIES. 

A small group of large or medium-sized trees and shrubs, represented in the 
Pacific region by two species. The rough bark is characteristically marked by 
projecting, knife-like ridges, and the light-colored wood is distinguished by the 
zig-zag lines of fine pores which mark each layer. Peculiarities of the leaves 
are their unequal sides, their conspicuously 3-nerved or veined bases, and their 
arrangement on the twigs so as to form flat sprays, which makes them appear 
to grow alternately from two opposite sides of the branchlets. 

The minute, inconspicuous flowers (comprising those of male sex, and those 
which combine male and female organs — perfect flowers) are produced in spring 
on new twigs of the year, male flowers at the base of the twig and tlie i)erfect 
ones singly, usually on thread-like stems springing from the bases of the leaves 
at the end of the branchlet. Perfect flowers develop into single cherry-like 
fruits, which have a thin, dry, sweetish flesh covering a very hard-shelled, 
smooth or roughish seed. The seeds are rather difficult to germinate, being 
apt to " lie over " for a season before they grow, unless planted or falling in a 
soil that is constantly moist. 

Wood of the hackberries is commercially of only secondary importance at 
present; that of the two sijecies occurring in the Pacific region is of no value 
there, but one of these trees produces useful timber in eastern forests. 

Hackberries are of ancient origin. Remains of those fi'om which European 
species descended have been discovered in the Miocene formation of that 
continent. 

Hackberry. 

Celtis occidenlalis o Linn.-eus. 
DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Hackberry is rare, and only a small tree or low shrub, generally under 25 feet 
in height and 10 inches in diameter in the Pacific region. East of the Rocky 
Mountains, its principal range, it is a straight, slim tree from 80 to 90 feet high 
and from 2 to 3 feet through when grown in the forest ; in the open it has a 
shorter and, often, thicker trunk, and a very broad, symmetrical, rounded crown 
of large limbs, which are intricately branched and sometimes drooping. The 
trunks and limbs are grayish in open situations, and apt to be brownish gray 
in shaded places, and are conspicuously marked with irregularly shaped pro- 
jecting ridges of bark. Young twigs are pale green, but at the end of the sea- 
son they are clear reddish brown, with minute, flat, pointetl buds, peculiarly 
dark chestnut. What appears to be a terminal winter bud is the last side, or 
lateral, bud, at which the immature terminal part of the twig has broken off. 

" A number of varieties, and even species, Jiave been distinguished, based mainly upon 
the size, texture, and teeth of the leaves, as well as upon the color and size of the 
" berries." These forms, the validity of which is In doubt, occur mainly, if not entirely, 
east of the 100th meridian. They will be considered in I'arts II and III of this work, 
which deal with trees east of the I'aciflc region. 



324 



FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



The next year the twig is lengthened by the growth of this bud. Mature leaves 
(fig. 151), shed in autumn, are somewhat thickish, stiff, veiny, and very rough 
to the touch on their top sides; lighter green beneath, with or without very 




Celtis occidentalis. 



minute hairs on the veins and stems. They vary in length from about 2 to 5 
inches. The cherry-like, slender-stemmed fruits (fig. 151) are smooth, dull 
purplish brown when ripe in autumn, three-eighths to about one-half an Inch 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 325 

in length, with a minute point at the top. A dry, sweet, very thin, yellowish 
pulp covers the hard, thick-shelled seed. The fruit of this tree is extensively 
eaten by birds, which thus assist greatly in disseminating the seeds, which 
are not injured by digestive action, but on the contrary are probably better pre- 
pared for germination. Flood waters also aid in distributing the seed. Exten- 
sion of the species by direct seeding from the tree is slow. Wood, rather heavy, 
moderately soft, brittle, and very wide-grained; the whitish sapwood is exceed- 
ingly thick and the heartwood is a bright yellowish-white.^ Of no economic use, 
owing to rarity of occurrence and poor timber form in the far West. In the 
East it produces good but not extensive quantities of excellent saw timber, which 
is made into second-class lumber. 

Longevity. — The age attained by the Pacific form is unknown. It grows 
rapidly in the East, attaining great age, but appearing to reach maturity in 
about 75 or 80 years. Eastern forest-grown trees from 18 to 24 inches in 
diameter are from 140 to 1G5 years old. 

RANGE. 

From St. L.nwrence River (St. Helens Island, near Montreal) to southern Ontario; in 
the United States from Massachusetts (Massachusetts Bay) to northwestern Nebraska, 
North Dakota, southern Idaho (Boise), eastern Washington and Oregon (Snalce River), 
western Washington (Puget Sound), Nevada (East Humboldt Mountains), New Mexico, 
and south to Florida (Biscayne Bay and Cape Romano), middle Tennessee, Missouri, 
eastern Kansas, Indian Territory, and eastern Texas. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Rocky bluffs and slopes near streams ; in dry broken rock, or poor gravelly soil. Lack 
of moisture (not a requirement) produces stunted, scraggy trees. Cultivated in moist, 
rich soil, it is more like the typical eastern form. Scattered singly or in small groups ; 
not common. 

Cli.matic Conditions. — Similar to those of western yellow pine. 

Tolerance. — Endures considerable shade throughout life. 

Reproduction. — Fairly abundant seeder, but reproduction scanty. 

Palo Blanco. 
Celtis reticulata Torrey. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

The palo bianco, known almost entirely by this Spanish name, is considered 
by some authors to be only a variety of the eastern smooth and shiny -leafed 
Celtis Diixsis.sippiciisis Bosc. As palo bianco occurs in the southwest and in 
the Colorado Desert part of ralifornia, it is a very different tree in habit from 
its eastern relative, particularly in its shorter, wider, and rough leaves (fig. 
152). 

It ranges in size from a low, densely branched shrub to a round-crowned, 
short-trunked tree from 35 to 30 feet high and from 6 to 10 inches or more 
in diameter; the bark is bluish, ashy gray, and is rough, with prominent, thin, 
short, projecting ridges. Mature leaves (fig. 152). thick and leathery, are very 
veiny, deep green on their upper sides; very rough (like sand-paper) — some- 
times only slightly rough, however, and very light yellowish green beneath, 
with or without minute straight hairs, and with a conspicuous network of small 
veins; margins of the leaves mainly without teeth. Mature fruit (fig. 152), 
ripe in autumn, orange red. Wood, somewhat lighter than that of Celtii^ mis- 
sissippiensis and of about the same weight as that of C. Occident alts, is not 

" See characterization of wood under genus, which holds good for this species. 



326 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



distinguishable from the wood of these two species. Poor timber form of the 
tree renders its wood of little economic use. except as a second-class fuel wood. 
Of little importance as a forest tree ; useful for establishing protective cover 
along desert streams. 



Fig. 152. — Celtis reticulata. 



LoNCEViTY. — Not fully determined. It grows very slowly, both in diameter 
and in height, in unsheltered, dry situations, where trees from 5 to 9 inches 
through are from 60 to 110 years old. 



From eastern Texas (Dallas) to the Rio Grande and through New Mexico and 
Arizona to southern Ftah, Nevada. California (western rim of Colorado Desert) ; Lower 
California (San Julio Canyon and Cerros Island). 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 327 

OCCUBBENCE. 

Low monntain canyons, dry or intermittent water courses, desert gulches, and borders 
of roclsy streams ; in dry, gravelly soil. Scattered singly and in small groups or 
groves. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of white alder. 

Tolerance. — Undetermined, but trees show marked tolerance of shade. 

Reproduction. — Abundant seeder. (Jermination, except in constantly moist soil, 
tardy ; seedlings rather sparse. 

Family LAURACE^. 

A small family (as represented in onr forests) of trees characterized by the 
pungent, aromatic taste and odor of their bruised green bark and foliage. It 
includes the widel.v known camphor and ba.v trees of the Old World, our well- 
known eastern sassafras tree, and a group of " loblolly " bay trees of our south- 
ern forests, together with a single genus in the Pacific region. The foliage of 
some of these species is evergreen, whereas that of others is shed each autumn. 
The leaves of some are borne singly, those of others in pairs — one leaf opposite 
another. In some species the flowers combine both male and female organs, 
while in others male and female flowers are each borne on different trees. 
Fruits of our representatives are berry or plum like, with one hard-shelled seed. 
The wood of these trees, often hard and beautifully marked, is mainly of oulj' 
minor commercial importance. Economicall.v, the camphor trees are the most 
valuable of the group, all parts of the trees yielding camphor. 

UMBELLULARIA. LAUREL. 

Since this genus is represented by a single species only, inhabiting the Pacific 
forests, its characteristics are given under that species. 

California Laurel; Oregon Myrtle. 

UmbeUuIaria calif oniica (Hook, and Arn.) Nuttall. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

California laurel is an evergreen tree, distinguished at once from all others 
of its range by the strong camphoric-pungent odor <» of its crushed leaves or 
green bark. Under the most favorable growth conditions, from 60 to 80 feet high 
and from 2i to 3* feet in diameter ; exceptionally large trees are sometimes 4 
feet through. In the dense forest it has a clean, straight trunk from 30 to 40 
feet long and a narrow crown of close, small, upright branches. Elsewhere, 
however, and much more commonly, it has a very short, thick trunk, surmounted 
by large, long limbs which trend upward and form an exceedingly wide, dense, 
rounded crown. In moist shaded mountain canyons and gulches it appears 
in a many-stemmed shrubby form in clumps and thickets from 10 to 15 feet 
high. Bark of large trunks is thin, very dark reddish-brown, and scaly ; the 
stems of young trees are smooth, and dull grayish-brown. New leaves are 
produced throughout the summer on the stems, which grow constantly in height. 
This results in the branches being heavily foliageil. As a rule, the leaves of 



"The green bark and, particularly, the leaves possess a light volatile oil, follicles 
of which are given off when either is crushed, and which when inhaled through the 
nostrils produces severe pain over the eyes, attended often by violent sneezing. Con- 
tinued inhalation of the odor of fresh leaves usually produces slight dizziness, but appar- 
ently no other alarming effocts. The dried leaves produce the same eflfect, but less 
violently. 



328 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



season's growth persist on tlie branches for about two years, but frequently 
some of them are retained for five or six years. When mature (fig. 153) they 
are shiny, smooth, deep yellow-green, about 3 to nearly 6 inches long and from 




Fig. 153. — Umhellularia californica: a, fruit. 



one-third inch to If inches wide. The yellowish-green fruit (fig. 153), re- 
sembling an olive, has a thin, leathery, fleshy covering which contains a large, 
thin-shelled seed. The fruits mature in one season, are ripe during October. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 329 

when they fall. They germinate shortly afterwards. They are frequently 
washetl down mountain streams, and in this way a dense cover is extended 
along many narrow gulches, in which, in the otherwise dry foothills, grateful 
springs are thus maintained. Wood, very heavy when green, moderately heavy 
when dry, hard, very firm, fine-grained, and rich yellowish-hrown, often beauti- 
fully mottled ; " the sapwood is very thick. No other of our hardwoods excels 
it in beautiful grain when finished. It is a most Aaluable cabinet and finishing 
wood. Well known for this excellent quality in the rather limited region of 
commercial supply, where the tree deserves conservative treatment as a timber 
tree. 

Longevity. — Little is known of the age limits of this tree, which is unques- 
tionably long-lived. Trees from 20 to 25 inches in diameter are from IGO to 210 
years old; larger trees are known which should jirove to be very much older. 

RANGE. 

Southwestern Oregon (Soiitli Fork of T'mpqua River, Coos County) and southward in 
coast ranges and Sierras (from head of Sacramento Valley) to southern border of Cali- 
fornia. In north, at sea level to 1,500 feet ; in south, 2,000 to 4,000 feet elevation. 

Oregon. — Coast Range and Siskiyous. 

California. — Coast region. Ilunthohlf Count!/: Eastward to Redwood Creek ; Redwood 
Creek to Blue Lake; not in lower Mad River Valley (north of Humboldt Bay) ; south of 
Humboldt Bay, from Hydesville to Bridgeville, and thence eastward to the Little Van 
Dusen. Nearest coast, between Ferndale and Bear Valley, and between Capetown and 
Petrolia ; at Briceland, and in Mattole Valley. Mendocino County: Coast region from 
north part of county southward, in and about edges of redwood forest ; noted near Kenny 
and southward to Westport, Fort Bragg, Mendocino, and Gualala ; common in redwoods 
between Westport and Cahto ; east of Laytonville and between Eel River and Round Val- 
ley, and east of this on Middle Fork Eel River ; on west side of Mount Sanhedrin, between 
Hearst and Sawyer, and on Cave X'reek and Redwood Hill ; in Redwood Canyon ; south- 
ward nearly to I'kiah on Russian River and northward over Ridgewood Summit to and 
beyond Willits : about Mendocino City, between Mendocino and I'kiah, and between head 
of Big River and Ukiah Valley ; in valley 4 to 5 miles northeast of I'kiah, and at points 
on Russian River and Coal Creek. Sonoma County: Northeastern part on Big Sulphur 
or Pluton Creek Canyon slopes from Geysers to Socrates Basin, and eastward over 
Cobb Mountain Divide into Lake County ; also at point about 6 miles above Cloverdale 
in lower part of Big Sulphur Canyon ; Russian River Valley north of Cloverdale ; 
road from Hopland to Highland Springs on south side of canyon (which road follows 
eastward from Russian Valley I ; Russian River Canyon, 2 miles east of Healdsburg, 
and In canyon between Alexander and Knights valleys ; lower Russian River from For- 
estville to Guerneville, Monte Rio, and I)uncan Mills, and westward nearly to mouth 
of Russian River ; southward as far as Camp Meeker and Occitlental, and eastward 
to (ireen Valley (seen here nearly to Sebastopol). Southeastern part of county, on 
Sonoma Creek, between Sonoma and El Verano, and northward at Glen Ellen and 
Dortliward to where Sonoma Valley opens on west into Santa Rosa Valley ; westward 
into mountains separating Sonoma Valley from Petaluma Valley, and eastward in 
mountains between Sonoma and Napa valleys. Sapa County: North part and south- 
ward to little below Oakville ; near Calistoga on floor of valley and in gulches; at north 
end of Napa Valley up south slopes of Mount St. Helena. Marin County: Mount Tamal- 
pais (tree in canyons and moist basins, and slirub in dense chaparral of upper slopes), 
especially about Rock Spring (west end of main ridge), in Cataract Canyon (north side), 
and in Redwood Canyon (south side) ; Mill A'alley and Sausalito ; Tomales Bay (east and 
west shores), and in gulch east of Marshall; on west side of Tomales Bay on east and 
west slopes of Inverness Ridge; in redwoods on Paper Mill Creek, at Lagunitas and San 
Geronimo Valley, on hills west of San Rafael, and north of San Rafael on steep canyon 
slopes near Corte Madera Creek. Yolo County: Cache Creek, Capay Vjilloy. tioJano 
County : Jameson Canyon (in hills between south end of Napa Valley and Suisun), from 
Green Valley westward. Sutter County: Gulches on nortli side of Marysville Buttes, and 

" Green and unseasoned logs sink In water. In which lumbermen place them to pro- 
duce (by soaking) the beautiful "black myrtle" lumber (Gorman). 



330 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

north slope of North Butte. Colusa County: Bast slope of Snow Mountain above Pout 
Springs, and along Stony River to Stony Ford ; Cook Springs, Bear Valley, and hills be- 
tween Bear Creek and Cortena Creek. Lake County: Blue Lakes to Saratoga Springs and 
valley about Upper Lake (town) ; east shore of Clear Lake (between Upper Lake and 
Bartlett Landing), and up on hills into lower edge of pine forest; east side of Bartlett 
Mountain on spur reaching to edge Bartlett Creek Valley ; about Bartlett Springs ; east 
end of Sulphur Bank arm of Clear Lake on shore facing Ellem Island ; west side of Clear 
Lake from old mission near Kelseyville to Soda Bay, and on base slope of Mount Konoktl 
from Soda Bay to Horseshoe Bay ; south of Mount Konokti on west shore of Lower Lake ; 
west of Clear Lake, near Highland Springs and westward on road to Hopland ; 5 miles 
south of Kelseyville, and southward to near Middletown, and at point (2,000 feet) about 8 
miles northwest of latter ; near Adams Springs ; Middletown westward over Cobb Mountain 
Divide ; on road from Middletown to within 7 miles of Lower Lake, and along St. Helena 
and Putah creeks from Middletown eastward ; common on St. Helena Creek from edge 
of Middletown Valley southward and up Mount St. Helena (3,600 feet). Santa Clara 
County: Coyote Creek near Gilroy Hot Springs ; highest parts of Mount Hamilton and 
adjacent ridges near Lick Observatory. Alameda County: Canyons of Mission Peak (near 
Mission San Jose). Contra Costa County: Upper part of Marsh Creek Canyon at east 
base of Mount Diablo, and Mitchell Canyon ; hills near Martinez, and westward on bay 
shore. Santa Cruz County: Abundant in most parts of Santa Cruz Mountains, including 
Boulder Creek Valley ; on railroad from Los Gatos to Fulton Grove of redwoods ; scarce 
in south part of Santa Cruz hills east of north end of Monterey Bay, and for several miles 
northwest of Watsonville does not occur at all. Monterey County: Probably absent (or 
rare) in Monterey-Pacific Grove region ; Santa Lucia Peak to within about 600 feet of 
summit ; Arroyo Seco Canyon and north of peak in Arroyo Seco Valley above junction of 
Willow Creek. San Benito County: West side gulch of San Juan Valley and at north base 
of Fremont Peak. Los Angeles County: Near Alpine Tavern (Mount Lowe) and canyons 
lower down. Riverside County: Canyons on west side of San Jacinto Mountain. Noted 
also near Mexican line near summits of (southern limit in) Coast Range. Noted as follows 
on lower west slope of Sierras: Shasta County: Canyon of Sacramento River (few miles 
above Redding); lower McCIoud River (above and below Baird). Tehama County: 
About 10 miles east of Payne post-office. Butte County: Westward to a little above Bid- 
well Bar (1,200 feet) and eastward to near Berry Creek (1,700 feet). Yuha County: 
Southwest slopes of Oregon Hills, but not west of these nor east of North Yuba Canyon 
(east of Oregon hills). Plaeer County: North Fork American River Canyon, near Col- 
fax; Devils Canyon (between Colfax and Forest Hill) ; east of latter and east of Iowa 
Hill; on railroad between Dutch Flat and Blue Canyon (at about 4,000 feet). Amador 
County: Deadmans Creek to Dry Creek (road between Oleta and Volcano) ; between Oleta 
and Sutter Creek, and above Defender Mine in Mokelumne River Canyon. Calaveras 
County: Between Mokelumne Hill and West Point. Tuolumne County: Chinese to 
Crockers, mostly from crossing of South Fork Tuolumne River eastward ; middle fork of 
l.-itter to al)Out 3, .500 elevation ; road from Crockers to Hetch-Hetchy at point between 
Hog Ranch and CMnyon Meadow; Hetch-Hetchy Valley and south slope (800 feet) and 
north side (1,500 feet). Mariposa County: On hill above Bull Creek Gulch, between 
Coulterville and Bower Cave ; near creek directly nortwest of Mariposa, and south of 
Mariposa in Chowchilla Canyon (at about 2,500 feet) ; abundant on north side of ridge 
west of Wassama, between latter and Wawona. and between Wawona and Yosemite ; 
Yosemite Valley and Merced River to top of Nevada Fall and into Little Yosemite Valley. 
Madera County: Fresno Flat and above latter on China Creek ; gulch (2,600 feet) on road 
from O'Neal to North Fork ; at latter place and on North Fork San Joaquin River Canyon 
near Kitanna Creek. Fresno County: Gulches of Pine Ridge (north of Kings River), 
from Sycamore Creek eastward to beyond Rush Creek ; South Fork Kings River, near 
Converse Basin and between Mill Creek and Badger, thence to Eshom Valley. Tulare 
County: Badger to about 6 miles of Auckland ; occasional in gulches of Kaweah River Can- 
yon between Redstone Park and Sequoia National Park ; lower canyon of East Fork 
Kaweah River from Three Rivers to Mineral King ; east half of Tule Indian Reservation 
(South Fork Tule River Basin) (southern limit in Sierras). 

OCCURRENCE. 

Borders and vicinity of higher foothill streams, spring-watered gulches, lower mountain 
slopes and canyons ; in moist gravelly, rocky, or rich humous soil ; constant, abundant soil 
moisture essential. Forms dense clumps and small patches (as a shrubby tree), or is 
scattered singly and in groups (as a larger tree) with broadleaf maple, California syca- 
more, red and white alders, madroiia, and tan-bark and canyon live oaks. Largest in south- 
west Oregon and adjacent California ; smaller elsewhere, especially in Sierras. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of red and white alders. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 331 

Tolerance. — Exceedingly tolerant of shade throughout life, but partial or full over- 
head light necessary for best height growth. 

Reproduction. — Fairly abundant seeder ; locally often heavily laden with fruit. Seed 
of moderately high rate of germination and of very transient vitality; germinates shortly 
after falling to ground. Clumps of seedlings frequent in dense or partial shade, whtre they 
grow rapidly. 

Family SAXIFRAGACE^. 

A very large grovip of mainly herbaceous plants and a few trees and shrubs 
of world-wide distribution. They receive their name (which means, literally, 
stone breaking) because they mainly inhabit dry or wet rocky situations, and 
are particularly prone to alpine habitats. The flowers have both male and 
female organs in the same bloom; the leaves occur singly or In pairs (one op- 
posite another) ; and the very minute seeds are borne in small, clustered cap- 
sules. The family is represented in the Tnited States by the following single 
genus, the one species of which is a tree described as recently as 1877. 

LYONOTHAMNUS. 

Lyonothamnus is a genus containing the only tree species of the family 
indigenous to the United States or North America. It is confined to the Cali- 
fornia coast islands, Santa Catalina, and Santa Cruz, in the former of which 
it was discovered in 1884 by William S. Lyon, forester of the first board of 
forestry created in California. The genus was named In his honor. The char- 
acters of this genus are given under the one species now known. 

Western Ironwood. 
Lyonothamnus florihundus Gray. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Little is known of the trunk and crown form and silvical habits of western 
ironwood. In open, rocky sites it is only a small shrub ; most commonly a tall 
shrub with clustered stems, occasionally a shrubby tree from 20 to 2."> feet high 
and from 4 to 8 inches in diameter. The bark, with its deep reddish color and 
its thin flaky layers, is very characteristic. A number of bark layers, broken 
and separated, often hang in long shreds. The twigs are clear, shiny red. The 
fern-like evergreen leaves are opposite and vary greatly from an undivided 
form (fig. 15,5) to one split into several subdivisions (fig. 1.54). Individuals 
with only one or the other of these types occur, but trees are also found bearing 
both types of foliage,*^ showing that the species has remarkably variable foli- 
age. The small flowers, produced in flat-topped, branched clusters, oi)en in early 
summer, and the fruit, two very small, closely joined, bristly glandul.ir capsules, 
each with four minute, long seeds, are ripe the following autumn. The cap- 
sules split open of their own accord and gradually the seeds are liberated. 

Wood, very heavy, dense, fine-grained, and exceedingly hard. The name iron- 
wood was doubtless given because of the hardness of the wood. It is distinctly 
red. with a slight yellowish tint. It is suitable for ornamental or fancy wood- 
work, but is not known to have any economic use. 

The limited range and rather rare occurrence of large stems are likely to 
prevent the si»ecies from ever becoming important commercially. Its chief value 
must lie in assisting to form protective cover on steep, dry, rocky slopes, where 
few other trees and shrubs can maintain themselves. 

«T. S. Brandegee, Zee, I, 111. 



332 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

liONGEviTY. — Imperfectly known. Stems from 2 to 5 inches through show 
ages from 12 to 32 years. 




Fig. 154. — Lyonothamnus fiorihundus. 



Southern California coast islands. Santa Cruz, Santa Catalina, Santa Rosa, and San 
Clemente. Particularly abundant on north slope of Banta Cruz. Rarely arborescent on 
Santa Catalina. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



OCCUBBENCK. 



333 



Canyon slopes ; in rocky and gravelly, dry soils. Forms rather dense small, pure 
stands, a number of stems growing from one root. 




Fig. 155. — Lyonothnmnn-i florihutulus. 



Clim.^tic Conditions. — Undetermined, but piobal>ly similar to those of Trask 
ny. 

KANCE AND REPRODI 

15188—08 22 



mahogany. 

TOLEKANCE AND Reprodoction. — Undetermined. 



334 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Family PLATANACE^. 

A small group of trees characterized by large deciduous leaves and especially 
by their minute flowers, borne in closely . paclied, spherical or ball-lilve heads, 
attached to a thread-lilie, pendulous stem. From one to half a dozen of these 
ball-like, greenish clusters are produced on a stem. The male and female flowers 

(each in ball-like clusters) occur on different parts of the same tree, usually on 
different parts of the same branch. The male clusters are smaller (about one- 
third of an inch in diameter)" than the female heads (about one-half inch in 
diameter). The female clusters develop into very characteristic, spherical, 
hard balls of seed, the mature balls being from three-fourths inch to li inches 
in diameter, one to six of which may be attached to a single pendent stem 

(fig. 156). 

PLATANUS. SYCAMORES. 

The sycamores are a small group, the members of which are strikingly alike 
in general appearance. Their most distinctive characteristic is the very thin, 
smooth, whitish or pale green bark on young trunks and on the large branches 
of old trees. Thin, veneer-like sheets of the bark are annually shed as a result 
of the diameter growth of the stems. "When exposed in this way the inner bark 
is pale olive green at first and later a chalky white. All of the members of this 
genus have this characteristic, which gives them a siniilar appearance. Differ- 
ences in the lobing of the leaves and the amount of hair on their under sur- 
faces, the number of fruit balls, and the shape of the seed (fruit) are depended 
upon to distinguish the different species. The winter buds of sycamores are 
also very characteristic. They are inclosed by the hollow bases of leaves, which 
fit over them like a minute clown's cap, and when these leaves break away and 
fall a circle is formed around the base of the conical bud, which is enveloped by 
three cap-like scales. The balls of fruit are composed of long, slender, seed-like 
bodies, densely packed together in a spherical mass. One end of the seeds is 
attached to a central bullet-like body, from which they all radiate, side by side, 
their opposite ends forming the surface of the sphere. A circle of fine, tawny, 
stiff hairs is attached to the base of each seed (fruit). These heads, ripe in 
late autumn, usually remain attached to the branches during the winter ; in the 
spring they break up and the hairs about each seed (fruit) spread out, after 
the manner of the silky hairs on a dandelion seed, adding greatly to the buoy- 
ancy of the seed. As a result the seeds are easily and widely distributed by 
the wind. 

The pale brown, reddish-tinged wood, very similar in all of these trees, is 
characteristically marked by wide medullary or pith rays, most conspicuously 
shown in quarter-sawed or radially cut sections. The wood is, moreover, pecul- 
iarly " cro^s-grained." and on this account exceedingly difficult to split. Com- 
mercially it is of rather secondary importance, but is attractive and suitable 
for interior finish and cabinet work. The western sycamoi'es are of little im- 
portance, except to form protective growths along streams in dry, arid regions. 

Three s'pecies inhabit the United States and adjacent portions of Mexico, but 
only one is found within the Pacific region, extending into Lower California. 
Another species ranges through our Southwest into Mexico. The third is widely 
distributed in the eastei-n United States. 

The sycamores are of ancient origin. Species now extinct, but very like our 
eastei'n and the present European sycamores, were once common in Greenland 
and in our Arctic region during the Cretaceous and Tertiary epochs ; they 
existed also in middle Europe during the latter period, but became extinct when 
that period ended. During the Tertiary epoch a number of sycamores, now 
extinct, once existed in the central part of this continent. 



^ 







Fio. ir,6.— Plufuiiii 
15188—08. (To face page 334.) 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 335 

California Sycamore. 

Platan us racemosa Xuttall. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

California sycamore, also called " buttonwood " and " buttonball," is small or 
medium sized ; frcjm 40 to 00 feet high and from 18 to .30 inches in diameter. 
Trunks are often very sliort, giving off several trunlv-like branches. The 
branches are conspicuously irregular in the directions they take. One or more 
of them may reach out low to the ground, while others wind and twist in pros- 
trate or upright positions. Thick, long, crooked, and awkwardly bent, they 
form an exceedingly open crown. Such trees grow mainly in the open. Crowded 
in the bottoms of deep canyons California sycamore occasionally reaches a 
height of 75 or 80 feet (rarely, more) and a diameter of from 3 to 6 feet. The 
dull brownish bark is ridged and furrowed at the base of the trunk. At the 
bases of old trunks it is from 2 to 3 inches thick ; a short distance above, and on 
all of the limbs, it is very tliin. smooth, and asliy wliite, with greenish-gray 
areas. Thin layers peel off annually, broken by diameter growth, keeping the 
upper parts of the trees smooth and conspicuously white. 

The thick leaves (fig. 15G), from 5 to 11 inches long and wide, are light yel- 
low-green, much lighter beneath ; they are minutely and densely hairy, especially 
on the midveins and their branches, though the amount of hair is variable. From 
4 to 5 male flower heads are borne on a thread-like stem which grows from a leaf 
cluster on branches of the previous year ; and from 2 to 7 (commonly 4 to 6) 
female flower heads grow on a similar stem which usually terminates a new 
branch of the season. The latter develop into bristly fruit heads (fig. 156), 
three-fourths inch to nearly an inch in diameter, with a single stem 5 to about 10 
inches long. The slender, bristly seeds (akenes) are from three-eighths to seven- 
sixteenths of an inch long (fig. 150, a). Wood (described under Platanm) is not 
specifically distinct from that of the other sycamores. 

Longevity. — Age limits not fully determined. Believed to be long-lived. A 
single tree 20i inches in diameter showed an age of 80 years. Exceedingly tena- 
cious of life, repairing repeated damage to its crown and trunk by vigorous 
sprouts and growth of wood. 

RANGE. 

California (from the lower Sacramento River through interior valleys and coast ranges) 
to Lower California (San Pedro Martir Mountain). In the north up to ii.OOO feet and in 
the south to 4,000 feet. Plumas and Lassen Peak National Forests in foothill type up 
to 2,r>00 feet. Farther south in Sierras noted at White Deer Creek (northwest tributary 
Kind's River), on King's River from Trimmer Springs up to near mouth Big Creek and 
thence south, in Big Creek Canyon and on Northeast Branch Mill Creek, along lower 
Kaweah and in Tehachapi Mountains. On I^ytle Creek, Caliente Creek, lower end Canada 
de las Uvas, lower part Tejon Canyon and along Poso Creek, but not down desert streams 
to the east. On coast ranges noted on Carmel River up from mouth and along all stream 
beds of Santa Lucia Mountains from sea level to 2,000 feet : San Luis Obispo National 
Forest up to 2,500 feet on watersheds of Carriso, Salinas, Santa Margarita, San Luis, 
.\rroyo Grande, Iluasna, and Santa Maria. Santa Barbara National Forest in watersheds 
of Santa Ynez, Santa Barbara, Matilija, Piru Sespe, Elizabeth, and Newhall rivers, at 
100 to 4,200 feet. San Gabriel National Forest up to above 5,000 feet ; noted near Pasa- 
dena on Oak Knoll, Arroyo Seco, and canyons of San Gabriel Mountains. Santa .V.na 
range in canyons. San Bernardino Mountains, western and southern slopes, 1,600 up to 
.",000 feet. San Jacinto Mountains, western slope, below 4,800 feet. On Palomar 
(SriTlth), Balkan, and Cuyamaca Mountains, from western side nearly to summit, and 
west nearly to ocean. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Confined to or near borders of perpetual and intermittent streams and moist gulches; 
In poor, rocky soil. Forms sparse lines and small groups of pure growth, or is mixed 
with white alder, broadleaf maple, California walnut, and occasional willows. 



336 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of Fremont cottonwood. 

Tolerance. — Endures but little shade at any age. 

Reproduction. — Moderately prolific seeder. Seed of fairly high rate of germination 
(often tardy), and of persistent vitality. Reproduction scanty; mainly and best on moist 
or wet exposed sand or gravel. Dependence upon constant soil moisture (available only 
near stream beds) and occurrence of heavy seasonal flood waters where seed is dropped 
doubtless limit reproduction. 

Family ROSACE-ffi. 

The Rosacese are a very large family of trees, shrubs, and herbs of world- 
wide distribution. Among them are some of the most important timber, fruit, 
and ornamental trees, including cherries, plums, apples, pears, quinces, and haw- 
thorns, as well as innumerable shrubs and herbs, such as roses, etc. Prac- 
tically only one forest tree species (blacli cherry), represented in eastern United 
States, is of commercial use. All of the other trees of the family belonging 
to our forests are shrubby and of little or no economic use ; some of them are, 
however, important for the sturdy cover they form on dry, scantily clothed 
montain slopes. 

Representatives of the family treated here have showy, perfect flowers 
(with male and female reproductive organs in each blosssom). The flowers 
open in spring or summer and the fruit is ripened the same season. A point of 
resemblance in the flowers is the cluster of thread-lilce, bead-tipped, pollen- 
bearing bodies (stamens) in the center of each blossom. (Compare the blooms 
of garden cherries, plums, peaches, etc.) Fruits of some of these trees, such 
as cherries and plums, are edible and well known, and are characterized by their 
juicy sweet or tart (in some species very bitter or astringent) pulp, which 
covers a hard-shelled, round or flat seed. Other groups of this family, "haws" 
and "crab-apples," have small, mealy, or hard-fleshed fruits resembling minia- 
ture apples, with very small, bony, rough, thick-shelled seeds, or smooth, thin- 
shelled seeds. The mountain " mahoganies," of this family, have dry fruits, 
which are very different in appearance from any of the others, but which are 
structurally related. Since the fruits of many rosaceous trees are usually lus- 
cious, they are extensively eaten (without injury to the vitality of the seeds) by 
birds and mammals, by which the seeds are principally disseminated. The 
dry fruits of mountain mahoganies have special hairy attachments, by the aid 
of which they are wafted far from the mother trees by the wind. The leaves, 
evergreen or shed every autumn, occur singly on the twigs — never in pairs, 
one opposite another. 

CERCOCARPTJS. MOUNTAIN MAHOGANIES. 

Mountain mahoganies are a small group of shrubby trees which derive their 
name from their red-brown, mahogany-colored wood, which is exceedingly heavy, 
fine-grained, dense, and hard. They are much-branched, usually crooked, scaly- 
barked trees with stiff branches which have peculiar, short, spine-like twigs, and 
^■ery small, thick, evergreen leaves. When bruised, the leaves give off a resinous 
odor. The fruit, a long-tailed, hairy, seed-like body, is inclosed in a small, 
striped tube (part of the flower). When ripe it escapes and is blown for consid- 
erable distances by the wind. Occasionally it is dislodged by grazing animals 
and carried away in their hairy coats. • 

Of little or no economic use for their wood, but of some importance for 
the strong, though open and scanty, cover the trees form on the driest and most 
exposed of high mountain slopes. Three species inhabit the arid sections of the 
western United States and adjacent portions of Mexico, to the dry soil and cli- 
matic conditions of which they seem specially adapted. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 337 

Trask Mahogany. 

Cercocarpus traskiw Eastwood. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

This rare species, only recently brought to light through the explorations of 

Mrs. L. B. Trask. in honor of whom it was named by Miss Alice Eastwood, is 




Fig. 1.')7. — Cerrocarpux trnski<r. 
the most distinct and handsome in its foliage of our mountain mahoganies. The 
short, twisted trunk, usually leaning, has hard, thin, finely seamed and ridged 



338 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 

bark of a grayish brown color, and is surmounted by a broad, stiff-branched 
crown. It only rarely I'eaches a height of fi'om 20 to 25 feet and a diameter of 
from 8 to 10 inches, and is usually smaller, with stems from 2 to 4 inches thick. 
Mature leaves (fig, 157), silky white when young, are thick and shiny yel- 
lowish green ; smooth and shiny on their upper sides, and densely covered with 
white or gray wool beneath ; their margins curl under as the season advances. 
The hairy, long-tailed fruits (fig. 157) are inclosed at their bases with a hairy, 
tubular case. 

Wood, pale reddish brown ; otherwise very similar to that of mountain ma- 
hogany. The rarity and small size of the tree prevent the wood from becoming 
of economic use. 

Longevity. — Age limits undetermined. Two trees, respectively 3i and 5 
inches in diameter, were 17 and .35 years old. This shows an exceedingly slow 
growth, such as is peculiar to the other species. 

RANGE. 

California. — Sides of a single canyon on the south coast of Santa Catalina Island. 

OCCTJBBENCE. 

Precipitous, roclcy canyon sides, associated with western sumach {Rhus ova4a) and 
Adenostoma fasciculatum. 

Climatic Conditions (marked by high temperature) and silvical characteristics 
undetermined. 

Curl-leaf Mahogany; ^ Mountain Mahogany. 

Cercocarpus Icdifolius Nuttall. 
DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Ordinarily 15 to 20 feet high and G to 8 inches in diameter, but occasionally 
25 to 30 feet high and 12 to 18 inches through — rarely much larger ; very fre- 
quently only a low, broad, much-branched shrub. The trunks are generally 
short, more or less crooked, and large crumpled limbs stand out irregularly 
and with numerous stiff twigs produce a low, dense crown. The hard, firm, 
thin, scaly bark is reddish brown and gray tinted. Leaves (fig. 158), ever- 
green ; those of each season's growth remain on the tree about two seasons, 
and are very thick, the edges curled toward the under side, which is densely cov- 
ered with light brownish, minute hairs. The long-tailed hairy fruits, surrouncTed 
by a small cylindrical case, are stemless (fig. 158). Wood, very dense, fine- 
grained, exceedingly heavy, checking and wai'ping badly in drying, after which 
it is very hard ; freshly cut wood is a distinct mahogany red. browning with 
exposure. The poor timber form of even the largest trunks renders the wood 
of little commercial use, for which its rich, attractive color makes it suitable. 
Exceedingly important for fuel in some localities, usually where there is little 
or no other wood supply obtainable. It deserves the forester's attention on 
account of useful though open cover it forms on arid, wind-swept mountain 
slopes. Few other species possess its wonderful adaptability to such unfavor- 
able conditions. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. Gives evidence of being long-lived, but 
of very slow growth. Trees from 8 to 10 inches in diameter are from 68 to 95 
years old. Further study of their age limits is required. 

" Unfortunately no more distinctive common name is available for this and the suc- 
ceeding species than " mountain mahogany," by which both are known in the field. 
They are probably not distinguished by laymen. To avoid confusion, it is desirable 
to call Cercocarpus ledifolius curl-leaf mahogany and Cercocarpus parvifolius birch-leaf 
mahogany. 



FOKEST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



339 



The high mountain form of this species found mainly in the southern Rocky 
Mountains, but to be loolced for elsewhere at high elevations in the range of 
the species, is a small, finely branched shrub with very small, exceedingly nar- 
row, curled leaves, and smaller fruit than is produced by tree forms of lower 




Fig. 158. — Cercocarpiix IcdifoUus. 



elevations. This shrub has been described as Crrcocarnus ledifolius intncctiis 
(Watson) Jones, on account of its densely branched habit, but it is liere con- 
sidered a naturally depauperate form -of higher elevations, and is otherwise 
essentially lilce the larger-leafed tree. 



340 FOREST TREES OP THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



From western Wyoming to Montana (western slopes Rocky Mountains), Idaho 
(Coeur d'Alene Mountains), Oregon (eastern Blue Mountains), and southward (through 
Wasatch Mountains and ranges of the Great Basin) to California (eastern slopes Sierra 
Nevada and northern slopes of San Bernardino Mountains), and to northern New Mexico 
and Arizona. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Arid mountain slopes ; in poor, dry, gravelly and rocky soils, or less often in moist, 
richer soils, where it is of largest size (hills of central Nevada). In pure open, or 
rather dense stands, or mingled with chaparral ; commonly with one-leaf piuon. 

Climatic Conditions. — Undetermined, as are also its silvical characteristics. Appears 
to be decidedly intolerant of shade throughout life. 

Birch-leaf Mahog-any; Mountain Mahogany. ^^ 

Cercocarpus parvifolius Nuttall. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Birch-leaf mahogany is usually shrubby, with several long, sparingly branched 
fetems, and under 10 feet in height ; occasionally a tree 15 to 25 feet high, with 
a rounded crown of straight, upright, stiff, slim branches and a short trunk 
4 to 8 inches in diameter. The bark of large limbs and small trunks is smooth 
and dull gray to brownish ; that of large trunks is thin, flaky, and reddish-brown. 
The more eastern form appears to have much firmer bark with shallow seams, 
and its scales are much less easily detached. Mature leaves (fig. 159), with 
prominent straight veins, are thickish, smooth, sometimes minutely hairy, deep 
yellowish-green on their top sides and whitish, occasionally brownish, beneath. 
Leaves of a season's growth persist as a rule for about two seasons ; very com- 
monly, however, they persist only for one summer and winter, falling as the new 
ones appear the succeeding spring. The long-tailed, hairy fruits are inclosed in 
a tubular case which has a distinct slender stem, instead of being stemless like 
the preceding species. The silky young twigs have a pleasant slightly aromatic 
flavor. Twigs of the low shrubby forms of this species are often extensively 
eaten by cattle, in some sections furnishing a considerable part of the mountain 
browse on which range animals depend for food. Wood, of somewhat lighter 
weight, is otherwise very similar to that of the preceding tree ; rarely used 
except locally for firewood. 

Longevity. — Very slow-growing tree. Stems from 5 to 6 inches thick are 
from 50 to 60 years old. Further study of its growth and age limits is desirable. 

Three varieties of this species have been described. These are distinguished 
on the basis of characters which the writer believes to be only such natural 
modifications in leaves and fruit as are to be expected in individuals growing 
under varying soil and climatic conditions. Through all of the forms it seems 
possible to trace the marks of one variable species ; no essential differences can 
be found in the wood of the different trees. Cercocarpus parvifolius betuloides 
(Nuttall) Sargent, the California coast and Sierra foothill form, has wider 
leaves, smooth above, and larger fruit than are produced elsewhere. Cercocar- 
pus parvifolius breviflorus * (Gray) Jones is distinguished by very small flowers 
and small, narrow leaves with entire slightly curved or very finely toothed 

" See footnote under preceding species. 

' This is Dr. Gray's Cercocarpus hreviflorus, which, by inadvertence or otherwise, is 
frequently writfen C. 'brevifoUus. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 341 

borders. This form occurs in the Southwest. Cercocarpua parvifolius pauci- 
dentatus, a forui of the same region, is characterized by leaves with few or no 
marginal teeth. 




Fig. 159. — Cercocarpus ixirvijolius. 

RANGE. 

From western Nebraska to Oregon (Siskiyou Mountains), south to western Texas and 
northern Mexico ; California (west of Sierra Nevada and south to San Jacinto Moun- 
tains; Santa Cruz Islands) ; Lower California (mouutaius). 

OCCURRENCE. 

Habitat and silvical characteristics similar to those of mountain mahogany. 



342 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

MALUS. APPLES. 

The apples foTm a group of small trees. Tbey are of little forest importance, 
but are of very great economic value on account of their edible fruits, which 
include the many varieties and races of cultivated apples. They are hhrd. 
dense- wooded trees, with small leaves arranged singly on the twigs (never in 
pairs, one opposite another), and shed every autumn. Their principal distinc- 
tive characteristic is the more or less globe-like form of the fruits, which are 
sunken at the stem- end, as in the common crab or other cultivated apple, and 
which have a homogeneous flesh. The chestnut-colored, smooth, shiny seeds of 
apples are inclosed (1 to 2) in each of the 3 to 5 cells. Their near relatives, 
the true pears (Pyrus), have fruits which taper at the stem end (pyriform), 
and have flesh with minute or large stony grains, though these are less pro- 
nounced in highly cultivated pear fruits than in those of wild trees. 

Three tree species occur in the United States and adjacent Canadian provinces, 
one of which inhabits the Pacific region, to which it is confined. 

Oregon Crab Apple. 

Mains rivularis (Dougl. in Hook) Roemer. 

DISTIXGUISHIXG CHARACTERISTICS. 

The Oregon crab apple is a small tree, with thin, scaly, reddish — often grayish 
brown — bark and slender, spreading branches. At best it is rarely more than 
25 or 30 feet high and from 8 to 12 inches in diameter ; very frequently a 
slender-stemmed shrub from 6 to 10 feet high, forming dense thickets. Year-old 
twigs are clear shiny red. Mature leaves (figs. 160, IGl) are veiny, thickish, 
smooth, and deep green on their top sides, and very light green and minutely 
hairy — sometimes whitish — beneath; leaf stems hairy. Fruit (figs. 160, 161), 
maturing late in autumn and having a slightly acid, palatable taste, is variable 
in color from greenish to clear lemon yellow splashed with bright red on one 
side or red all over ; edible. Wood exceedingly fine-grained, dull, light reddish 
brown ; sapwood verj' thick. Suitable for tool stock and small turnery, but 
unimportant. 

Longevity. — Appears to grow very slowly in diameter and height. Age limits 
not fully determined. One tree 11 inches in diameter showed an age of 102 
years ; while one 6 inches through was 57 years old. 

RANGE. 

From the Aleutian Islands south along the coast and islands of Alaska and British 
Columbia through western Washington and Oregon to California (Sonoma and Plumas 
counties). 

OCCURRENCE. 

Low river bottoms and adjacent low slopes, on borders and in vicinity of smaller low 
land streams, in moist or rather wet sandy or mucky soil. Grows in large, dense, pure 
thickets and also scattered among red alder, willows, cascara sagrada, occasionally 
broadleaf maple and western dogwood, and lowland shrubs. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of Sitka spruce and red alder. 

Tolerance. — Not fully determined. Endures moderate shade throughout life, and 
rather dense shade in youth. 

REPRODrcTiON. — Fairly abundant seeder in central and southern range and in less 
exposed situations ; appears less prolific northward. Seed germinates tardily. Seedliuge 
frequent in moist mucky soil. 



FOREST TKEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



343 




Fig. ICO. — Mains rinilnris. 



344 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 




Fig. 161. — Malus rivularis. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 345 

AMELANCHIER. SERVICEBERRIES. 

The serviceberries are small, slender, scaly-barked trees and shrubs of world- 
wide range, but nowhere of forest or eronomic importance. The heartwood is 
brown or i-eddish brown, very fine-grained, hard, firm, and heavy ; there is a 
large proportion of whitish sapwood. Twigs are very small. The showy, nod- 
ding, or erect clusters of white flowers, which usually appear in early spring 
before the leaves, make the trees conspicuous in the leafless forest. Flowers 
(male and female reproductive organs in each), with five white divisions, are 
visited by insects, which aid in their cross-fertilization. The small, symmet- 
rically formed leaves, shed in autumn, are arranged singly on the twigs (never 
in pairs, one opposite another). Fruit, deep red or dull purple, and borne in 
small branched clusters, ripens early or late in summer and resembles a huckle- 
berry ; it has a somewhat juicy, sweetish, edible pulp, with from 5 to 10 very 
minute, dark brown seeds. For their distribution the seeds depend almost 
entirely upon birds and mammals, which eat the berries, but with little injury 
to the seeds. Trees of the group are confined to North America, where 3 or 4 
species occui*, one of which ranges from the Rocky ]Mountains into the Pacific 
region. 

"Western Serviceberry. 

Amelanchier uhufolia Nuttall. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Western serviceberry is a tall, slender-stemmed shrub from 8 to 10 feet high 
and about an inch thick ; very commonly under 3 feet in height, forming vast 
thickets ; it seldom becomes a tree as much as 25 or 30 feet high and from 4 to 8 
inches through, and then has a slender, straight, clean trunk and a narrow, 
open crown. The bark is dull grayish or slightly reddish brown and indis- 
tinctly seamed near the ground — usually quite smooth. Season's twigs are 
clear red, smooth (though with white hairs when young), with sharp-pointed, 
russet-brown buds. Mature leaves (fig. 162), thin in shady places but thickish 
in the open, are deep or pale green and smooth on their upper surface, and 
smooth and grayish, sometimes minutely and sparsely hairy, beneath. The 
blue-black, sweetish fruit, with a whitish bloom, matures (according to the 
locality) from about July to August, and is about one-half to five-eighths of an 
inch through (Hg. 102). When not overripe the edible fruit is agreeable to 
the taste, and where abundant is often gathered by settlers (who call the tree 
"sarvice"), as well as by Indians, for food. Birds and mammals, especially 
bears, consume large quantities of the fruit. Wood, pale yellowish brown ; of 
no economic use. The only value of the tree to the forester lies in the fact 
that it forms dense thickets, with other brush, at high elevations, where its 
rigid, often closely browsed stems, help to prevent run-off. Its tree forms, 
which are rare, are of no commercial value. Shrubby forms, quickly killed by 
ground fires, sprout from the roots, and otherwise endure with persistent 
growth the constant browsnig of range cattle, its stems only becoming more 
and more intricately and densely branched. 

Ijongevity. — Not fully determined. Stems from 2 to 4 inches in diameter are 
from 9 to 20 years old. 

RANGE. 

From Alaska (Yukon River, latitndp 02°. 4.5') to California (southern boundary) ; 
eastward throu^li British Columbia, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba to Lake Superior 
(western shores), northern Michigan, Nebraska, Colorado, and New Mexico (Kocky 
Mountains). 



346 



FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



OCCUKBENCE. 

Alluvial bottoms and prairies, moist valleys, dry mountain slopes, benches, borders of 
streams, water holes, and mountain meadows in variety of soils from rich to poor ; 
largest in fresh rich soil (lower Columbia River region) and shrubby in dry, gravelly, 
poor ones (mountain slopes). Forms small groups and extensive pure thickets, inter- 
spersed with aspen, western choKe-eherry, bitter cherry, Oregon crab, and ceanothus, 
manzanita, and other chaparral brush. 




Fig. 162. — Amelanchier alnifolia. 



Climatic Coxditions. — Similar to those of western chinquapin ; mild, long, warm 
growing season appears to determine range of largest growth. 

Tolerance. — Endures considerable dense shade when young, but needs abundant over- 
bead light for best growth. 

REPRODrcTiON. — Abundant seeder nearly every year. Seedlings often numerous in 
moist, humous soil in partial shade ; much scattered and infrequent on dry slopes. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 347 

CRAT^GUS. HAWS. 

The haws are a very large group of small, thorny trees and shrubs, widely dis- 
tributed in this and the Old World. From the abundance of their keen, often 
very long, woody thorns, they are everywhere known, and generally distinguished 
from other woody plants, as " hawthorns," " haws," or " thorns." Excepting 
the few western species, which form useful chaparral cover, the other represent- 
atives are of little forest value and of no commercial importance. They pro- 
duce dense, heavy, sappy, exceedingly tough wood, which warps and checks 
badly in drying. Excepting occasional use for small tool-handles and other 
turned articles, the wood is of no economic value. 

In eastern North America, where a vast number of species are known, they are 
aggressive in taking possession of abandoned farm or cleared lands. Their 
sharp thorns protect them from grazing animals. Later these impenetrable 
thickets are gradually invaded by commercial species through the agency of 
wind and animals, and finally, under denser shade, the thorns succumb. 

Their usually small leaves, shed every autumn, are arranged like those of the 
apples, while the small apple-like fruits, bright red, yellow, or black, in branched 
clusters, have dryish, unpalatal)le — but occasionally tart and palatable — flesh 
with fi'om 1 to 5 joined (but separable), very hard, bony seeds, which, on accoimt 
of their thick shells, germinate tardily, often "lying over" for a season. The 
white to rosy flowers (similar in appearance and structure to pear and apple 
blossoms) are produced in flatfish, branched, erect clusters at the ends of new 
shoots, after the leaves are grown. MjTiads of insects visit the flowers and 
assist in their cross-fertilization ; birds and mammals, which devour the fruits, 
assist in disseminating the seeds of many species. 

Exclusive of shrubby thorns, there are about 100 species now known to occur 
in the United" States and ad.jacent territory. These include a number of little- 
known forms which may be separated as distinct species upon later study. 
Only one species is known to inhabit the Pacific region. 

No other group of North American trees presents such almost insurmountable 
difficulties in point of distinctive characters. It is impossible, and, fortunately, 
unnecessary for the practical foi'ester to know them all, and exceedingly difli- 
cult even for the specialist. The points relied upon to distinguish the species 
are. unfortunately, too often found mainly in the organs of the flowers and in 
the ripening and falling of the fruit — characters which are observable only at 
special times. A number of thorns can be distinguished by their mature leaves, 
but a very large number of them can not. Students of western forests have a 
comparable problem in the polymorphous oaks, but natui'e has luckily spared 
them such perplexities as those offered by the haws. 

Black Haw. 
Cratoegus douglasii Lindley. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

BUick haw is mainly a low, much-branched shrub, or else a shrub with taller, 
slender stems, forming dense thickets. In rich, moist soil it becomes a tree 
from 2<» to 30 feet high and fi'om 10 to 20 inches in diameter, and then has a 
straight, slightly seamed, reddish brown trunk and a densely branched, dome- 
like crown. Mature twigs of the season are a clear, shiny red. Mature leaves 
(fig. 188) are thick, somewhat leathery, smooth (sometimes shiny) ; deep green 
on their upper sides and paler green beneath. The very characteristically 



348 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



black or black-purple, shiny fruit (fig. 163), sweet and edible, matures in early 
autumn, when it is rapidly shed. Wood, fine-grained, brownish rose-red, with 
a large proportion of sapwood. No commercial use is made of it. 




Fig. 163. — Cratwgus douglasii. 



As a chaparral cover along washable banks of streams the brushy form of 
this haw is of considerable use. The firm, spreading roots of closely grown 
stools hold fast and resist tendencies to erosion. Its tree form is unimportant 
in a region where other useful trees abound. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 349 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. Like many other large tree thorns it 
appears to be long-lived, as shown by its exceedingly fine-grained wood and 
persistent growth. A tree 13§ inches in diameter showed an age of 83 years. 

A well-marked variety of this thorn, Cratagus douglasH riiularis (Nutt. ) 
Sargent, is commonly a low shrub, sometimes nearly without thorns ; it is fre- 
quent in western Washington and Oregon and southward to Sierra and Plumas 
counties, Cal., where it is less common. It is distinguished from the species 
mainly by its narrow leaves, which are finely toothed, not deeply lobed and 
slashed as in the species. It was described long ago as a species (C. rivularis 
Nuttall) ant' is by some authors still maintained as such ; but since intermediate 
leaf forms are not hard to find, connecting the species over its entire range, the 
writer believes that this form should be treated as a varietj^ only. 

KANGE. 

From British Columbia (Parsnip River » tlirout?l» Washington and Oregon to California 
(Pitt River), and through Idaho and Montana (Flathead River at western base of Rocljy 
Mountains). 

OCCURRENCE. 

Borders and bottoms in vicinity of lower mountain streams; in moist, gravelly and 
sandy soils, or in deep, rich soils (where, in Oregon, it is large). Grows in very dense, 
largo, pure thicliets, patches, and small clumps, mingled with choke cherry, black cotton- 
wood, longleaf willow, red alder, etc. 

Clim.\tic Conditions. — Similar to those of choke cherry ; adapted to very wide range 
of conditions. 

ToLERANCR. — Shows signs of great tolerance ; not fully determined. 

ReprodI'CTion. — Very abundant seeder, and young plants numerous in shade and open 
on borders of thickets. 

HETEROMELES. 

A genus containing but a single evergreen species which is confined to Cali- 
fornia and ad.iacent island.s. In general appearance it is very \mlilce any of the 
other related generic groups of the family (Rosaceae), as indicated by its name 
(Heteromeles). The characters of this genus are given under the species, which 
follows. 

Christmas Berry. 

Heteromeles arhutifolia Roemer, 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Christmas berry, also called "California holly," " tollen," and " toyon," is best 
known as a low shrub throughout most of its range on the mainland. In the 
coast islands, however, especially on Santa Catalina Island, it becomes a small 
tree from 1.") to 2.~> feet high, but with a very short trunk from 10 to 1.5 inches 
thick at the groun<l. The crown form of the shrub is peculiarly similar to that 
of the tree, in which many upright branches are given off at the end of the short, 
thick trunk. The smooth-looking, pale, ashy gray bark is indistinctly seamed, 
and the ridges are connected. Mature leaves (fig. 164) thick, leathery, smooth 
throughout, deep shiny green on their upper surfaces, lighter beneath, and 
usually with two minute glandular teeth on the stem at the base of the blade. 
Leaves of a season's growth remain on the twigs until the end of the second 
winter. The smooth, bright red berries (fig. I(i4>, which have a dry. tart flesh, 
ripen from October to February ; they are borne in large clusters which are very 
attractive among the glossy green leaves. One or two ridged, brown, dotted 
seeds occur in each of the two cells of the berries. Wood, deep reddish brown, 

1518S— OS 23 



350 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

with thin sapwood ; exceedingly heavy, dense, and fine-grained. Very suitable 
for small ornamental turnery and other woodwork, but not used for any purpose. 



Fig. 164. — Eeteromelcs arbutifolia. 

As a part of the chaparral cover of low. dry slopes and rocky gulches, or in 
the groves formed by its larger growth, this species is of considerable service in 
a region too scantily protected against erosion. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 351 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. It grows very persistently and appears to 
be long-lived. A single stem Hi inches in diameter was 48 years old. 

RANGE. 

California coast ranges and Sierras (chaparral lielt» southward from Mendocino and 
Shasta counties to northern Lower California ; also on southern California coast islands. 

CALirouNiA. — Coast ranges northward on coast to Mendocino County, and to Trinity 
Mountains on inland ranges, where it has been noted as far north as between Redding 
and Whiskey town (Shasta County). In Sierras, on foothills in Lassen Peak, Diamond 
Mountain, I'lumas, Tahoe, and Stanislaus National forests. Southward in coast ranges 
to San Francisco Bay, and in southern coast ranges eastward to San L?ernardino ; also in 
islands off southern coast. South of Monterey Bay, noted on Point I'ifios, in I'escadero and 
a few other canyons, and in Santa Lucia Mountains in chaparral of Sur, Carmelo. .\rroyo 
Seco, San Antonio, and Nacimiento river basins from sea-level to 4,12.50 feet. San Luis 
Obispo National Forest (to southeast), from 2.")0 to 2,L'.")0 feet elevation in watersheds of 
Carriso, Salinas, Santa Margarita, San Luis, Arroyo Grande, and Huasna rivers. Santa 
Barbara National Forest, below 3,000 feet in watersheds of Santa Maria, Santa Ynez, 
Santa Barbara, Matilija, Plru-Sespo. Newhall, and Elizabeth rivers. Santa Ana range. 
All coast islands except San Clemente. General in San Gabriel National Forest : noted on 
south slope Sierra Liebre Range, near Pasadena, Arroyo Seco. San Bernardino Moun- 
tains. San Jacinto Mountains and Palomar, Balkan, and Cuyamaca Mountains (San 
Diego County). Mexican boundary, noted on west slope of coast range up to 4,."tOO feet. 

LowEU CALironNiA. — Northern part, in Hanson, Laguna, and San Pedro Martir ranges. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Frequent on north slopes of low mountains and foothills in vicinity of watercourses, in 
gulches, or on exposed sea cliffs ; in dry, rocky, and gravelly soils, (irows in scattered, 
pure clumps and patches on mainland slopes (shrubby), and in small pure stands, as a 
tree, in its island range. 

CL1.MATIC Conditions. — Similar to holly-leaf cherry. Tolerance and other silvical 
characteristics undetermined. 

Repuoduction. — Very prolific seeder. Young plants abundant in soil-fllled crevices, 
pockets, and in other places of lodgment. 

PRUNUS. CHERRIES AND PLUMS. 

As hero constituted, a large group containing such well-lcnown and widely 
distributed trees and shrubs as the plums, peaches, almonds, apricots, and 
cherries, most of which do not produce useful timber, but are among the most 
\aluable fruit trees. The plums and cherries are the only native trees of the 
group to be considered liere. 

For the salve of reducing the number of generic names, the latter-day practice 
of subdividing this long-maintained composite groui) into Pnniu.'i (including the 
plums only) and Ccrasus (including only the cherries) will not be followed. 
It is thought best to treat these trees under Prunus, as has been done for a long 
time. The cherries differ from plums principally in having a rounded fruit 
seed or "stone" in place of more or less flat seeds; plum fruits are. moreover, 
usually covered with an easily removed, whitish bloom, which is absent from 
cherry fruits. 

Prunus contains but one tree species (black cherry) of commercial impoi"- 
tance ; the remaining representatives are small trees or shrubs of little economic 
use. Some of the western plums and cherries, however, are useful in helping 
to form protective covers on otherwise thinly clad mountain slopes. 

Wood of the plums and cherries is fine-grained, dense, evenly and linely 
porous, rather heavy, and rich light or dark brown. Green twigs and bark are 
characteristically bitter, and have, when cruslied, a more or less strong peach- 
pit odor possessed by no other group of plants. 



352 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Flowers of Primus, appearing from buds on twigs of the previous year, either 
with the leaves, or before or after them, are similar in general appearance 
to those of the hawthorns, apples, and pears, but different in structural details. 
They depend for cross-fertilization entirely upon insects. The fruits, more or 
less juicy and sweet, acid, or very bitter, are matured in one season, either in 
early or late summer. Luscious in flavor or attractive in appearance, plum and 
cherry fruits are eaten extensively by birds and mammals (without injury to 
the seeds) and thus widely disseminated; otherwise these trees depend for dis- 
tribution of their seeds upon flood waters. The lea\es are arranged on the 
twigs as in the apples and haws, and are either shed every autumn or, in some 
si)ecies, are evergreen. 

Sixteen species of Prunus occur in the United States and adjacent territory, 
4 of which inhabit the Pacific region. 

Western Plum. 
Primus suhcordata Bentham. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

The name " western plum." suggested here, is not the field name of this tree, 
which is " plum " or " wild plum," indefinite names which are applied also to 
several eastern wild plum-trees. To avoid confusion, it is hoped " western 
plum " will be used. 

Generally a stocky, crooked-stemmed shrub from 2 to 10 feet high in dry 
situations, but in moist, rich soils a tree from 15 to 20 feet high and from 4 to 
{> inches (sometimes more) in diameter. The short, clear trunk, ashy brown, 
seamed, and scaly, gives off thick limbs, which stand out nearly at right angles 
to the stem, and have many short, stubby twigs, some of which are spine-like. 
Season's twigs are clear red to deep purple-red, usually smooth (sometimes 
minutely hairy), with sharp-pointed red buds. Mature leaves (fig. 165), shed in 
autumn, are commonly smooth on their top sides but very often minutely hairy, 
as they always are beneath ; about 1^ to nearly 3 inches in length ; in dying 
they become bright red and yellow. The white flowers appear before the leaves 
in early spring. Mature fruit (fig. 165), ripe in early autumn, is deep purple- 
red, three-fourths inch to about 1 inch long, with a pointed flat stone, which 
has a conspicuous, thin, keel-like edge on one side only, the opposite side being 
grooved. The flesh of the fruit is edible and much used locally, is juicy and 
somewhat tart : variable in quality. 

Wood, flne-grained, very dull light brown, with thin sapwood ; of no eco- 
nomic use. 

With other chaparral the tree sometimes forms good protective slope cover 
on dry slopes. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. A tree 6^ inches in diameter showed an 
age of 48 years. Probably short-lived. 

A variety of this plum, Prunus suhcordata keUo<j<jii Lemmon, is distinguished 
by its yellow sweet fruit and in its nearly smooth foliage ; especially abundant 
in Shasta and Sierra counties. Yellow fruited forms of other wild plums and 
of cherries are known. 



Southern Oregon to central California (west of the Cascades and Sierra Madre Moun- 
tains). 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



353 



OCCUBBENCE. 

Borders and vicinity of low mountain and higher foothil! streams and valleys; in 
sandy, fertile, fresh soils (here largest), or in dry, gravelly ones (shrubby). Grows in 
extensive pure thickets and clumps, interspersed with black haw, Oregon crab, Garry 
oak, western choke cherry, and occasional gray pine. 




KiG. 16.5. — Prunus subcordala. 



Climatic Conditions. — Similar lo those of choke cherry. 

ToLEKANCE. — P^ndures light shade, which is helpful in seedling stage. 

Reproduction. — Prolific periodic seeder in better soils, but fruits sparingly and irregu- 
larly in poor, dry soils. Seedjings fairly abundant in fresher soils ; very scarce in dry 
places. 



354 



FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



Bitter Cherry. 
Prunus cmarginata (Dougl.) Walpers;. 
DISTIXGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Bitter cherry varies greatly in size ; from a slender-stemmed, raucli-branehed, 
tall or low shrub, much bent in high rocky, exposed sites, to a straight clean- 
stemmed tree from 35 to 40 feet high and from 6 to 12 inches, or more, through. 




Fig. 166. — Prunus emanjinata. 

The thin bark is smooth, very dark brown on large trunks, but grayish brown 
on small stems. Season's twigs are deep red, which fades into reddish brown 
lower down. Mature leaves (flg. 166) very variable in size and texture, are 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 355 

smooth throughout aud smaller in most of the shrubby high mountain forms 
with gray-brown stems, larger and finely hairy beneath on the larger darker- 
barked trees which are usually grown in moist, rich places ; 2 glandular, 
minute projections mark the leaf-stem where it joins the blade. The leaves of 
both forms agree in their distinctly minute, rounded, marginal teeth.a 

Mature fruit (fig. IGO), one-fourth to three-eighths of an inch in diameter, 
clear coral red; ripe from about July to September, according to the locality 
and elevation; extremely bitter, as are the green twigs, leaves and inner bark; 
with a pointed stone, sharp-ridged on one side only and round or minutely 
grooved on the opposite side. Wood, dull brown, with very thick sapwood, of 
very light weight, and exceedingly brittle; it rots quickly in contact with the 
earth. Large trees, which often occur abundantly, useful chiefly for firewood. 

The greatest value of this species is probably the dense chaparral cover 
which it forms on dry, rocky and springy slopes at high elevations, where its 
persistent stems, often bent low by heavy snows, form effective barriers to 
rapid run-off. 

LoNGKViTY. — Not fully determined. Apparently short-lived. A tree 9g inches 
in diameter showed an age of 42 years. 

RANGE. 

From Montana (upper .Tocko River), through mountains of Idaho and Washington and 
southern British Columbia (Vancouver Island) ; south through western Washington and 
Oregon to southern California, western Nevada (vicinity of Carson City and Washoe 
Mountains), and northern Arizona (San Francisco Mountains). In north at sea level to 
3,000 feet and in south at 5,000 to 9,000 feet. 

BiUTisH Columbia. — South coast Vancouver Island, and Rocky Mountains at source 
of Columbia. Noted at Victoria (Vancouver Island), at Yale on Fraser River, and at Nel- 
son on Columbia River between Kootenai and Lower Arrow lakes. 

Wasiii.ncjton. — Whole wooded portion of State east of Cascades, in yellow pine and 
bunch grass regions, at 1,000 to 4,200 feet and west of Cascades in Douglas fir region up 
to 3,800 feet. Noted in Washington National Forest at 49° latitude and farther south 
on west side of Cascades on lower slopes and on east side at 1,100 to 3.500 feet, in Clallam 
County on north side of Olympic Peninsula, at Montesano (Chehalis County, south of 
Olympic I'eninsula), on west side of I'uget Sound at Port Ludlow (.Tefferson County), 
Tacoma, and Admiralty Head (east of entrance to Admiralty Inlet), at Lilliwaup on Hood 
Canal of I'uget Sound, in Mount Rainier National Forest on I'pper Nistjually River, and 
elsewhere; on Mount Adams, Klickitat River (Klickitat County), canyons of Yakima 
River, and I'mptanum Creek, and at Ellensburg (altitude 1,550 feet) (Kittitas County) ; 
on Snake River east of Pasco (500 feet) (Franklin County), Wenache Mountains, I'eshas- 
tin (Chelan County), White Bluff (on Columbia River, below Lake Chelan), Lake Chelan 
(1.100 feet), Stehekin River, 3 miles above Lake Chelan ; Kettle Falls of Columbia (Stevens 
County), Mount Carlton (Spokane County), and Blue Mountains on streams. 

OnE'JON. — Whole wooded portion of State at lower elevations. Noted at Astoria, in Cas- 
cade (North) National Forest, on Columbia River in northeast Wasco, and Northern Sher- 
man, Gilliam, and Morrow counties, and in Wallula Gorge below mouth of Walla Walla 
River at 327 feet; .Tohn Day River (Gilliam County). Blue Mountains at Fnion and else- 
where. Silvies and Steins mountains (Harney County), and Goose Lake National Forest. 

" It is believed that the true status of this cherry has not yet been satisfactorily 
determined. Further field study is necessary to determine the exact relationship be- 
tween the gray-barked, smooth, and smaller tree or shrub common on the western high 
slopes of the Sierras and in Oregon and Wasliington, and the larger, dark-barked tree of 
lower, moist situations. The two forms are strikingly unlike in habit and general 
appearance, and the large downy leaves of the bigger tree are difficult to reconcile with 
the smooth, brighter green leaves of the smaller one. I have not seen specimens from 
the type locality (Columbia Itiver Valley, where Douglas discovered this tree in 1825), 
but most probably they are of the downy-leafed, larger tree form, so that the name 
J'niniin cmdrfiinnt'i should include this common form. On the other hand, it is probable 
that I'ninnn cmunjinuUi califdniica (Greene) (^Ccrasufi caHfornica Greene) should be 
taken up for the smaller smooth form now Included in the species. 



356 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

California. — Water courses and chaparral of middle elevations, south on Sierra Nevada 
to head of Kern River, on north coast ranges to San Francisco Bay, aitd on south coast 
ranges from Santa Cruz Mountains to San Jacinto Mountains, at the north at 3,500 to 
5,500 feet and at the south at 5,000 to 9,000 feet. Noted in Mount Shasta National 
Forest, base of Mount Shasta at 3,500 to 5,500 feet and south to the "Loop" on Sacra- 
mento River; Wagon Camp (5,750 feet on Mount Shasta), Sissons (3,500 feet), and Upper 
Soda Springs (Siskiyou County) ; coast ranges, rare in Humboldt County and southward. 
Trinity and Stony Creek National Forests' highest ridges such as Canyon Creek lakes, and 
Black Buttes, Mount Tamalpais, and Oakland Hills around San Francisco Bay ; Sierra 
Nevadas frequent, Plumas, Diamond Mountain and Lassen I'eak National Forests ; 
near Quincy (Plumas County), mountains east of Chico and Oroville (Butte County), 
Yuba River at 4.500 to 5.500 feet, Donner Lake, Lake Tahoe National Forest. Emigrant 
Gap (Placer County), Lake Tahoe, Placerville (Eldorado County), Stanislaus National 
Forest, frequent at 6.500 to 8,500 feet; Mud Springs (Amador County), Yosemite Valley, 
mountains of Fresno County at 8,000 feet, South Fork King's River, Middle Fork Kaweah 
River at 8.000 feet, Kaweah River road below Mineral King and between Kern River lakes 
and Trout Meadows ; southern California coast ranges, hills of Santa Clara County up to 
1,000 feet, ridges west of Los Gatos, Santa Lucia Mountains at 3,000 to 4,000 feet, San 
Rafael Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains at Bear Valley and elsewhere, San Jacinto 
Mountains, abundant at 5,000 to 9,000 feet in Tahquitz Valley and elsewhere. The 
variety rillosa Sudworth occurs with the type, especially on the headwaters of the Colum- 
bia in British Columbia, Montana, and Idaho ; in Washington and Oregon chiefly west of 
the Cascades and in the southern California coast ranges. 

The distributiou in Montana and Idaho will be described in a later publica- 
tion. 

OCCUBBENCE. 

Near streams on low and- high mountain slopes and on moist benches: in dryish to 
moist gravelly soils at high levels, and in rich, sandy, or gravelly soils at lower ele- 
vations, where it is largest. Forms large, dense, pure shrubby thicket in higher range 
within upper white flr and red fir belt, and nearly pure stands on limited areas lower 
down, where it often occurs with scattered Douglas fir and western dogwood ; some- 
times especially abundant on cutover and burned Douglas fir lands. 

Cli.matic Condition.s. — In lower range, similar to those of Douglas fir, but in higher 
range it endures a climate like that of California red fir. 

Tolerance. — Intolerant of shade. 

Reproduction. — Abundant seeder and scattered seedlings frequent in moist mineral soil 
and humus. 

Western Choke Cherry. 

Prunus demissa (Nutt. ) Walpers. 
DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

It is desirable to establish for Primus demissa the more distinctive name 
of " western choke cherry," in place of " choke cherry," its ordinary field name, 
since the latter is also applied to the closely related eastern Prunus vlrginiana 
Linnceus, of which it is held by some to be a geographical form or a variety. 

Very commonly a short or tall tree-like shrub (in dense thickets), from 4 
to 10 feet high, or, in rich, moist situations, a slender, crooked-stemmed tree 
from 20 to 25 feet high and from 6 to 8 inches through. 

Bruised twigs, leaves, and green bark have a strong scent, similar to that 
of peach-pits. Season's twigs (greenish, smooth or minutely hairy at first) 
are smooth and light reddish brown, with pointed, light brown buds. Bark, 
smooth and gray on old trunks and brown on young ones, is irregularly seamed 
and rough, with hard, deep reddish-brown scales. Mature leaves (fig. 167) 
are thick, somewhat leathery, deep, dull green ; smooth and shiny on their 
upper sides; usually more or less minutely hairy and pale beneath (occasionally 
smooth) ; the borders have straight, sharp teeth. The white flowers are borne 
in dense cylindrical clusters, as are also the shiny blackish cherries, which 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



357 



are one-third to one-half an inch in diameter (fig. 167); the fruit « ripens 
in late summer or early autumn, when it is sweet, with an astringent after- 
taste, from which comes the name " choke cherry." The fruit is greedily eaten 
by birds, to which, it is believed, the wide general distribution of the species 




Fig. 167. — Pntnus demissa. 



is due. Wood, pale yellowish brown, fine-grained, firm, but brittle, with a 
thick layer of whitish sapwood. Not used for any economic purpose. 

° Settlers in many parts o£ the West gather and preserve the fruit, which is excellent 
when cooked, but with slight astringent taste. 



358 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 

Useful with other shrubby trees in formiug thiclv, retentive cover on the sides 
of mountain streams and on moist slopes otherwise devoid of woody growth. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. Probably short-lived. Two trees, respec- 
tively 3 and 6 inches in diameter, were 10 to 22 years old. 

KANGE. 

Rocky Mountains to Pacific States and Britisli Columbia, at the north from sea level 
to 4,000 feet, at the south from 5,000 to 7,000 feet. 

British Columbia. — To northern part on coast and in interior as far as Cache Creek. 
On Vancouver Island in isolated patches. 

Washington. — Common east of Cascades below 4,000 feet, and west of Cascades only 
occasional on arid prairies, such as Whidby Island and Yelm Prairie. Noted in Washing- 
ton National Forest at 1.100 to 3,500 feet, east of Cascades locally at Wenache (Chelan 
County), on west bank of Columbia from Priest Rapids to Sentinel Bluffs in Saddle 
Mountains, in gorge of I'mptanum Creek (Kittitas County), on west slope of Divide be- 
tween Columbia and Yakima rivers, in Yakima Canyon, at North Yakima, and Sunnyside, 
on Upper Columbia, in Spokane Valley, at Rock Lake (head of Palouse River), Pullman 
and Wawawai (Whitman County), along Snake River east of Pasco (Franklin County), 
and in Blue Mountains. 

Oregon. — Chiefly to the east of Cascades, but also in arid parts west of Cascades. 
Noted on Columbia River from northeastern Wasco to Umatilla County, on John Day 
River in Gilliam County, in Cascade (North) National Forest, in Goose Lake National 
Forest, and in Blue Mountains. 

California. — Whole State, except on seaboard, chiefly in foothills, at the north up to 
about 3,500 feet, and at the south at 5,000 to 7,000 feet. Noted in chaparral of Klamath, 
Modoc, and Warner mountains National Forests; at Y'reka (2,635 feet) (Siskiyou 
County), Mount Shasta on its south slope above McCloud Mill, near Sisson (3,500 feet) 
and at south end of Shasta Valley (3,500 feet) (Siskiyou County), Sacramento Canyon at 
Shasta Springs (2,538 feet) (Siskiyou County), southern Trinity Mountains east as far 
as hill between Whiskeytown and town of Shasta (Shasta County), and also locally noted 
near Lewiston and on Canyon Creek (Trinity County) ; in Sierras in Plumas, Diamond 
Mountain, Lassen Peak, Yuba, Tahoe National Forests, in Stanislaus National Forest in 
general at 2,500 to 4,000 feet, locally noted in canyon of South Fork of American River 
at 4,000 feet and on north slope of Mokelumne River at 2,500 feet, Lake Tahoe National 
Forest in T. 17 N., R. 13 E., and in Y^osemite Valley ; west border of Sierra National For- 
est on dry pine hills, locally noted near Havilah (Kern County) at 3,1.50 feet. In coast 
ranges noted in Napa Mountains, in San Francisco County, on Oakland Hills, Mount 
Hamilton, in chaparral of Monterey National Forest in watershed of Nacimiento River, 
in Santa Barbara National Forest in watersheds of Santa Maria. Santa Ynez, and Piru- 
Sespe rivers, and in San Rafael Mountains, also in San Antonio and San Bernardino moun- 
tains in upper portion of chaparral belt and in pine belt, in San .laciuto Mountains, at 
5,000 to 7,000 feet on Fuller's Ridge and in Onstatt Valley, and in Laguna Mountains 
at Campbell's ranch (5,500 feet), about 15 miles north of Mexican boundary. 

The distribution in the Rocky Mountain region will be described in a future 
publication, 

OCCURRENCE. 

Lowest mountain slopes, ridges, benches, and borders of streams (most common), can- 
yon bottoms ; less frequent on dry hill slopes. Usually in fresh or moist, rich gravelly or 
rocky soils where it is largest ; shrubby in dry, poor soils. Forms dense thickets of pure 
growth ; often more or less scattered, singly or in clumps, with Douglas fir, red and 
mountain alders, aspen, black cottonwood, mountain maple, western serviceberry, bitter 
cherry, chinquapin brush, and occasionally yellow pine. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of red alder and aspen. 

Tolerance. — Undetermined, but apparently intolerant of shade at any time, as shown 
by its slender stems and small crown in dense stands, where it struggles for top light. 

Reproduction. — Very abundant seeder nearly every year. Seedlings plentiful in moist 
litter, and advancing rapidly in old burns among willow-weed and low herbage. 



FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 359 

Hollyleaf Cherry. 

Prunus ilicifolia (Nutt.) Walpers. 

DISTINGUISHIN O CHARACTERISTICS. 

Hollyleaf cherry is the most distinct of Pacific cherries on account of its 
evergreen holly-like foliage (fig. KiS). Locally known as " islay," "Spanish 
wild cherry," and " Mountain evergreen cherry." 




Fig. 108. — Prunus ilicifolia. 

Most often a dense, prickly shrub from 2 to 4 feet high on dry, rooky slopes, 
but in sheltered canyons sometimes from 20 to 2."> feet high and from 10 to 12 
inches through ; as a tree, more often about 10 feet high, with a very thickly 



360 



FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 



branched crown and only a short trunk. The deep reddish-brown bark of 
large trunks is deeply furrowed and cut into little squarish divisions. The 
small twigs are smooth, reddish yellow to red brown. Mature leaves (fig. 168), 
thick, leathery, glossy deep green on their top sides, and much lighter green 
beneath: marginal teeth prickly. Leaves of a season's growth remain ou the 





^'06^ 



Fig. 169. — Prunus ilicifolia integrifolifi. 



trees about two summers. The fruit (fig. 168), ripe from October to Novem- 
ber, is a clear deep red, becoming red-purple and very dark with age; pulp 
exceedingly thin, tart, and palatable. The large, thin-shelled, pale yellowish 
stone prominently veiny. Ripe fruit is carried away by birds, which thus 
assist in disseminating the seed, and extensively eaten by mountain rodents. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 361 

which cut the cherries from the branches and store them, thus also effecting 
considerable distribution and unintentional planting. Wood, exceedingly heavy, 
dense, fine-grainetl, tough, pale brown tinged. with red, has only a very thin 
layer of sapwood. The heartwood is handsome and suitable for small orna- 
mental woodwork, but not known to be used. A useful chaparral on steep, dry 
slopes. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. From records, however, of trees planted 
in southern California nearly a century ago, and now 10 to 12 inches in 
diameter, it is estimated that this cherry may attain at least KX) years and 
still I)e growing. Its early growth in height in moist, rich soils is surprisingly 
rapid. A forest-grown tree (ii inches in diameter showetl an age of .j»j years. 

A very distinct variety of this species, Prunufs ilicifolia intcgrifoliaa Sud- 
worth, inhabits California mainland and coast islands (off Santa Barbara), 
esi)ecially Santa Catalina, and also San Julio Canyon, Lower California. It dif- 
fers from the species in having entire or, rarely, spiny margined leaves (fig. 
169). longer flower clusters, and larger, more fleshy fruit. It becomes a small 
tree also, but its wood appears to be of considerably lighter weight than that 
of the species. It may possibly prove to be a distinct species. 

RANGE. 

California (from San Francisco Bay through the coast ranges, also on western slopes 
of San Bernardino Mountains and on Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa islands) to Lower 
California (San .Julio Canyon). 

OCCURRENCE. 

Low mountain and hi^h foothill slopes and plains, canyon sides and bottoms ; in 
dry, rocky or gravelly soils (shrubby), but preferring moist sandy soil (largest). Forms 
clumps and small patches mingled with chaparral brush (species of Vcanothus, Rhus 
laurinn, R. ovata, Quercus diimosa, ArctoHtaphyJos, Adenostoma, Yucca). 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of big-cone spruce. 

T()LKR.\NCE. — Very tolerant of shade. 

Keproduction. — Abundant periodic seeder. Seedlings most frequent in moist bottoms 
of gulches and canyons where seed is covered by litter and washed soil. Less abundant 
and scattered on dry slopes, where seed lodged in pockets or buried by rodents affords 
reproduction. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Prunus ilicifolia interirifolia. — Similar to hollyleaf cherry. Silvical and climatic 
requirements undetermined ; probably very like those of latter tree, but notably less 
aggressive. Requires further study. 

Family LEGUMINOS-ffi. 

A very large family, containing such well-known trees and shrubs as locusts, 
acacias or *' mimosa-trees," as well as a vast number of herbaceous plants, 
such as beans, peas, and clovers, which comprise some of the most important 
food and forage plants in the world. The trees supply heavy, strong, durable 
woods of excellent commercial qualities, while a number of them are notable 
because they produce mature timber in a remarkably few years. They are, 
therefore, important forest trees, particularly for artificial planting. 

According to the structure of their flowers and fruits they are technically 
divided into several subfamilies. As popularly characterized here, however, 
they can usually be recognized by the compound form of their leaves (simple 

" Miss Alice Eastwood has proposed for this variety, which she holds to be a species, 
the name " J'runus Lyoni n. nom " (Handbook of the Trees of California. .54 1905), 
citing as a synonym " Prunu-i intcijrifolia Sargent." a name which, by the common law 
of priority, must stand in place of Miss Eastwoods Prunus lyoni, should this variety be 
raised to the rank of a species. Lyon originally referred specimens of this tree to P. 
occidcntaliH Swartz, which was later shown to be a different species, leaving the Califor- 
nia tree without a name. The writer regrets exceedingly now tliat in naming this 
cherry (Card & For., IV, 51, 1891) he did not dedicate it to Mr. Lyon, who first brought 
the tree to light. 



362 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

iu only one genus of our trees). These consist of a prominent central stem 
wliich either directly gives off a number of pairs of rounded or pointed leaves 
(leaflets) along its two opposite sides or gives off branches and subbranches 
which in turn bear their leaves in this way. The central stem corresponds 
morphologically with the midveins of simple leaves, such as those of maples and 
oaks, and when shed in autumn parts from the twigs just as in these latter 
trees. Leguminous trees are further and most distinctly characterized by their 
beans, or bean-like fruit pods, all matured in one season, some of which resem- 
ble ordinary garden peas and beans and some of which have jointed or twisted 
pods in which each seed is separated from its fellows by intervening constric- 
tions; while in some members the fruit is structurally a bean-pod, but unlike 
ordinary ones in containing but a single seed, this, however, bean-like in shape. 
Flowers of many members of this family are pea-like or bean-like and combine 
male (pollen bearing) and female (seed bearing) organs, or the organs of one 
sex are suppressed and the flowers are male or female only. They are borne 
on different parts of the same tree or branch or on different trees. In one sec- 
tion of Legumiuosse the flowers (bisexual in each blossom) bear no resem- 
blance to pea or bean flowers, but appear like bristling, stiff, yellow, white, red, 
or pink threads, arranged in ball-like or cylindrical bodies. 

PROSOPIS. MESQTJITES. 

The mesquites form a group of small or medium-sized trees and shrubs, all 
of which inhabit subtropical or tropical countries, with few representatives iu 
the United States. Their wood is heavy, very hard, strong, durable, and of 
considerable local economic use ; but on account of the small size and poor tim- 
ber form of the trees it is of only secondary and limited commercial importance. 

They are characterized usually by their 2-forkod. sometimes 4-forked leaf 
stems, with from 5 to 20 or more pairs of small leaflets and often a pair of 
slender keen spines at the base of the bud from which the leaf stems grow. 
At the base of the main leaf stem and of its forks minute glands (dots) are 
usually found. The leaves are shed every autumn. Flowers (bisexual), minute 
and densely arranged in long cylindrical clusters (in our species), with 
slender stems from buds on twigs of the previous year's growth. Fruit, a long 
slender, and flat bean-like pod (fig. 171), or a cylindrical, spirally marked pod 
(fig. 170), neither of which opens of its own accord to liberate its smooth, small 
hard beans, each of which lies in a separate cell of the pod. The seeds depend 
for their distribution upon flood-waters and upon cattle and other animals which 
feed upon them and thus assist in disseminating and sometimes in planting 
them. Seeds do not, however, germinate except when covered by or placed in 
contact with continuously moist soil. The ripe, dried pods, made into coarse 
flour, have long been used for food by southwestern Indians and Mexicans. 
Two species and two well-marked varieties occur in southwestern United States 
and adjacent territory on the south. 

Screwpod Mesquite. 

ProsoiJis odorata^ Torrey and Fi-emont. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Sometimes a short-trunked tree from 15 to 20 feet high, and from 3 to 8 (rarely 
10 to 12) inches in diameter, hut usually shrubby, with numerous stems; bark 
of large trunks pale reddish brown, shaggj^ with loose strips. Year-old twigs 



« The technical name maintained by other writers is Prosopis pubcscens Bentham 
(1846) ; Prosopis odorata T. and F. was published in 1845 and is clearly entitled to 
recognition on the ground of being the first name applied to this tree, except for the 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



363 



are hoary with more or less dense, minute hairs. A pair of sharp spines marks 
the point from which one or two 2-forlvecl leaf stems issue; each spitie bears 
from 5 to 8 pairs of small, whitish-hairy leaflets (tig. 170). The i?reeuish. 




^'07 



Fig. 170. — Proso/iis oilorata, 

inodorous tlowers l)loom from spring to late summer, pi'oducing successive 
crops of pods. Mature pods, pale yellow, cylindrical, spirally twisted (tig. 



unfortunate fact that the authors of it give in their description and plate characters of 
both Prosopi« juliflora DC. and of the screwpod mesquite. It is probable that a foliage 
and flowering branch of the former was used, with fruit of the latter species. There is 



364 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

170) — a most distinctive character — and containing from about 10 to 20 small, 
smooth, hard seeds (fig. 170). Wood, pale yellowish brown and otherwise 
similar in its qualities, including weight, to that of the succeeding species. 

LoNGE\^TY. — Age limits not determined. Trees from 6 to 8 inches in diameter 
are approximately from 50 to 75 years old, while the larger trees found occa- 
sionally are estimated to be from 100 to 1.50 years old- 

RANGE. 

Western Texas (valley of Rio Grando, from Devils River to El Paso) ; west through 
New Mexico, Arizona, southern borders of Utah and Nevada to California (arid region 
of Colorado basin to San Diego County) ; northern Mexico. 

OCCUKBENCE. 

Desert river bottoms, waterholes, and canyons; in dry sandy, loamy, or gravelly soils. 
Forms close and open, often nearly pure stands, but frequently with mesquite. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of hackberry (Celtis reticulata)- 

ToLER.\NCE. — Endures very little shade at any stage. 

Reproduction. — Very abundant seeder. Large quantities of pods infested by grubs. 
Seedlings sparse in exposed places, but frequent in sheltered canyon bottoms and valleys 
where seeds hav'e been well covered by washed soil. 

Mesqmte. 

-Prosopis juliflora glandulosao (Torr.) Sargent 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

The shrub and tree commonly called " mesquite," which ranges from eastern 

Texas to Utah and Colorado and sonthwestward into southern California. Lower 



enough in the description to unmistakably point to the screwpod mesquite as the plant 
for which the name Prosopis odorata was intended, and there is absolutely no doubt that 
the fruit figured is of this tree. By all past and present usages among just authors 
there is every reason for and great justice to Torrey and Fremont in taking up their 
name and only the most trivial pretext for preceding it by a later name. Prosopis 
juliflora DC, with which it was confounded, in part, by these authors, had long pre- 
viously (1825) been published, so that whatever of Torrey and Fremont's description 
applies to that tree is synonymous. There still remains the incontrovertible fact that 
these authors" plate, at least, contains separate and distinct figures belonging unmis- 
takably, the fruit to the screwpod mesquite, and the flower" and foliage to the common 
mesquite. The very common and unassailable practice of all tasonomists, in dealing 
with composite species of this type, is to maintain the name given for the plant which 
was new when the author dealt with the plants ; while in a case where one name has 
been applied to two plants new at the time, the usage is to apply the name given to one 
of these plants and to rename the other. One recent case of this kind is of interest 
here. Betula occidentals Hooker includes, in part, a birch native of northwestern 
Washington and southwestern British Columbia, and the red barked birch of a more 
eastern range. Only lately it was discovered that these two species were really 
included. Bctuhi occidentalis Hooker was. therefore, at once taken for the northwestern 
tree, l)ecause the first part of Hooker's description applied to that tree, the latter part 
to the red barked birch, to which a new name, Betula fontiitalis Sargent, was very prop- 
erly given. The fact that the description was divided gives no more support for this 
procedure than is afforded in the case of the plate of Prosopis odorata T. and F., the 
figures of which are distinctly separated, and in reality present a simpler case, because 
the plant of one figure has already been named Prosopis juliflora- DC. The possible 
argument against maintaining P. odorata T. and F. because it must be cited as a synonym, 
in part, of P. juliflora DC, applies equally well, if need be, against maintaining Beluga 
occidentalis Hooker, which must also be cited as a synonym, in part, of B. fontinalis 
Sargent. 

The writer's act in thus disposing of composite species is believed to rest firmly upon 
the universal law of priority which does full justice to every discoverer. 

"This variety is Torrey's Prosopis glandulosa (1828) supposed by him to be a distinct 
species, one of the characters of which given being the minute glands (dots) at the base 
of the main leaf stem and its forks: characters now known to be present on the leaves 
of all species of Prosopis. In relating this tree as a variety to Prosopis juliflora DC, 
Torrey's specific name must of course be retained, although it refers to an indistinc- 
tive character. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 365 

California, and Mexico, is most perplexing in its characters. What may be 
called I'rosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC, Inhabiting western and eastern Texas 
and connnonly a shrub with many stocky stems from a very large rootstock, or 
sometimes a short-trunked low tree, may be distinguished fairly well by its 15 
or 2U pairs of much-crowded, very narrow, smooth leaflets, one-third to about 
one-half inch long, and by the smooth outer parts (calyx) of its flowers. 
Diverging from this plant are two varieties which appear distinct in their 
extreme forms, but which are more or less directly connected with the species 
through intervening transitional forms. While taxonomically it is important, 
for the sake of exactness, to trace and define these varieties, the main excuse 
for doing so here Is in the possible forest value one or both of these varieties 
may possess. 

One variety. I'rosopis juliflora veh(1i>ia (Woot.) Sargent, is a tree from 30 
to 40 feet high and from 12 to 20 inches through, inhabiting dry valleys of 
southern Arizona and the State of Sonora, Mexico. It is the largest of our 
species. The leaf stems, their branches, and the 12 to 24 pairs of small, narrow, 
crowded leaflets are gray-hairy; outer parts (calyx) of the flowers minutely 
hairy. 

The other variety, Prosopis juliflora glandulosa (Torr.) Sargent, the mesquite 
with which this manual is directly concerned, inhabits southern California, 
extending into Lower California and Mexico, thence eastward to eastern Texas 
and northward into southern Kansas. This is a shrub or small short-trunked 
tree from 15 to 20 feet high, and from G to 10 inches or more through, with a 
rounded crown of arched or drooping branches. The leaf stems, their branches, 
and the 6 to 60 pairs of narrow leaflets are generally smooth, the leaflets usually 
being distant from each other (but not infre(iuently crowded) and one-fourth 
inch to nearly 2 inches long (fig. 171). Outer parts (calyx) of the flowers 
smooth. This is the most reliable distinctive character, but it is not invariable, 
since these parts are sometimes minutely hairy. The fragrant yellow-green 
flowers are produced from about May to July. Mature pods (fig. 171) yellowish, 
3 to 9 inches long (usually 4 to G inches) by one-fourth to about one-half an 
inch wide, somewhat flat but plump ; very flat and thin at first, narrowed between 
the G to 20 seeds; pulp about seeds, which are pale brown, shiny and hard, 
is sweet and edible. Woods of the two varieties and species are indis- 
tinguishable; usually a deep red-brown, dense, close-grained, very hard and 
heavy, but somewhat brittle; exceedingly durable under all sorts of exposure: 
sapwood very thin and lemon yellow. It has many important local economic 
uses for building, cabinet work, and fuel in regions where it is practically the 
only available hardwood, while the wood of the enormously developed roots 
also supplies fuel. Only Its small size and poor timber form px'event the wood 
from being of wider commercial importance. 

For the forester mesquite is the most interesting and important tree of the 
arid Southwest, where through the phenomenal growth of its huge deep roots 
it defies drought conditions which kill other trees. Development of its enormous 
roots appears to be out of all proportion to the often insignificant stems above 
ground, and is a subject for most profitable and interesting investigation. As 
a rule, however, the larger the stem above ground, the smaller the root develop- 
ment ; low, shrubby stems commonly have huge taproots descending to water 
at a depth of 50 or GO feet or more. 

A remarkable fact concerning the root wood is that it is heavier than wood 
from the trunk. The wood of both roots and trunk contains nearly as much 
tannin as ordinary tanbarks. A clear, yellowish gum exudes from the trunks 

15188—08 24 



366 



FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



when they are wounded. This hardens with exposure, and has the mucilagi- 
nous qualities of gum arable, as a substitute for which it is sometimes used. 

Longevity. The life limits of mesquite, below and above ground, have 

not been worked out fully, but the tree is unquestionably long-lived, though of 




Fig. 171. — I'rosopis juliflora [ilnnihilosa. 

exceedingly slow growth. Trunks from 10 to 12 inches in diameter are from 
100 to 125 years old, while the larger trunks occasionally found are likely to be 
very much older. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 367 



Eastern Texas to southern Kansas and southward into northern Mexico. Reappearing 
in Arizona, southern California, and Lower California. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Desert plains, valleys, mesas, and canyons, under soil and climatic conditions like those 
of screwpod, to which it is also similar in silvical characteristics. 

CERCIS. JUDAS TREES. 

Cercis forms a group of small trees and shrubs popularly known as red- 
buds or Judas trees. It contains about 7 species, which occur in parts of Asia, 
Europe, and North America. All of the 3 species of this continent are trees, 
one inhabiting eastern United States, one Texas and Mexico, and one Cali- 
fornia. The eastern and southwestern species are the largest of our representa- 
tives. They have dense, hard, brown, heavy woods, but are commercially unim- 
portant trees, chiefly because of their small !<ize and rather rare occurrence. 
Several are highly prized, and are much planted as ornamental trees on account 
of their bright rose-colored, pea-like flowers, which cover the branches with a 
brilliant flame of color in early spring, before the leaves appear. The eastern 
species grows in moist, rich forests, while the western ones often inhabit dry, 
poor, rocky, and exposed situations. The thickish, single-bladed, heart-shaped 
leaves have from 3 to 5 prominent veins, and are shed in autumn. The fruit, 
ripe in autumn, is a very thin and flat bean-like pod with small, brown, hard, 
bean-like .seeds. 

California Red-bud. 

Cercis occidentalis Torrey. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

California rod-bud is not generally regarded as a tree, but it occasionally grows 
to tree size in sheltered places, and then has a single, smooth, grayish trunk 
from 10 to 12 feet high and from 2 to 3 inches through. Much more frequently, 
however, it grows in dense clumps with slender stems from 2 to 4 feet high. 
The small, pea-shaped flowers (fig. 172) are a clear magenta color. Mature 
leaves (fig. 172), smooth throughout (as are the twigs and branches). In 
autumn the twigs and branches often bear many clusters of pointed, flat, very 
thin, russet-brown pods (fig. 172) ; in ripening, the pods are first purple. Wood, 
fine-grained, dark yellowish brown, with a rather thin layer of whitish sapwood. 
Of no economic or domestic use. 

It is worthy of the forester's notice only for its aid, with other foothill brush, 
in forming a scanty cover along dry, rocky borders of streams. 

Longevity. — T'ndetermined. 

R.\NGE. 

Califorxia. — Along streams from Mendocino County and the region about Mount 
Shasta southward to San Diego County. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Borders of foothill streams, low mountain slopes and "canyons, in dry, or rather dry, 
gravelly and rocky soils. Grows singly and in shruliby clumps interspersed with Cali- 
fornia buckeye, ceanothus, manzanita, and other chaparral brush in gray pine belt ; 
tree forms occur in sheltered situations. 



368 



POEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of gray pine. 

TOLERANCE.— Endures a good deal of shade in early life and light shade when older; 
tolerance appears greater with increased soil moisture. 




Fig. 172. — Cercis occii.lentaJis: a, seed. 



Reproduction.— Plentiful seeder. Seed of high rate of germination (60 to 70 per cent), 
but tardy; vitality persistent. Young plants frequent in crevices, pockets, and little 
benches where seed has been well covered with mineral soil. 



FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 369 

ACACIA. 

Acacia is a very large group of widely distribnted, world-famous trees, 
slanibs, and herbaceous plants. Over 400 species are known in different 
parts of the Old and New World, three-fourths of them in Australia. About a 
dozen trees and shrubs occur in the southwestern United States and adjacent 
territory. The group now contains fewer representatives than formerly, a num- 
ber of acacia-like members having been classed under related genera. Several 
leguminous trees, such as the locusts (GlcfUtsia) and others, are popularly called 
acacias, but technically they are not true acacias. It is exceedingly difficult to 
find characters by which acacias may be popularly distinguished from other 
closely related groups, which are technically sei)arated mainly by such inconspic- 
uous characters as the structure of their flowers. 

True acacias have astringent bark, which in some cases is very valuable for 
tanning. When punctured, the trunk exudes a mucilaginous gum. The gum of 
some foreign species is known in commerce as gum arabic. The true leaf is 
compound, comprising one main stem with 2 to 3 pairs of small side branches 
which bear several or many pairs of opposite tiny leaflets.** Leaves of our 
acacias are shed every year. Their twigs have one or two keen spines 
(sometimes long and straight, and sometimes short and curved), commonly at 
points where leaves or flower stems grow (fig. 173). When there are two spines 
they form a pair. Flowers minute, often arranged in bright colored, slender, 
single-stemmed balls, or in long, single-stemmed cylindrical clusters. An impor- 
tant technical distinction is that the flowers, each of which usually combines 
both male (pollen bearing) and female (fruit bearing) organs, have more than 
50 of the bristly, usually bright yellow, thread-like organs (stamens) protrud- 
ing from (he flower i)ody ; each stamen is entirely or practically separate from 
its fellows. Divisions of the inner flower cup (petals) are united into a cup or 
divided above and united at their bases (rarely, entii*ely separated). The fruit 
pods, beau-like, are flat or full and rounded when mature, straight, but in our 
species commonly twisted or crumpled, and their hard, smooth seeds usually 
bear an oval or circular depression on each of their broad surfaces, an impor- 
tant distinctive mark. They are all peculiarly adapted to growth, usually very 
rapid, in poor dry soils and in hot or warm climates. As a rule, our native 
acacias are little more than chaparral brush; they are too rarely trees to be of 
economic importance. 

Acacias are of ancient origin, many species having existed in an early 
geologic period. 

Only two of the dozen species indigenous in our Southwest, together with one 
naturalized species, are trees, and only one of these occurs within the Pacific 
region. 

Cats Claw. 

Acacia (/rcf/gii Gray. 
DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Cats claw receives its name from the keen hooked spines on its twigs (fig. 173). 
Very often it is only a low shrub, but usually it is a short-truuked, much- 
branchetl tree from 10 to 20 feet high and from 6 to 8 inches through ; occasion- 
ally it is somewhat taller and thicker. The angled twigs are minutely hairy and 

"Some pxotic acacias produce simple, leaf-like organs (pbyllodiai which are morpho- 
logically only leaf stems dilated into the form of a simple leaf blade. 



370 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



light reddish brown. Mature leaves (flg. 173) grow singly and alternately from 
the young twigs, but cue or two issue at a point on older twigs ; the 3-nerved 
leaflets (fig. 173) are more or less hoary with minute hitirs. The pods (fig. 173) 
ripen in August, when they are pale brown, containing flat, shiny, deep brown, 
almost circular seeds — a most important character. The pods usually remain 




Fig. 173. — Acacia greggii. 



on the branches for from six to eight mouths. Wood, dull red-brown, dense, 
heavy, hard, and with a thin layer of lemon-yellow sapwood. Not known to be 
used for any economic purpose, probably because of the scarcity of sizable trees, 
but it has economic value on account of its good quality and its durability. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 371 

Ability to thrive in the driest and poorest soils i-enders it worthy of the for- 
ester's attention, though the cover it affords is open and scanty. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. A tree Sh inches in diameter showed an 
age of 49 years. 



From Western Texas (Rio Grande) througli southern Xe^- Mexico and Arizona to south- 
ern California. 

OCCUBKENCE. 

Borders of low desert mountain streams, in low canyons, on benches, and mesas ; in 
dry, gravelly soils. Similar otherwise in occurrence, climatic, and silvical requirements 
to mesquite. Seeding habits and reproduction undetermined. 

PARKINSONIA. 

The Parkinsonias form a small group of shrubby or low trees of little forest or 
economic importance. They are characterized by smooth, thin bark ; the twigs 
have one or three pronged sharp spines, or are themselves spine-like and sharp ; 
and the very thin foliage is composed of clusters of long or very short two- 
forked leaf-stems (forking close to the twig), each of which bears from five to 
thirty pairs of very small leaflets (fig. 174). The small, showy, yellow flowers 
(each with male or female organs) are borne in long or short, exceedingly 
slender branched clusters (the bottom flowers opening first), and bloom from 
spring to late summer. The fruit matured during one season is a pointed cylin- 
drical pod (fig. 175), .iointed by constrictions between the seeds and conspicu- 
ously striped longitudinally ; 1 to 8 hard, smooth, brownish seeds in each pod. 

Wood, dense, fine-grained, brown or yellovrish brown, hard, and moderately 
heavy. Small size of the trees renders the wood of little economic use. 

They are little known, but should prove worthy of attention on account of 
their ability to thrive in hot situations, one species particularly in dry, arid 
places. Grazing animals browse extensively upon the twigs. 

The group comprises but three species, two of which occur in southwestern 
United States and within the Pacific region ; a third species is African. 

Horse-bean ; Ratania. 
Parkinsonia aculeata Linn;eus. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

The horse-bean is a short-trunked, smooth-ljarked tree from 1.5 to 2.'» feet 
high and from 4 to 8 inches through, with thin, willowy, drooping or arched 
branches. The thin bark is reddish brown. Year-old twigs are greenish and 
very minutely hairy, later becoming smooth and grayish or retldish yellow ; 
older parts of the branches bear from 1 to 3 pronged, long, keen spines at the 
joints, from which issue 1 or 2 pairs of very long (6 to 18 inches), flat 
leaf-stems (each pair attached to the branch by a very short, spine-pointed 
stem). Each stem bears from 20 to 30 pairs of extremely small, scale-like 
leaflets (fig. 174). A most interesting morphological feature in the develop- 
ment of the spines is that when they first appear on young twigs they are the 
short basal parts (spine-tipped) of the leaf stems, from which are given off 
1 or 2 pairs of flat leaflet-bearing branches. These branches are later shed, 
as the spine grows, leaving on its sides conspicuous scars. The fragrant yellow 
flowers, three-fourths inch to 1 inch broad, and on very slender branched stems, 



372 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

bloom from spring throughout the summer; upper central division of each blos- 
som red-dotted inside (fig. 174). Mature pods (fig. 174), yellowish brown, 
from 2 to G inches long, longitudinally veined, and with 1 to 8 seeds. Wood 




Fig. 174. — Parkinsonia aculeata: a, seed. 

of the horse-bean is pale brown ; yellowish sapwood thick ; not used for any 
commercial purpose. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 373 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. A tree 7 inches in diameter was 24 
years old. 



Texas (lower Rio Grande) ; Arizona and i'alifornia (in valley of Colorado Kiver) ; 
northern Mexico and Lower California. 

OCCURRENCE. 

About lagoons (Colorado River Valley) ; in rich, wet silt or mud. Scattered singly 
or in groups. 

Climatic Co.nditions. — Similar to those of mesquites. Nothing is known of its 
tolerance and reproduction. 



Little-leaf Horse-bean. 

Parkinsonia microphylla Torrey. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

So far as can be discovered, this tree, which is generally shrubby, has no 
field name, probably because it is not recognized by laymen as a relative of the 
preceding species. For want of a better one, "little-leaf horse-beau," coined 
from the technical name, is proposed. 

At best 15 or 20 feet high, with a short trunk from 6 to 10 inclies through ; 
very often only a shrub from 3 to (j feet high, with numerous stems. The crown 
is always intricately branched, and tlie limbs are armed with inanj' short, stiff, 
spine-pointed twigs. Bark of branches and trunk smooth and pale reddish yel- 
low ; the greenish twigs are densely covered at first with minute woolly hairs, 
most of which disappear by autumn. The pale yellow flowers, borne in short, 
delicate, branched clusters, appear before the leaves in late spring fi-om minute 
buds on thorny twigs formed the previous year (fig. 175) ; upper central divi- 
sion of the flower, white. The minutely hairy leaves (fig. 175) appear in early 
summer, but fall shortly after reacliing maturity, so that the twig's, as ordinarily 
seen in middle or late summer, are bare, save for clusters of striped pods (fig. 
175), which commonly remain on the brandies until the following spring. The 
pods contain from 1 to 3 (as a rule, 2) seeds. Wood, very dense, fine-grained, 
hard, deep yellowish brown, often mottled and streaked with dull red ; a large 
part of the stem is yellowish sapwood. Sizable trees are so rare as to render 
the wood of no commercial or domestic use. 

Owing to its shrubby, leafless form and generally rare occurrence, it can 
hardly prove of any importance to the forester, even though it thrives in the 
hottest and most arid situations. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. One tree 9s inches in diameter showed an 
age of 50 years. 



Southern .Vrizona (desert region) ; southern California (desert region adjoining Ari- 
zona; Lower California (adjoining California); Mexico (Sonora). 



374 FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



OCCURRENCE. 



Desert hill slopes ; in gravelly and rocky dry soils. Scattered singly and in small 
groups. 

Climatic Coxditioxs. — Similar to those of leather-leaf ash (Frarinus coriacea). 




Fig. 175. — Parkinsonia microphijlla: a, seed. 



ToLEnAXCE. — Decidedly intolerant of shade. 

Eeproductiox and other silvical characteristics undetermined ; fairly abundant seeder. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 
CERCIDIUM. 



375 



Cercidium forms a small group of low, shrubby, thorny, greeu-barkeil 
trees, somewhat similar in habits and form to the Parkinsonias. with which our 




Fig. 176. — Cercidium tnnri/anum. 

three .southwestern species were once, and by some authorities still are. com- 
bined. The 2-forked leaf-stems, with few pairs of very small leaflets, and 



376 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

the yellow, similarly clustered flowers ai'e closely similar to those of Parkin- 
sonia inicrophi/Ua. Cercidium is best distinguished by the flat, uncon- 
stricted pods, which are more like bean fruits than the round, jointed pods 
of ParJcinsonia. This, together with some minor structural differences in the 
flowers, make it desirable to maintain Cercidium as distinct from ParJcinsonia. 
Like the latter, trees of this group are desert-loving shrubs and trees. For this 
reason they are of some service to the forester, since they form persistent, 
though thin, chaparral in arid places. The moderately heavy, hard wood is 
occasionally used locally for fuel, but not otherwise. 

One of the three species occurring in the United States (two of which are 
small trees and the other a shrub) inhabits the southern Pacific region. 

Palo Verde; Green-bark Acacia. 
Cercidium torreyanum (Wats.) Sargent. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Green-barked acacia is a much-branched, generally leafless, short-trunked, 
thorny tree from 15 to 25 feet high, and from 10 to 15 inches through ; some- 
times larger. The bark of all limbs and of young ti'unks is smooth and light 
yellowish green. That of large trunks is light bro\A'n with a reddish tinge ; on 
the lower part of the trunk lightly seamed and scaly. The somewhat zig-zag, 
smooth, green twigs (fig. 176) are thorny at the angles. The pale, minutely 
downy leaves (fig. 17G) appear in early spring, but fall very shortly after they 
reach full size. Since the pods are shed in midsummer, the branches, as gen- 
erally seen, are therefore bare, though a few scattered leaves occasionally re- 
main in autumn. 

Wood, pale yellowish brown with rather thick sapwood ; heavy, but brittle 
and cuts easily. Not known to have any economic use. 

Longevity. — No records of its age are available. Judging from the pei-sistent 
slow diameter growth of small stems, it appears to be long-lived. 



Southern California (Colorado Desert) and Arizona (lower Gila River Valley) and 
south into Mexico (Sonora) and Lower California. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Sides of desert canyons, about sinks and depressions in arid sandhills, and on dry 
washes ; in rocky or sandy ground. Scattered singly and in small groups. 
Climatic Conditions. — Like those of mesquites. 
Tolerance. — Intolerant of shade. 
Reproduction. — Abundant seeder ; reproduction undetermined. 

DALEA. 

The genus Dalea contains a large number of shrubs and herbaceous plants 
and but one tree species. The tree occurs in our southwest. Most of the repre- 
sentatives belong to Mexico and South America. Foliage marked with minute 
glandular dots (fig. 177). The small blossoms, which resemble pea flowers in 
general appearance, combine male (pollen bearing) and female (fruit bearing) 
organs. Fruit, a small one-seeded pod, which adheres unopened to the kidney- 
shaped seed. Of no economic or forest importance. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 377 

Indigo Bush. 

Dalea spinosa Gray. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Mostly a spiny-twigged, small, much-branched shrub ; sometimes a very short 
and thick trunked, bushy tree from 12 to IS feet high and from 8 to 12 inches 




Fro. 177. — Dalea spinosa. 

in diameter— occasionally thicker. The trunk is usually twigted or gnarled, 
and tile rather large limbs, as well as numerous slender, needle-like twigs, 



378 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

trend upward strongly. Gray or whitish tlirougliout, especially the limhs and 
twigs, which are more or less coated with very minute white down. The trunk 
bark of large trees is deeply and narrowly seamed, hard and rough, with small 
scales. Very few leaves (fig. 177) are produced, and these, white-downy and 
gland-dotted, are shed soon after reaching mature size, so that the tree or shrub 
commonly appears leafless. Flowers deep indigo blue (hence the name " indigo 
bush"), the outer basal covering of the blossoms (calyx) 10-ribbed, with a 
glandular spot between each of the six upper ribs. The calyx adheres to the 
small beaked, one-seeded pod (fig. 177), which is also gland-dotted. The shiny, 
light brown, ^iidney-shaped seeds are mottled with dark brown. 

Wood, rich chocolate brown, with a thin layer of sapwood ; moderately wide- 
grained, soft, and rather light. Not used for any purpose. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. A tree llf inches in diameter showed an 
age of 40 years. 

RANGE. 

Southern California (Colorado Desert — at Agua Caliente and Toras) and eastward 
into Arizona (to lower Gila River) ; south into adjacent Mexico (Sonora) and Lower 
California (to Calamujuet). 

OCCURRENCE. 

Desert plains in dry rocky or gravelly soil. Scattered and in small groups. 
Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of mesquite. 
Tolerance. — Requires full light. 

Reproduction. — Seed production rather small. Seedlings sparse and in washed mineral 
soil. 

OLNEYA. 

Olneya is a genus confined to arid parts of our southwest and containing but 
one species which enters the Pacific region. Characters of the genus are 
given under the following species. 

Mexican Ironwood.° 

Olnea tesota Gray. 

DISTIXGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Olnca tesota is commonly called " ironwood " in the United States on account 
of its cross-grained, exceedingly heavy, hard wood. To avoid confusion, the 
name " western ironwood " is proposed. " Ironwood " was applied to several 
eastern hard-wooded trees long before this species was discovered. 

A short, thick-trunked, bushy tree from 15 to 20 feet high and from 8 to 12 
inches in diameter ; sometimes of larger diameter. Green-gray throughout its 
crown of thick, upright limbs and spiny twigs, and with thin, deep red-brown 
flaky bark. Thorny twigs (fig. 178), at first densely covered with minute, close 
hairs, which gradually disappear with age. One or a pair of thorns, which fall 
off in about their second year, grow from just below the leaf-stems ; the latter 
bear from 7 to 15 white-hairy leaflets (fig. 178), in pairs, except the terminal 
one. The leaves, partly evergreen, remain on the twigs fi'om one spring to 
another, falling as the succeeding foliage appears. The purplish, small flowers, 
appearing with the new leaves, resemble pea-blossoms, and grow in short, small, 
hairy clusters. Mature pods (flg. 178), ripe in late summer, are light russet 
brown 'and densely covered with close gland-tipped hairs ; the thick, leathery 



" Often called arhol de hierro, especially in Sonora, Mexico, where the tree was dis- 
covered in 1852. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



379 



halves of the pod, slow in splitting, open and liberate flattish, oval, shiny, 
russet brown, hard seeds. Unlike many other leguminous seeds, these grow 
rather quickly after they are jilnnted. 




Fig. 178. — Olncya tcsota: a, seed. 



Wood, deep ehooolate brown, uioltlod with red; sapwood. very narrow, lonion- 
yellow ; exceedingly hard to split or to work. The short trunks yield but little 
clear wood, which serves only locally for fuel and for some minor purposes. 



380 FOKEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

The ability of this tree to thrive in hot desert regions malies it worthy of 
attention for planting in arid, treeless localities within its climatic range. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. Believed to be long-lived. A tree 8 inches 
in diameter showed an age of 77 years. 

RANGE. 

Southern California (from Colorado Eiver south of Mohave Mountains) to south- 
western Arizona and through adjacent Mexico (Sonora) and Lower California (between 
Comundee and Calamujuet). 

OCCUBRENCE. 

Along desert water courses (especially intermittent streams), depressions, and washes 
in dry gravelly soil. Grows singly and in open patches, mingled sometimes with mes- 
quite, palo verde, and desert shrubs. 

Climatic Coxditioxs. — Like those of mesquites. 

Tolerance and Reprodcctiox. — Lndetermined ; appears decidedly intolerant. 

Family CELASTRACE.ffi. 

Celastraceje comprises a large number of trees and shrubs widely dis- 
tributed over the world. The North American representatives are small and 
unimportant. The poiiularly best-known groups of this family include the orna- 
mental shrubs and bushy trees known as spindle-trees {Evonyinus), and the 
woody climber "bittersweet" (Cclastrus) of eastern North America. The 
characters which relate members of this family are drawn entirely from their 
inconspicuous flowers, the distinctions in which are not easily observed by lay- 
men. Simple distinctive characteristics are wanting. In some species the 
flowers — which are usually small and inconspicuous — are perfect, with both 
male and female organs in the same flower ; in other species, male and female 
flowers are distinct on different parts of the same tree ; and in yet others, male 
and female flowers are each on separate trees. The fruit, ripened in one sea- 
son, is berry-like or a dry capsule; the evergreen or deciduous leaves, of one 
simple blade, may grow in pairs (one opposite another) or singly, alternately 
on different sides of the twigs. The one genus representing this family in the 
Pacific region is so unique in its characters as to be easily recognized. 

CANOTIA. 

A genus containing but one species of a limited and little-known southwestern 
range, including a small part of the Pacific region. Characters of the genus are 
given under this species. 

Canotia. 

Canotia holacaiitha Torrey. 

DISTIXGUISHIXG CHARACTERISTICS. 

Canotia holacantha is a tree or shrub anomalous in its entire lack of leaves; 
the thin green bark of its twigs seemingly performs the functions of leaves. 
This strange modification appears greatly to help the plant to endure the hot, 
dry climate of its range. At best, a shrubby tree from 15 to 20 feet high with 
a very short, stocky trunk from 4 to 6 inches through ; very occasionally, almost 
a foot in diameter. Greenish bark of the branches somewhat streaked, that of 
large trunks pale brown and seamed. Twigs very slender, round, tipped with a 
sharp point, growing singly from the branches, never in pairs (one opposite 



FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



381 



another). Small short clusters of white (bisexual) flowers appear near the 
ends of the spiny twigs (fig. 170). producing a dry woody capsule (fig. 179), 
which splits open at the top, liberating the small winged seeds. Wood, heavy, 




Fig. 179. — Canotia holacuntha. 



fine-grained, light rich brown, very hard. Not used for any purpose, chiefly 
because of its rarity. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. An exceptionally large tree 10 inches in 
diameter showed an .-ige of over 72 years. 

15188—08 25 



382 FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



Arizona (from White Mountain region to the Bill Williams (River) Fork) ; southern 
California (Providence Mountains). 

OCCUERENCE. 

Low mountain slopes, foothills, and mesas in dry gravelly soils. In groups and scat- 
tered among chaparral and occasional small desert trees. 

Climatic Conditions (marked by high temperature) and silvical habits, etc., unde- 
termined. 

Family STERCULIACE^. 

Stercnliacere contains a large number of genera, but these are mainly 
represented in tropical regions outside of the United States. The West 
Indian tree, from which chocolate of commerce is derived, is a member of this 
family, as is also the sycamore-leafed Sterculia, indigenous to China and so 
often planted for ornament in the frostless. warmer parts of the United States. 
One genus only, the following, belongs to this country. 

FREMONTODENDRON.'^ 

The genus Fremontodendron is represented by only one species, which is con- 
fined to California. The generic characters are included with those of its 
species. 

Fremontia. 

Fremontodendron californicum (Torr.) Coville. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

The commonest field name of Fremontodendron californicum is " slippery elm," 
which refers to the mucilaginous tough bark and twigs. These taste like those 
of the true slippery elm {Vlmus pahescens) of the East. It is also called 
" silver oak," because of the white uudersurface of its leaves, and " leather- 
wood," because of its tough twigs and bark. All of these names, however, were 
used for eastern trees and shrubs long before they were applied to this Cali- 
fornia tree. Fremontia is desirable to avoid confusion. 

Usually a small tree from 10 to 20 feet high, with a short trunk from 3 to 6 
inches through and an open crown of wide-spreading limbs ; occasionally some- 
what taller and with a thicker trunk. Very often, however, it is a much 
branched shrub, from 4 to 6 feet high, forming dense thickets with other foot- 
hill brush. The trunk bark is rough, deeply seamed, and blackish brown, some- 
times reddish ; year-old twigs are smooth and pale reddish brown, and when 
young are densely covered with rust-colored down. Mature leaves (fig. 180), 
borne singly at a point on the twigs, are thick, veiny, rusty-downy beneath and 
more or less hairy above. The leaves of each season's growth remain on the 
twigs about two winters. Mature fruit (fig. 180), preceded by a bright yellow, 
rose-like fiower, is a densely woolly 4 or 5 celled capsule, splitting open at its 
point when ripe in midsummer. The deep reddish brown small seeds are slowly 
shaken from the open pods by the wind or browsing animals. Wood, deep, often 
clear, reddish brown, fine-grained, dense, rather soft, cutting easily, and with a 
very thick layer of whitish sapwood. Not used for any economic or domestic 
purpose. Both tree and shrubby forms are of considerable service for the 
tenacious protective cover they form on dry rocky foothill slopes. Range cattle 
browse upon the twigs, which are very nutritious. 

o Formerly written Fremontia, a generic name recently found to have been preoccupied 
for another group of plants, but which fortunately could be modified so as to retain its 
dedicatorv reference to General J. C. Fremont, through whose early western explorations 
the one species representing this genus was discovered. 



FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



383 



Longevity.— Not fully determined. Two trees, respectively 5i and 3^ iiic-hea 
in diameter, were 43 and 39 years old. 

RANGE. 

California (from Mariposa) to Lowt-r California. 




Fig. 180. — Frcmoniodendron californicut 



OCCURRENCE. 



Lower mountain and higher foothill slopes and ridges; in dry, gravelly, and rocky 
soils. Forms extensive pure sliruliliy thickets, or groups (small trees) mingled with scrub 
oak, mountain mahogany, hollyleaf cherry, manzanita, ceanothus, and other chaparral 
brush. Largest on Sierra foothills. 



384 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of gray pine. 

Tolerance. — Appears capable of enduring considerable shade, but rarely subjected to it. 
REPRODfCTiON and silvical requirements undetermined ; u.sually an abundant seeder. 
Seedlings grow in exposed mineral soil where seed has been covered by wash. 

Family ANACARDIACEiE. 

Anacardiacese is a large group of small trees aud shrubs, widely distributed 
over the world. A few of them are of some economic importance for their 
woods, but several of them are more valuable for their commercial gums and 
other products. The gum-producing species are, however, not indigenous to 
this country. Chief among our popularly known members are the sumachs. 
The juice of these plants is resinous, becoming sticky as it dries, while that of 
some members is violently poisonous to the human skin." The leaves are simple 
(as in the garden '• smoke-tree") or compound (subdivided into pairs of leaflets, 
as in the common staghorn sumach), are borne singly on the branches (never 
in pairs) and are either evergreen or are shed every autumn. The small 
flowers occur in usually large, dense, terminal clusters, and usually form large, 
dense, often bright-colored, masses of fruit. In some species, however, the 
clusters are thin and the fruits like berries. In some species male flowers are 
borne on one tree aud the female flowers on another tree; in other species, 
some trees bear perfect flowers (each containing male and female organs), and 
some trees bear only male or female flowers, while in some cases one tree may 
bear perfect flowers mingled with either male or female flowers on separate 
twigs. 

Four genera comprising the trees of this family are found in the United States, 
only one of which. Rhus, is represented in the Pacific region. 

RHUS. SUMACHS. 

The sumachs form a large group of trees and shrubs with a resinous — some- 
times poisonous— or milky, sticky juice, large pithy twigs, and often large leaves 
(compound) with many pairs of pointed leaflets and an odd terminal leaflet; 
only one of our species with mainly simple, single-bladed leaves. Leaves of all 
are borne singly, never in pairs (one opposite another) ; those of most species 
are shed in autumn, but in one they are evergreen. The clusters of greenish 
flowers (in some cases large) are practically of separate sexes (by suppression 
or abortion of the male organs in one and the female organs in the other), each 
borne on different trees. Fruit, massed in large or small close clusters, spheri- 
cal, smooth or hairy: coating thin: dry or somewhat resinous, and containing 
one hard, smooth seed. 

Rhus is of ancient origin ; remains of its extinct species are found abundantly 
in the Eocene and Pliocene formations of Europe. 

Several exotic trees of this group, among them the famous lacquer-tree of 
Japan and China, are exceedingly valuable for their commercial products of 
gum, wax. etc., and for their wood. Of the nearly 20 species native to the 
United States, none is of commercial importance, chiefly on account of their 
small size. The wood of most of our sumachs is, however, very rich and hand- 
some in color and grain, and except for lack of size is very suitable for cabinet 
work. Five or six of these become small trees, and one of these inhabits the 
Pacific, region. 



"A saturated alcoholic solution of acetate of lead removes all trace of the poison 
if the inoculated skin is thoroughly washed with it immediately or within an hour after 
the contact. This solution is less effective a few hours after the poisoning takes place. 
Thorough washing of the poisoned skin with pure alcohol is also a preventive if applied 
within an hour after contact with the plant. Following either treatment the skin 
should be thoroughly washed with soap and water. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 385 

Mahogany Sumach. 
Rhus intcyrifoUa (Xutt.) Bentham and Hooker. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

The field name of mahogany i^umach is simply " mahogany," and refers to the 
brilliant red color of its wood. To avoid confusion with the true mahogany 




Fig. 181. — lihun iiitr/jriftjlia. 

(an unrelated tree, a native of Florida and adjacent islands), the name " mahog- 
any sumach " is suggested. 



386 FOEEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 

A popularly little kuowii evergreen species, occurring mainly as a very low 
bush producing dense thickets, and only occasionally and in protected places 
becoming a tree from 10 to 20 feet high, with a very short, stocky trunk from 
8 to 15 inches through ; sometimes taller and thicker. The crown, open and 
irregular, is composed of many wide-spreading limbs and stiff twigs. Year-old 
twigs are clear red-brown and more or less downy — densely so at first. Mature 
leaves (evergreen) are thick, leathery, usually of one simple blade (fig. 181) ; 
sometimes (compound) consisting of three leaflets (fig. 181) ; borders of leaves 
slightly curled toward the under side ; smooth on their top sides, paler yellow- 
ish green beneath and somewhat downy on the veins and leaf stems. Leaves of 
one season's growth persist about two years. Mature fruit (fig. 181), ripe in 
late summer and few in number, is circular or oval in outline, flatfish, and 
densely covered with deep red, fine down, the thin, sticky, resinous pulp covering 
a smooth, hard, pale brown stone (fig. 181). Wood red, heavy, hard; with very 
thin, light colored layer of sapwood. It is sometimes used locally for firewood, 
for which it is said to be very excellent. The beautiful, rich, red color and good 
working quality of the heartwood renders it suitable for small ornamental work. 

The shrubby form is useful as an enduring chaparral cover on exposed sea- 
coast sands, where few other shrubs are able to exist. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. One tree 21J inches in diameter showed 
an age of 62 years. 

RANGE. 

Coast of southern California (from Santa Barbara) to southern Lower California 
(Magdalena Bay) ; Santa Barbara and Cedros Islands. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Low mountain and foothill slopes, and on exposed seacoast bluffs ; in dry sandy and 
gravelly soil : also in sheltered coves and gulches. Forms extensive dense thickets of 
pure growth (low shrub) in very exposed places; in groups or small patches as tree in 
protected sites; sometimes with Rhus laurina. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of Torrey pine. 

Tolerance.— Undetermined ; probably very tolerant. 

Repboductiox. — Abundant seeder. Seedlings frequent, sparsely distributed, or often 
very numerous where washing has covered seed. 

Family ACERACE.a:. 

This family consists mainly of tree.s. comprising such widely distributed 
and well-known economic and ornamental representatives as the maples, and 
also one Asiatic genus. Some of them are large, commercial forest trees, pro- 
ducing very useful timber, and the sap of several yields hard sugar, the making 
of which is an important North American industry. Further characters of the 
family are included under the following, its principal genus. 

ACER. MAPLES. 

The maples embrace all of our representatives of the family Aceracere, which, 
with the exception of box-elders or ash-leafed maples, are universally called 
maples. Maples are characterized by usually simple, single-bladed leaves (figs. 
182 to 187) or by compound leaves \yith from 3 to 5 leaflets (fig, 188). Leaves 
of both types always occur in pairs on the twigs. The leaves of all maples are 
shed in autumn. The flowers, which appear before, with, or after the leaves, 
are, in some representatives, male (by abortion of female organs) or are 
female (by abortion of male organs), each kind l>eing borne on separate trees; 
in other cases, blossoms of these types occur on different parts of the same tree 




ir,iS8— 08. (To face page 386.) 



Fig. 182. — Acer macrophylht 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 387 

or branch. They are not often perfectly bisexual, or strictly of one sex and 
borne on separate trees. It liaj)i)ens, therefore, that not all trees ai"e seed bear- 
ing. Flowers are small or niiuute. Those of some maples are borne in long, 
conspicuous, many-flowered clusters, while those of others appear in small few- 
flowered bunches. All maples are dependent for the fertilization of their flowers 
upon insects, which thi'ong about their nectar and pollen-bearing bloom.s. 

The fruit (of our representatives) is readily recognized. It is composed of a 
pair of one-winged seeds, joined together but more or less easily separable when 
mature. The fruit is ripened in spring or late summer, and is disseminated 
mainly by wind and flood waters, and to some extent by animals. Seed matured 
in spring falls shortly after ripening and germinates, while that ripened in late 
summer remains on the branches through winter, or falls late in autumn and 
germinates in the spring. The vitality of the seeds is generally transient, 
the more precocious seeds depending for their life upon reaching a suitable 
place to sprout shortly after maturity ; but the autumn-ripened seed retains 
its vitality until spring on the cool ground or hanging from twigs in the cold 
winter air. 

Nearly all maples have fine-grained, dense, evenly and finely porous woods, 
some of which are hard, often beautifully cuiied and mottled, and highly 
prized for finishing and cabinet work. 

Of approximately 70 maples known in the world, 13 occur in th*i United States, 
and 4 of these inhabit the Pacific region. 

Broadleaf Maple. 

Acer macrophyllum Pursh. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Broadleaf maple is the only large maple tree of the Pacific region, where it is 
called " Oregon maple " and " bigleaf maple." The name " broadleaf maple." 
derivetl from the technical name, seems preferable. It varies greatly in form and 
height in different soils and situations, from a short-stemmed crooked tree from 
25 to ;}0 feet high and under 1 foot in diameter to one from 6<) to SO feet high 
with a straight, long, clear trunk from 14 to 30 inches through ; occasionally of 
larger diameter. Open-grown trees have short trunks and broad, dense, round- 
topped crowns, while those in dense stands produce trunks clear of branches 
one-half or two-thirds of their height, and a short, narrow crown. Old trunks 
have rough bark with bax'd, scaly ridges of a pale grayish to reddish-brown color. 
Mature leaves (fig. 182), unmistakal)le in their large size, are thickish, smooth, 
and somewhat shiny on their top sides, paler green beneath, and 7 inches to 
occasionally 14 inches wide, with stems (J to 12 inches long. Befoi'e falling they 
become clear reddish yellow. The large, drooping clusters of fragrant yellow 
flowers appear after the leaves are grown. Mature fruit or "seeds" (fig. 182), 
produced in large quantities by trees in the open and at a comparatively early 
age, is tawny or yellowish brown when ripe in late autumn, often remaining 
on the branches until winter or later ; body of the seeds covered with sharp 
bristle-like hairs. Wood, fine-grained, rather hard, firm, light brown with 
pale tint of red; of an excellent commercial quality and suitable and used for 
the same purposes as eastern hard maple. A timber tree of the first importance 
in the Pacific region, where commercial hard wood Is scarce. 

Longevity. — Long-lived, the largest trees attaining an age of from 150 to 200 
or more years. Forest-grown trees, from 12 to 20 inches in diameter, are from 
50 to 85 years old. 



'388 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

RANGE. 

Coast of Alaska (south of latitude 55°), British Columbia, TVesteru Washington 
and Oregon, and California (south to San Bernardino Mountains). 

Alaska.' — Northern limits not definitely known. 

British CoLUMBi.i. — Islands and seaward side of coast range, rare northward. Noted 
Queen Charlotte Islands. Eraser River Yalley at Mission Junction and Yale (inland 
limit), islands of Gulf of Georgia, Vancouver -Island (locally noted -on San Juan and 
Gordon rivers). 

Washington. — Mainly west of Cascades below 8,500 feet. Eastern limits Peshastin 
(Chelan County) and Bingen (Klickitat County) on Columbia River. Noted on Puget 
Sound at Seattle, Tacoma, Lilliwaup, and Union (Mason County), Mason and North Fork 
Skokomish River up to mouth of South Fork (Mason County), Clallam County, Olympic 
Mountains below 1.500 feet. Queniult Indian Reservation, Norton (Lewis County) ; 
(West) Washington National Forest up to 2.000 feet, locally noted Silverton (Snohomish 
Coiimy), and Skagit Valley 10 miles belo-w Marblcmount (Skagit County) ; (East) Wash- 
ington National Forest at 1.100 to 3,500 feet, locally noted Stehekin River, Lake Chelan, 
Stehekin, Peshastin, and Peshastin Canyon (Chelan County) ; Mount Rainier National 
Forest below 3. .300 feet, locally noted Cowlitz bottom. Ashford (Pierce County). 

Oregon. — Wholly on west side Cascades, though extending east on Columbia River to 
Sherman County between mouth Deschutes River and Grants. Noted Cascade (north) 
National Forest whole west slope up to 1.600 feet. Cascade (south) National Forest below 
2,250 feet, Grant's Pass (950 feet, on Rogue River, Josephine County), Siskiyou National 
Forest. General in Coast Range. 

California. — Throughout coast ranges from north to south border of State, Sierra 
Nevada only west side south to Sequoia National Park, and southern cross ranges only 
south and west sides, at the north up to 4,000 feet, and at the south at 3,000 to 6,000 
feet. East limits in northern part of State. Siskiyou Mountains near Southern Pacific 
Railroad, Scott Valley between Yreka and Fort .Tones (Siskiyou County) below 3,500 feet. 
Mill Creek gulch west of Etna, upper canyon Sacramento River from Sissohs (3,500 feet) 
(Siskiyou County), to Kennett (Shasta County) and McCIoud River for 15 miles above 
Baird. Also noted in Siskiyou County on Salmon Summit from below 1,800 to 5,100 feet 
and in Del Norte County on Smith River and at Crescent City. Eastern limits in north 
coast ranges, mainly eastern slopes of inner range, on hill between town of Shasta and 
Whiskey town (Shasta County), probably eastern boundaries southern Trinity and north- 
ern Mendocino counties. Stony Ford. Fout Spring at base of Snow Mountain and Cook 
Springs (northwest Colusa County), Cache Creek above Rumsey (Yolo County), Napa 
Valley north of Calistoga, hills west of Calistoga, and southwest slopes Mount St. Helena, 
below Toll House (Napa County), and Sonoma Creek between Glen Allen and Sonoma 
(Sonoma County). Humboldt County, noted Hoopa Valley and up west slopes Trinity 
Mountains to 3.700 feet. Redwood Creek, Carson's lumber camp 17 miles north of 
Eureka, and south in redwood forest to southern border of county, also east up Van Dusen 
and Mad rivers beyond east line of county. Trinity County, noted from east side Trinity 
Mountains to Lewiston. at Canyon Creek. Junction City, Dutch and Carl creeks south of 
Junction City, Post and Second creeks south and southwest of Hayfork, and thence to 
South Fork Trinity, Mad, and Van Dusen rivers. Mendocino County: Noted in coast red- 
wood belt mainly in gulches. Laytonville to Covelo, borders Round Valley, Middle Fork 
Eel River, Cave Creek to Redwood Hill, Redwood Canyon, Russian River from Ridgewood 
Summit to south border of county, near boundary Lake County on road from Ilopland to 
Highland Springs. Lake County, noted on northeast slopes Mount St. Helena on St. 
Helena Creek from Toll House to south end Middletown Valley (1.500 feet or lower), 
mountains north Mount St. Helena to beyond Cobb Mountain at 1.700 to 2.200 feet, can- 
yons upper Putah and Big Sulphur creeks and divide between them, near Adams Springs, 
road from Middletown to Lower Lake, west of Highland Springs, northeast of Upper Lake 
OD Bartlett Mountain down to Bartlett Springs, east and southeast of Lower Lake on 
road to Reiff and Rumsey. Sonoma Count!/: Noted on lower Russian River from eastern 
edge of redwood belt at Forestville, west to Gurneyville and Duncan Mills, and more 
sparingly west of Duncan Mills, Austin Creek from Duncan Mills to and above Cazedero, 
Gurneyville to Occidental, Camp Meeker, Green Valley, between Sebastopol and Camp 
Meeker, upper Russian River northward from Cloverdale, canyon between Knight's and 
Alexander valleys, canyon Big Sulphur Creek for 6 miles above Geysers. Marin County: 
Throughout, noted between Sausalito and San Geronimo. Lagunitas and Paper Mill Creek, 
Mount Tamalpais north and south sides. Contra Costa County: Noted in canyons of 
Mount Diablo, Mitchell Canyon and upper Marsh Creek. Alameda County: Noted in Nlles 
canyon and canyon on Mission Peak. Coast ranges south of San Francisco Bay ; noted on 
Mount Hamilton (Santa Clara County) at 3.000 feet, and on road from Gilroy Valley to 
Gilroy Hot Springs: seaward coast range (mainly east side), in San Mateo, Santa Clara 
and Santa Cruz counties, noted west of Palo Alto, Boulder Creek, Big Basin ; San Benito 
County, on north side Fremont Peak, south of San Juan ; Monterey County, not on Monte- 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 389 

rey Peninsula, but in Santa Lucia Mountains, at 800 to 4.200 feet, noted on coast slope 
in watershed of Sur River ; at head of Arroyo Seco west of Santa Lucia Peak and above 
junction of Willow Creek, and in watersheds of Carmelo, San Antonio and Nacimiento 
Rivers ; San Luis Obispo National Forest at 250 to 2,000 feet, in watersheds of Santa 
Margarita, San Luis, Arroyo (irande, and Iluasna rivers. Northern Sierras not reported 
in Lassen Peak National Forest. Butte County: Noted Chico Creek eastward from Chico. 
Plumas County: East to American Valley near Quincy, Spanish Peak ridge (up to 5,400 
feet on west and southwest slopes), and Mohawk on Upper Feather River. Sierra County: 
East in north Yuba canyon to Sierra City and some distance up North Fork of 
North Yuba, and to a canyon between Goodyear and Mountain House. Yuba County com- 
mon throughout yellow pine belt west to Oregon Hills and P.olibins. Placer County: 
Noted in canyon Nortli Fork American River, near Cape Horn at Blue Canyon, Colfax, 
Forest Hill, between Iowa and Forks House, Devils Canyon, between Forest Hill and 
Colfax. Eldorado Cou/i/i/.-. Noted near Placerville. Amador County: Noted at IMne 
Grove, from Oleta southeast to Deadmans Creek, on road to Volcano and south to Dry 
Creek Canyon and ridge north of Volcano. Stanislaus National Forest in general at 
2,000 to 4,500 feet. Calaveras County: East to West Point, Railroad Flat, Mountain 
Uanch, between Bigtrees and Murphy, at 2,100 to 3,800 feet, and Murphy, west to 5 
miles south of San Andreas on Calaveras River, also noted Mokelumne Canyon, between 
West Point and Defender, and on North Fork Calaveras, between Mountain Ranch and 
Mokelumne Hill. Tuolumne County: Noted between Big Oak Flat and Crockers and be- 
tween Big Creek and South Fork Tuolumne. Maripoxa County: Noted near Bower Cave 
and on Bull Creek between Bower Cave and Coultcrville, Yosemite Valley up to Nevada 
and Yosemite Falls (5,000 feet), and from Yosemite to Wassama. Fresno County: Noted 
in canyons of Kings and Middle Fork Kings River, Dinky Creek, and at mouth of Bubbs 
Creek. Tulare County : Noted in lower part Sequoia National I'ark and in upper Kaweah 
canyon (southern limit in Sierras). Southern cross ranges: Noted in Tejon Mountains; 
Santa Barbarji National" Forest, in watersheds of Santa Maria, Santa Ynez, Santa Bar- 
bara and Matilija rivers at 200 to 4,280 feet, noted in Cooper Canyon 12 miles west of 
Santa Barbara, upper Cherry Creek, Upper North Fork Matilija and main Matilija, and 
Zaca Lake and vicinity ; San Gabriel National Forest canyons of south side between .3,000 
and 6,000 feet, noted near Los Angeles and Pasadena, Mount Lowe at 5,100 feet, Santa 
Anita Canyon at 3,200 feet, canyon West Fork San Gabriel River at 2.500 to 3,000 feet 
(Santa Ana Coimty), upper parts of canyons; San Bernardino Mountains, canyons of 
south and west sides ; noted in canyon Santa Ana River and on Hemlock, Bear, and 
Keller creeks. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Borders of foothill and low mountain streams and in alluvial river bottoms (here 
largest I : in moist, gravelly, and rich humous soils. Best growth in Oregon and Wash- 
ington coast region. P^orms practically pure dense stands over large areas, but often with 
California laurel and lowland lir. 

Cli.matic Conditions. — Similar to those of Douglas fir (in Pacific range). 

Tolerance. — Endures a good deal of shade during early life. Requires top light for 
best growth ; dense side shade produces long, clear trunks. 

Reproduction. — Seeds very abundantly in the open ; much less in close stands. Seed- 
lings fairly freauent on rocky streams, but plentiful on rich bottoms. 

Vine Maple. 

Acer circinatum Pursb. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Vine niaplo is so called because of the often sprawling, crooked vine-lilce ap- 
pearance and habit of its slender, weak stems. The branches occasionally root 
where they touch the ground, and are covered with moss or leaf mold. It rarely 
stands erect with a straight trunk. Trunks usually from 15 to 20 feet high and 
from 3 to 6 inches thick. Often slirub-like. At best, in moist, rich bottoms and 
mountain flats, from 25 to 30 feet high and from 8 to 10 inches through. The 
largest trunks are slightly seamed near the base, but elsewhere the bark is 
smooth, thin, and dull grayish brown, tinged with red. The crowns are irregular, 
open, with slender, crooked or crinnplod limbs and twigs. The shapeless form of 
this tree is probably due to its growth mainly under dense shade, of which it is 
extremely tolerant, where it can produce only long, weak stems, which, annually 



390 



FOKEST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



bent to the ground by the heavy snows prevalent in its range, struggle each year 
to grow erect, giving the stems many curious crooks. In the open and on borders 
of forests it is apt to be shorter and more erect. Mature leaves (figs. 183, 184), 




Fig. 183. — Acer circinatum. 



rose red when young, are smooth above ; minute tufts of hairs only in the angles 
of the veins on the paler, lower surfaces ; in the fall beautifully colored reddish 
yellow or bright scarlet. The ripe "seeds" (fruit) (figs. 183, 184) are light yel- 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE, 



39] 



low-brown in early autumn ; earlier the wings are bright rose-red, a short time 
before falling. Wood very pale brown to almost white, with thick sapwood ; 
very fine-grained, dense, and hard, checking badly in drying. Locally used for 
fuel, for which it is excellent, and for some minor domestic purposes; of no com- 
mercial use. 




Longevity.— Not fully determined. A very persistent but slow grower ; large 
trees reac-h So or 00 years of age. Trees from -i to 5 inches in diameter are from 
60 to (0 years old. 



392 FOREST TEEES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

RAN.GE. 

From the coast region of British Columbia south through Washington, Oregon, and 
California (to Mendocino County). 

Bkitisii Columbia. — Coast west of Coast Range, not far north, and on Vancouver 
Island. Noted in lower Fraser River Valley and on Chilliwak Lake. 

WASHINX.TON. — Mostly west of Cascades, below 2,000 or 3.000 feet. Noted east of 
Cascades in Stehekin Valley at 1,150 to 4,000 feet, and on Nason Creek in Chelan 
County, and near Martin, Kittitas County (alt. 2,775 feet). Noted west of Cascades 
in Washington National Forest below 2,000 feet, Silverton (Snohomish' County ) , Seattle, 
at Tacoma, Lilliwaup on Hood Canal, Olympia (Thurston County), Montesano and 
Grays Harbor (Chehalis County), in Clallam County, Olympic National Forest below 
2,000 feet. Mount Rainier National Forest lower red fir type. Upper Nisqually River, 
Yakima Pass (east boundary King County), Mount Adams, White Salmon (on Columbia 
River at west boundary Klickitat County). 

Oregon. — Confined to part west of Cascades, which it ascends along streams in Douglas 
fir forests to 5,000 feet. Noted along Columbia River on flats above dunes between 
McClures and The Dalles, Wasco County, on Mount Hood, in Cascade (north) National 
Forest, all over west slope, and in Siskiyou National Forest. 

California. — South at least to Mendocino County on the Coast and Lewiston on Upper 
Trinity River (alt. 1,750 feet) (Trinity County), and east to McCloud River, Upper 
Sacramento River just above Dunsmuir (Siskiyou County), altitude 2,280 feet, and near 
Sissons (Siskiyou County), altitude 3,500 feet, and in Modoc County to Warm Springs. 
Noted also in northwestern part of Klamath National Forest. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Alluvial bottoms (mainly above inundation), flats, benches, depressions, borders of 
mountain streams, and lower meadows; in moist, rich (often heavily humous), rocky 
soils. 

Always subordinate, undergrowth in pure clumps and patches, or mingled with broad- 
leaf maple, western dogwood, grand and amabilis firs, Douglas fir, western hemlock, 
western white pine, yew, and western serviceberry. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of Douglas fir (in Pacific region). 

Tolerance. — Exceedingly tolerant of shade — often very dense. 

Reproduction. — Only moderate periodic seeder, but some seed borne locally about 
every year. Seedlings occur generally, but scattered sparingly in dense and partial 
shade where they persist. 

Dwarf Maple. 

Ace)- glabrum Torrey. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

Dwarf maple is ouly rarely a tree from 20 to 30 feet high and from 6 to 12 
inches through, its narrow crown of straight, slender limbs trending upward 
sharply. Very generally it is a small-stemmed shrub from 4 to 6 feet high or 
a slender tree from 10 to 12 feet high. The trunljs are smooth, red brown, 
with a grayish tint. Mature twigs of the season are smooth, rich reddish 
brown, as are the buds. Mature leaves « (figs. 185 to 187) are smooth and 
?hiny on their top sides ; very pale green beneath ; smooth, the yellowish veins 
appearing prominent ; leaf stems frequently clear red. Mature " seeds " or 
fruit (fig. 187), ripe in early autumn and soon shed, are light russet brown — 
bright rose-red before ripening. "Wood, almost white, with very thicli sapwood, 

" By some authors the deeply 3 to 5, mostly 3, lobed leaves are held to belong to a 
distinct species, Acer douglasH Hooker. The fact, however, that throughout the range 
of this maple deeply cut leaves are frequent with the ordinary form — often on the 
same tree — would seem to show that the character is unreliable. • 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 393 

fine-grained, dense, hard, and rather heavy. Of no commercial use on account of 
the mostly small size of its stems. Of little importance to the forester except 
for the thin, scattered Ijrush cover its shrubl)y stools form. 




Fig. 185. — Acer glahrum. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. One tree .SJ inches in diameter showed 
an age of 1.5 years. 

RANGE. 

From southeast Alaska on the coast south to British Columbia (Vancouver Island 
east to Kananaslsis), and eastward and southward over the mountains of the west to 



394 



FOKEST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



California (southward on Sierra Nevada to east fork of Kaweah River), Idaho, Mon- 
tana, and Colorado (eastern slopes of Rocky Mountains), western Nebraska (Sioux 
and Scotts Bluff counties), eastern New Mexico, and Arizona. A tree on coast of 
Vancouver Island, Blue Mountains of Oregon, and in canyons of Idaho, New Mexico, 
and Arizona ; elsewhere shrubby. In general, at 5.000 to 6,000 feet, but at north down 
to sea-level. 

Alaska. — North along coast to head of Lynn Canal (lat. 60°), along rivers, probably 
only extending inland to altitude of few hundred feet, though also noted on east side of 
Coast Range on Stikine River above' its canyon. Noted on Prince of Wales Island and 




Fig. 186. — Acer glahruin. 



at Lynn Canal at Chilkoot at outlet of Chilkoot Lake, at mouth of Chilkat River, and 
at Pyramid Harbor. 

Canada. — Usually below 6,000 feet. East to east side of Continental Divide at Kana- 
naskis (altitude 4,200 feet) in Bow River Valley and to South Kootenai Pass. North 
about to latitude 51°. Noted above Morley (altitude 4,067 feet) and at Banff (alti- 
tude 4,521 feet) in Bow River Pass, mountains near Waterton Lake, at Spence's 
Bridge (just above mouth of Thompson River), and on Vancouver Island at Victoria, 
Esquimo, Gordon River Valley, and Renfrew region. 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



395 



Washington. — Whole wooded portion of State. To sea-level on Puget Sound (noted 
at Iloodsport), at 1,100 to 4. .500 foet on east slopes Cascades in Washington National 
Forest. Noted Skagit Pass at head of Skagit River, Mount Rainier, Nisqually Valley. Mount 
Adams, and on east side of Cascades in Yakima County, on west slope of divide between 
Columbia and Yakima rivers, in Yakima Canyon, at Tampico, VS'enas, Cleman Mountain, 
and Saddle Mountains, on west bank of Columbia River between Priest Rapids and Sen- 




FiG. 187. — Acer glabrum. 



tlnel Bluffs, In Kittitas County on divide above Ellensburg, and in Wenache Mountains, 
and in Chelan County in valley of Stehekin River. 5 miles above Lake Chelan. Also 
noted in eastern Washington in Colville Indian Reservation at Fort Colville (Stevens 
County), altitude 1,017 feet, Davis Ranch at foot of Mount Carlton (Spokane County), 
Sprague (Lincoln County), altitude 1,899 feet, and in Blue Mountains at 4,000 feet. 



'396 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Oregon. — Whole wooded portion of State except Goose Lake region. Noted along 
Columbia River in Sherman County, Blue Mountains, Mount Hood, Crater Lake on inner 
slope of crater. 

California. — Northern part of State, Sierra Nevada, probably only on west slopes, 
and ranges east of southern Sierra Nevada at high elevations. Noted at 3,000 feet at 
south end Shasta Valley, on Mount Shasta up to 5,600 or 6,000 feet, especially in ilud 
Creek Canyon and Squaw Creek, near Sissons and in McCloud Valley: in Trinity County, 
on lakes at head of Canyon Creek ; Lassen Peak, Plumas, and Tahoe National Forests ; 
i-tanislaus National Forest at 5,000 to 7, .500 feet, Yosemite Valley, Bubbs Creek (tribu- 
tary South Fork Kings River), East Fork Kaweab Ri^er at 8.000 to 9,000 feet, ea.'^t of 
southern Sierras in Grapevine Mountains in Wood Canyon, in Panamint Mountains, 
in Death Valley Canyon at 6,000 to 7,000 feet, or higher. Also reported in San Jacinto 
Mountains, in canyon on east side below Round Valley at 7,500 to 8,000 feet. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Rocky cliffs and canyon sides, gulches, borders of high mountain streams, and 
meadows, usually where soil is thin, gravelly, and often poor. Scattered singly and in 
small clumps with broadleaf maple, mountain alder, birch (Alaska*, aspen, and western 
serviceberry. Occasional large trees in southeastern Alaska, Vancouver Island, and Blue 
Mountains of Washington. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of aspen. 

Tolerance and Reproduction. — Undetermined. Appears little tolerant of shade ; seeds 
rather sparingly. 

California Boxelder. 

Acer negundo calif oniicum (Torr. and Gr.) Sargent. 
DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS, 

California boxelder is usually called simply " boxelder," but it should be 
distinguished from the eastern boxelder (Acer negundo L.), of which the 
Pacific tree is a variety. 

A short and stocl^y tree from 20 to 50 feet high and from 10 to 30 inches in 
diameter; sometimes taller and thiclcer. The clear trunlv is short, the crown 
broad, dense, and round-topped, and the bark of the truuli pale grayish brown, 
with regularly deep furrows and narrow ridges. Mature twigs of the season 
thickly coated with down, as are the mature 3-parteil leaves (fig. 188) on their 
under sides and sometimes on both surfaces. (Foliage and twigs of the 
eastern tree are smooth or only slightly hairy.) Mature "seeds" or fruit (fig. 
188) are also downy. The greenish flowers of boxelder differ from those of 
simple-leafed maples in being strictly male and female, and those of each sex 
are borne on separate trees ; therefore only the female trees produce seed. 
INIale flowers occur in clusters of drooping, unbranched thread-like stems, 
while the female flowers ai-e on a drooping branched stem, both from buds on 
twigs formed the previous year. The seeds, ripe in autumn, usually remain on 
the twigs until or during the winter, their dead stems adhering to the branchlets 
in spring. AVood, very pale lemon yellow or creamy white, the sap and heart- 
Avood scarcely distinct from each other. Variable from fine-grained to moder- 
ately coarse-grained, light, soft, firm, but brittle. Suitable for second-rate finish- 
ing, box-boards, and paper pulp, but the poor timber from and scattered supply 
of the trees render the wood of little commercial importance. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined. One tree 12 inches in diameter showed 
an age of 36 years. Gives evidence of being short-lived. 



Southern California (valley lower Sacramento River ; valleys and coast ranges from 
Sonoma County to Santa Barbara County, and western slopes San Bernardino Mountains). 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



397 



Noted in Sonoma County, Contra Costa County. Rare in coast ranges soutli of San 
Francisco Bay ; noted near Soledad in Santa Lucia Mountains, Goleto and Gaviota 
Passes in Santa Ynez Mountains (Santa Barbara County), and below Fort Tejon, Canada 
de las Uvas, in Tehachapi Mountains. 





Fig. 188. — Acer negundo califoniicum. 
OCCURRENCE. 



Borders of streams, bottoms of moist canyons and gulches, in sandy or gravelly soils — 
best in humous sandy soil. Often in strips and patches of pure growth, but commonly 
with white alder, western sycamore, and willows. 

15188—08 26 



398 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of Fremont cottonwood. 

Tolerance. — Moderately tolerant of shade, especially in early life. 

Reproddction. — I'rolific seeder, bearing good crop nearly every year. Seed has fairly 
high rate of germination (but often tardy) and persistent vitality. Germinates well only 
when covered by moist litter or soil. Reproduction rather scanty. 

Family HIPPOCASTANACEiE. 

Hippocastanacese is known as the horse-chestnut family, which is popular 
through the wide cultivation for ornament of its best-known representative, 
the common Grecian horse-chestnut. They are nearly all small or medium-sized 
trees, which belong chiefly to the genus .Esculus, and, with the similar Mexican 
and Central American genus Billia, make up the entire family. Characteristics 
of the family are given under .lllsculus, which is well represented in the United 
States. 

2ESCULTIS. BUCKEYES. 

The buckeyes comprise trees, and a few shrubs, which are called " horse-chest- 
nuts " and " buckeyes ;" the latter name, however, is applied to all of our native 
species. The trees are principally unimportant forest trees, their wood being 
soft, light, not durable, cross-grained, and hard to work ; a number of them are, 
however, very highly esteemed and much planted for ornament, on account of 
their showy flowers and handsome foliage. They are all strikingly similar in 
the form of their opposite leaves, which are composed of one long stem with 
from 5 to 9 separate, leaf-like leaflets radiating from its end. The foliage is 
shed in early autumn every year. The usually large fruits of buckeyes are also 
similar to each other and easily recognized by their thick, leathery, smooth, 
warty, or prickly covering (a capsule), which, when mature (in late summer), 
splits open by regular seams and liberates one or two (often large) thin-shelled, 
shiny, rich brown, chestnut-like seeds. The fancied resemblance of the big, 
glossy brown. seeds to the eye of a buck is the probable origin of the popular 
common name " buckeye." The heavy, fleshy, bitterish seeds, rarely eaten by 
any animals, are distributed almost entirely by flood waters, whenever carried 
away from the mother tree. Buried in earth or debris they retain their vitality 
only until spring, when they germinate, if at all. Winter buds are brown and 
scaly, those on the ends of the twigs often large and conspicuous. The showy 
red, yellow, or white (usually erect) clusters of flowers are produced as a new 
shoot from the ends of last year's twigs. Some of the flowers (on upper part 
of the cluster) are male or pollen bearing, while others (at the base of the 
cluster) are bisexual and the only ones producing fruit. Four species occur m 
the United States ; 3 are in the East, and one in the Pacific region, confined to 
California. 

California Buckeye. 

^sculus californica Nuttall. 

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS. 

California buckeye is shrub-like ; it has several stems from 10 to 20 feet high 
and from 3 to 6 inches through, growing together from a common root. Some- 
times it is from 25 to 30 feet high and from 8 to 20 inches in diameter, with a 
short, smooth, gray— often whitish— trunk and a flat-topped, open crown of 
wide spreading limbs. Leaf-stems from 4 to 5 inches long and commonly with 
5 (sometimes -I to 7) leaflets (fig. 189), which are from 3 to 7 inches long, 
smooth throughout when mature, except for minute hairs in the angles of the 
veins on the paler green lower sides. They fall in early autumn, leaving the 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 



399 



large pear-shaped fruits (fig. 189), 2i to 3 inches long, hanging down conspicu- 
ously from the tips of the branches. The fruit capsule usually contains one 
seed, about 2 inches thick. Wood, fiue-graine<l, white to very pale yellow, the 
heart and sapwood scarcely distinct from each other ; of no commercial use. . 




.M"oy 



Fig, 189. — .l^sculus califoniica* 

The chief usefulness is in forming considerable open but helpful cover on 
exposed dry, rocky foothill slopes, in gulches, and along hill streams where few 
other trees grow. 



400 FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

Longevity. — Not fully determined, but undoubtedly sbort-lhed. Oue tree 7* 
inches in diameter showed an age of 43 years. Maturity is doubtless reached in 
about 100 years. 

RANGE. 

• 

California (from Sacramento River in Mendocino County alonj? coast ranges to San 
Luis Obispo County ; western foothills of Sierras to northern slopes of Tejon Pass in 
Kern County; Antelope Valley north of San Gabriel Mountains in Los Angeles County). 

2\orth Coast Ranges: Lower foothills (.500 to 2,000 feet) northward into Mendocino 
County. Shasta County, at least to Redding in Sacramento River Valley. Locally noted 
on Russian River (Mendocino County I ; in canyons and on hills near Ukiah ; at Lewiston 
and on Canyon Creek (Trinity County) ; hill between Shasta (town) and Whiskeytown 
(Shasta County) ; lower hills of Stony Creek National Forest; valleys south of Clear 
Lake (Lake County) ; Mount Tamalpais (Marin County). South Coast Ranges: Probably 
throughout lower foothills to San Luis Obispo Mountains, but noted only on seaward 
range west of Santa Clara Valley (.500 to 1,.500 feet), where it is common; near Santa 
Cruz ; foothills of Santa Cruz Mountains ; near Monterey on foothills just above Carmel 
Mission; Monterey National Forest (Santa Lucia Mountains), at 600 to 4,000 feet, but 
not common, in basins of Sur, Carmelo, and Arroyo Seco rivers ; San Luis Obispo National 
Forest, only in basin of Salinas River. Sierra Foothills: Common from Shasta County to 
Tehachapi Mountains : in the north, at 500 to 2,000 feet, and in the south, at 1,000 to 
3,000 feet. Locally noted in Shasta County; near Chico (Butte County); near lone 
(Amador County) at 200 to 5,000 feet; Stanislaus National Forest, throughout lower 
belt; Northfork and vicinity (Madera County) ; South Fork of King's River, below Mill- 
wood ; Kaweah River, foothills ; Kern River basin, below oaks ; at Ilavllah ; Kernville 
to Walker Basin. Southern Cross Ranr/es: Abundant in Tehachapi Mountains in canyons 
and nearly up to summits ; extends eastward and southward to the north slopes of Santa 
Barbara Mountains above Antelope Valley, where it occurs in basin of Elizabeth Lake at 
2,400 to 4,500 feet, reaching the foot of Sawmill Mountain. Locally noted from Havilah 
to Fort Tejon and in Canada de las Uvas, and reported on south slope of Santa Barbara 
Mountains in Matilija Creek basin. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Foothill and lower mountain slopes ; frequent on borders of streams and canyon sides, 
in dry gravelly soils. Forms spreading clumps interspersed with scrub oak, redbud, 
occasional live oak. blue oak, and gray pine, manzanita, and other chaparral brush ; largest 
in sheltered coves and gulches. 

Climatic Conditions. — Similar to those of blue oak and gray pine. 

Tolerance. — Seedlings endure slight shade for several years, but later growth demands 
full light. 

REPRODUCTION. — Fairly abundant seeder. Young plants moderately frequent. Seed 
germinates only when it is well covered in soil. 

Family RHAMNACE^. 

Rhamnaceje is popularly known as the buckthorn family, which is widely 
known chiefly from its representative genus Rhamnus, an exotic species which 
is particularly famous as a medicinal plant. They are all small trees or shrubs, 
some of them generally distributed throughout the world. They are character- 
ized by their bitter bark, their often scaleless (naked) buds, their single-bladed 
leaves, evergreen or shed every autumn, and their small, greenish, usually 
bisexual flowers and berry-like fruits. Six genera, containing trees, occur in the 
rnited States, and two of them, Ccanothus and Rhamnus, are represented by 
eastern and Pacific si)ecies. 

RHAMNUS. BUCKTHORNS. 

The buckthorns form a large group containing trees and shrubs characterized 
by their intensely bftter, pungent bark and twigs. The twigs do not have 
strictly terminal or end buds, the last bud being a side one at the base of the 
last leaf-stem. The leaves, evergreen or shed each autumn, occur singly on the 



FOREST TREES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 401 

t